Humoral Mechanisms

  • D. B. Hoyt
  • W. G. Junger
  • A. N. Ozkan


Traumatic injury is a major cause of death in the United States. In the 1- to 50-year age group it has become the leading killer [1]. Over the past few years several advances have improved the resuscitation of acutely traumatized patients. The development of trauma systems has enhanced the trauma patient’s access to trauma care in a timely fashion. This is accompanied by a decrease in morbidity and mortality [2, 3].


Growth Hormone Trauma Patient Thermal Injury Tumor Necrosis Factor Level Humoral Mechanism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Trunkey DD (1983) Trauma. Sci Am 249:28–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shackford SR, Mackersie RC, Hoyt DB et al (1987) Impact of a trauma system on outcome of severely injured patients. Arch Surg 122:523–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hoyt DB, Shackford SR, McGill T et al (1989) Impact of inhouse surgeons and operating room resuscitation on outcome of traumatic injuries. Arch Surg 124:906–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shackford SR, Mackersie RC, Davis JW et al (1989) Epidemiology and pathology of traumatic deaths occurring at a level I trauma center in a regionalized system: the importance of secondary brain injury. J Trauma 29(10):1392–1397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker CC, Oppenheimer L, Stevens B et al (1980) Epidemiology of trauma deaths. J Surg 140:144–150.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Polk HC, Shields CL (1977) Remote organ failure: a valid sign of occult intra-abdominal infection. Surgery 81:310–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cerra F (1986) Metabolic support of the systemic septic response. In: Sprung CL (ed) Perspectives on sepsis and septic shock. Soc Crit Care Med, pp 235–237.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoyt DB, Ozkan AN, Ninnemann JL (1987) Immunologic monitoring of the infection risk in trauma patients: research questions and an approach to the problem. J Burn Care Rehabil 8:549–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Polk HC Jr, George CD, Wellhausen SR et al (1986) A systematic study of host defense processes in badly injured patients. Ann Surg 204:282–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Mahoney JB, Palden S, Rodrick M et al (1984) Depression of cellular immunity after multiple trauma in the absence of sepsis. J Trauma 24:869–875.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoyt DB, Ozkan AN, Ninnemann JL et al (1988) Trauma peptide induction of lymphocyte changes predictive of sepsis. J Surg Res 45:342–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hansbrough J, Peterson V, Zapata-Sirvent R et al (1984) Post-born immunosuppression in an animal model. II. Restoration of cell mediated immunity by immunomodulating drugs. Surgery 95:290–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cerra FB, Lehman S, Konstantinides N et al (1990) Effect of enteral nutrient on in vitro tests of immune function in ICU patients: a preliminary report. Nutrition 6:84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lieberman MD, Shou J, Torres A et al (1990) Effects of nutrient substrates on immune function. Nutrition 6:88–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Twomey JJ (ed) (1982) The pathophysiology of human immunologic disorders. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McCoun R (ed) (1982) The role of chemical mediators in the pathophysiology of acute illness and injury. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anderson DC (1990) The role of phagocytic cells in host defense and inflammatory disease. Nutrition 6:5–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alexander JW, Ogle CK, Stinnett JD et al (1978) A sequential, prospective analysis of immunologic abnormalities and infection following severe thermal injury. Ann Surg 188:809–816-.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bjornson AB, Altemeier WA, Bjornson HS (1976) Changes in humoral components of host defense following burn trauma. Ann Surg 186:88–96.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deitch EA, Geldor F, McDonald JC (1984) Sequential prospective analysis of the nonspecific host defense system after thermal injury. Arch Surg 119:83–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sheng CY, Yuan-Ling T (1987) Neutrophil chemiluminescence in burned patients. J Trauma 27:587–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Christou NV, McLean APH, Meakins JL (1980) Host defense in blunt trauma: interrelationships of kinetics of anergy and depressed neutrophil function, nutritional status, and sepsis. J Trauma 20:833–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lanser ME, Patrizio M, Brown G et al (1985) Serummediated depression of neutrophil chemiluminescence following blunt trauma. Ann Surg 202:111–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mealy K, O’Farrelly C, Stephens R et al (1987) Impaired neutrophil function during anesthesia and surgery is due to serum factors. J Surg Res 43:393–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Solomkin JS, Jenkins MK, Nelson RD et al (1981) Neutrophil dysfunction in sepsis. II. Evidence for the role of complement activation products in cellular deactivation. Surgery 90:319–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lewis T (1927) The blood vessels of the human skin and their responses. Shaw and Sons, London.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith EM, Blalock JE (1988) A molecular basis for interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Int J Neurosci 38:455–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abraham E (1991) Physiologic stress and cellular ischemia: relationship to immunosuppression and susceptibility to sepsis. Crit Care Med 19:613–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Williams JM, Feiten DL (1981) Sympathetic innervation of murine thymus and spleen: a comparative histofluorescence study. Anat Rec 199:531–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bulloch K, Moore RY (1981) Innervation of the thymus gland by brain stem and spinal cord in mouse and rat. Am J Anat 162:157–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Besedovsky HO, del Rey A, Sorkin E, Da Prada M, Keller HH (1979) Immunoregulation mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Cell Immunol 48:346–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Miles K, Quintans J, Chelmicka-Schorr E, Arnason BG (1981) The sympathetic nervous system modulates antibody response to thymus-independent antigens. J Neuroimmunol 1:101–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Besedovsky HO, del Rey AE, Sorkin E (1985) Immune-neuroendocrine interactions. J Immunol 135:750s–754s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Weigent DA, Carr DJ, Blalock JE (1990) Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Ann NY Acad Sci 579:17–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Blalock JE, Smith EM (1985) A complete regulatory loop between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Fed Proc 44:108–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Blalock JE (1984) The immune system as a sensory organ. J Immunol 132:1067–1070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Johnson HM, Torres BA (1985) Regulation of lymphokine production by arginine vasopressin and oxytocin: modulation of lymphocyte function by neurohypophyseal hormones. J Immunol 135:773s–775s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khansari DN, Murgo AJ, Faith RE (1990) Effects of stress on the immune system. Immunol Today 11:170–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Plotnikoff NP, Faith RE, Murgo AJ (1986) In: Plotnikoff NP et al (eds) Enkephalins and endorphins: stress and the immune system. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dolecek R (1989) Endocrine changes after burn trauma — a review. Keio J Med 38:262–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sapolsky RM, Donnelly TM (1985) Vulnerability to stress-induced tumor growth increases with age in rats: role of glucocorticoids. Endocrinology 117:662–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Deitch EA, Bridges RM (1987) Stress hormones modulate neutrophil and lymphocyte activity in vitro. J Trauma 27:1146–1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Khansari DN, Murgo AJ, Snyder DS, Unanue ER (1982) Corticosteroids inhibit murine macrophage la expression and interleukin 1 production. J Immunol 129:1803–1805.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Keller SE, Weiss JM, Schleifer SJ, Miller NE, Stein M (1983) Stress-induced suppression of immunity in adrenalectomized rats. Science 221:1301–1304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wolfe JH, Wu AV, O’Connor NE, Saporoschetz I, Mannick JA (1982) Anergy, immunosuppressive serum, and impaired lymphocyte blastogenesis in burn patients. Arch Surg 117:1266–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sibinga NE, Goldstein A (1988) Opioid peptides and opioid in cells of the immune system. Annu Rev Immunol 6:219–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Landmann RM, Müller FB, Perini CH, Wesp M, Erne P, Bühler FR (1984) Changes of immunoregulatory cells induced by psychological and physical stress: relationship to plasma catecholamines. Clin Exp Immunol 58:127–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yu DT, Clements PJ (1976) Human lymphocyte subpopulations effect of epinephrine. Clin Exp Immunol 25:472–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Crary B, Borysenko M, Sutherland DC, Kutz I, Borysenko JZ, Benson H (1983) Decrease in mitogen responsiveness of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood after epinephrine administration in humans. J Immunol 130:694–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Koff WC, Dunegan MA (1985) Modulation of macrophage-mediated tumoricidal activity by neuropeptides and neurohormones. J Immunol 135:350–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ogunbiyi PO, Conlon PD, Black WD, Eyre P (1988) Levamisole-induced attenuation of alveolar macrophage dysfunction in respiratory virus-infected calves. Int J Immunopharmacol 10:377–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Weigent DA, Baxter JB, Wear WE, Smith LR, Bost KL, Blalock JE (1988) Production of immunoreactive growth hormone by mononuclear leukocytes. FASEB J 2:2812–2818-.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gisler RH (1974) Stress and the hormonal regulation of the immune response in mice. Psychother Psychosom 23:197–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chatterton RT, Murray CL, Hellman L (1973) Endocrine effects on leukocytopoiesis in the rat. I. Evidence for growth hormone secretion as the leukocytopoietic stimulus following acute cortisol-induced lymphopenia. Endocrinology 92:775–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Comsa J, Schwarz JA, Neu H (1974) Interaction between thymic hormone and hypophyseal growth hormone on production of precipitating antibodies in the rat. Immunol Commun 3:11–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hayashida T, Li CH (1957) The influence of adrenocorticotropic and growth hormones on antibody formation. J Exp Med 105:93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kelley KW (1989) Growth hormone, lymphocytes and macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol 38:705–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Edwards CK, Ghiasuddin SM, Schepper JM, Yunger LM, Kelley KW (1988) A newly defined property of somatotropin: priming of macrophages for production of superoxide anion. Science 239:769–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bernton EW, Meltzer MS, Holaday JW (1988) Suppression of macrophage activation and T-lymphocyte function in hypoprolactinemic mice. Science 239:401–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hartman DP, Holaday JW, Bernton EW (1989) Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by antibodies to prolactin. FASEB J 3:2149–2202.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bernton EW, Meltzer MS, Holaday JW (1988) Suppression of macrophage activation and T-lymphocyte function in hypoprolactinemic mice. Science 239:401–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Evans CJ, Erdelyi E, Barchas JD (1986) Candidate opioid peptides for interaction with the immune system. In: Plotnikoff NP et al (eds) Enkephalins and endorphins: Stress and the immune system. Plenum, New York, pp 3–15.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Johnson HM, Smith EM, Torres BA, Blalock JE (1982) Regulation of the in vitro antibody response by neuroendocrine hormones. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:4171–4174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shavit Y, Lewis JW, Terman GW, Gale RP, Liebeskind JC (1984) Opioid peptides mediate the suppressive effect of stress on natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Science 223:188–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Feiten DJ, Feiten SY, Bellinger DL, Carlson SL, Ackermann KD, Madden KS, Olschowki JA, Livnat S (1986) Noradrenergic sympathetic neural interactions with the immune system: structure and function. Immunol Rev 100:225–260.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shavit Y, Depaulis A, Martin FC, Terman GW, Pechnick RN, Zane CJ, Gale RP, Liebeskind JC (1986) Involvement of brain opiate receptors in the immuno-suppressive effect of morphine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:7114–7117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    McCain HW, Lamster IB, Bilotta J (1986) Immunosuppressive effects of the opiopeptins. In: Plotnikoff NP et al (eds) Enkephalins and endorphins: Stress and the immune system. Plenum, New York, pp 273–287.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Plotnikoff NP, Murgo AJ, Miller GC, Corder CN, Faith RE (1985) Enkephalins: immunomodulators. Fed Proc 44:118–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Malaise MG, Hazee-Hagelstein MT, Reuter AM, Vrinds-Gebaert Y, Goldstein G, Franchimont P (1987) Thymopoietin and thymopentin enhance the levels of ACTH, beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin from rat pituitary cells in vitro. Acta Endocrinol 115:455–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Berkenbosch F, Van Oers RA, Tilders F, Besedovsky H (1987) Corticotropin-releasing factor-producing neurons in the rat activated by interleukin-1. Science 238:524–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Blalock JE (1988) Production of neuroendocrine peptide hormones by the immune system. Prog Allergy 43:1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Warden GD, Mason AD, Pruitt BA (1975) Suppression of leukocyte Chemotaxis in vitro by chemotherapeutic agents used in the management of thermal injuries. Ann Surg 181:363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Warden GD (1981) Leukocyte Chemotaxis in thermally injured patients. In: The immune consequences of thermal injury. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 36–42.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Deitch EA, Geldor F, McDonald JC (1984) Sequential prospective analysis of the nonspecific host defense system after thermal injury. Arch Surg 119:83–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Christou NV, Meakins JL (1979) Neutrophil function in anergic surgical patients: neutrophil adherence and Chemotaxis. Ann Surg 190:557–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Meakins JL, McLean AP, Kelly R et al (1978) Delayed hypersensitivity and neutrophil Chemotaxis: effect on trauma. J Trauma 18:240–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Christou NV, Meakins JL (1979) Neutrophil function in surgical patients: two inhibitors of granulocyte Chemotaxis associated with sepsis. J Surg Res 26:355–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ozkan AN, Ninnemann JL (1985) Circulating mediators in thermal injuries: isolation and characterization of a burn-injury induced immunosuppressive serum component. J Burn Care Rehabil 6:147–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Maderazo EG, Albano SD, Woronick CL et al (1983) Polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration abnormalities and their significance in seriously traumatized patients. Ann Surg 198:736–742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Grogan JB, Miller RC (1973) Impaired function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in patients with burns and other trauma. Surg Gynecol Obstet 137:784–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Alexander JW, Wixon D (1970) Neutrophil dysfunction and sepsis in burn injury. Surg Gynecol Obstet 130:431–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Duque RE, Phan SH, Hudson JL et al (1985) Functional defects in phagocytic cells following thermal injury: application of flow cytometric analysis. Am J Pathol 118:116–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gadd MA, Hansbrough JF (1989) The effect of thermal injury on murine neutrophil oxidative metabolism. J Burn Care Rehabil 10:125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    McManus AT, Lescher TJ, Mason AD et al (1977) Altered human granulocyte glucose metabolism following severe thermal injury. In: Proceedings of the American Burn Association, Anaheim.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Demarest GB, Rosen H, Altman LC (1979) Chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in patients with thermal injuries. In: Proceedings of the American Burn Association, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Curreri PW, Heck EI, Browne L et al (1973) Stimulated neutrophil antibacterial function and prediction of wound sepsis in burned patients. Surgery 74:6–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Heck EL, Browne L, Curreri PW et al (1975) Evaluation of leukocyte function in burned individuals by in vitro oxygen consumption. J Trauma 15:486–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pearson G, Nakamura M, Heck E et al (1981) Impaired oxygen consumption activity of neutrophils by inhibitor(s) in burn sera. J Burn Care Rehabil 2:208–211.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Alexander JW, Meakins JL (1972) A physiological basis for the development of opportunistic infections in man. Ann Surg 176:273–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Alexander JW, Stinnet JD, Ogle CK et al (1979) A comparison of immunologic profiles and their influence on bacteremia in surgical patients with a high risk of infections. Surgery 86:94–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cochrane CG, Spragg RG, Revak SK (1983) Pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Evidence of oxidant activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. J Clin Invest 71:754–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Weiss SJ (1989) Tissue destruction by neutrophils. N Engl J Med 320:365–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chang SW, Feddersen CO, Henson PM et al (1987) Platelet activating factor mediates hemodynamic changes and lung injury in endotoxin-treated rats. J Clin Invest 79:1498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Saba TM, Cho JE (1979) Reticuloendothelial systemic response to operative trauma as influenced by cryoprecipitate or cold-insoluble globulin therapy. J Reticuloendothel Soc 26:171–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Scovill WA, Saba TM, Kaplan JE et al (1977) Disturbances in circulating opsonic activity in man after operative and blunt trauma. J Surg Res 22:709–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Saba TM, Blumenstock FA, Scovill WA et al (1978) Cryoprecipitate reversal of opsonic alpha-2-surface binding glycoprotein deficiency in septic surgical and trauma patients. Science 201:622–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Saba TM, Jaff E (1980) Plasma fibronectin (opsonic glycoprotein): its synthesis by vascular endothelial cells and role in cardiopulmonary integrity after trauma as related to reticuloendothelial function. Am J Med 68:577–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lanser ME, Saba TE, Scovill WA (1980) Opsonic glycoprotein (plasma fibronectin) levels after burn injury. Relationship to extent of burn and development of sepsis. Ann Surg 192:776–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mansberger AR, Doran JE, Treat R et al (1989) The influence of fibronectin administration on the incidence of sepsis and septic mortality in severely injured patients. Ann Surg 210:297–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Brown RA (1983) Failure of fibronectin as an opsonin in the host defense system: a case of competitive self inhibition? Lancet 2:1058–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Alexander JW, McClellan MA, Ogle CK et al (1976) Consumptive opsoninopathy: possible pathogenesis in lethal and opportunistic infections. Ann Surg 184:672–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Heideman M, Kaijser B, Gelin L (1978) Complement activation and hematologic, hemodynamic and respiratory reactions early after soft-tissue injury. J Trauma 18:696–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Heideman M (1981) Complement activation by thermal injury and its possible consequences for immune defense. In: Ninnemann JL (ed) The immune consequences of thermal injury. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 127–134.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sandberg AL, Osler AG, Shin HS et al (1970) The biologic activities of guinea pig antibodies. J Immunol 104:329–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bjornson AB, Altemeier WA, Bjornson HS (1977) Changes in humoral components of host defense following burn trauma. Ann Surg 186:88–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bjornson AB, Altemeier WA, Bjornson HS et al (1978) Host defense against opportunistic microorganisms following trauma. 1. Studies to determine the association between changes in humoral components of host defense and septicemia in burned patients. Ann Surg 188:93–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bjornson AB, Altemeier WA, Bjornson HS (1979) The septic burned patient: a model for studying the role of complement and immunoglobulins in opsonization of opportunist microorganisms. Ann Surg 189:515–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bjornson AB, Altemeier WA, Bjornson HS (1980) Complement, opsonins and the immune response to bacterial infection in burned patients. Ann Surg 191:323–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bjornson AB, Bjornson HS, Altemeier WA (1981) Reduction in alternative complement pathway mediated C3 conversion following burn injury. Ann Surg 194:224–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bjornson AB, Bjornson HS, Altemeier WA (1981) Serum-mediated inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function following burn injury. Ann Surg 194:568–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ogle CK, Ogle JD, Alexander JW (1984) Inhibition of bacterial clearance in the guinea pig by fluidphase C3b. Arch Surg 119:57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gallin JI, Wright DG, Schiffman E (1978) Role of secretory events in modulating human neutrophil Chemotaxis. J Clin Invest 62:1364–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Szabo G, Miller CL, Kodys K (1990) Antigen presentation by the CD4 positive monocyte subset. J Leukoc Biol 47:111–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hoffman MK (1980) Macrophages and T cells control distinct phases of B cell differentiation in the humoral immune response in vitro. J Immunol 125:2076–2081.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Miller-Graziano CL, Fink M, Wu JY et al (1988) Mechanisms of altered monocyte prostaglandin E2 production in severely injured patients. Arch Surg 123:293–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Faist E, Mewes A, Baker C (1987) Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-dependent suppression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production in patients with major trauma. J Trauma 27:837–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Faist E, Kupper TS, Baker CC et al (1986) Depression of cellular immunity after major injury — its association with post-traumatic complications and its reversal with immunomodulation. Arch Surg 121:1000–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hansbrough J, Zapata-Sirvent RL, Shackford SR et al (1986) Immunomodulating drugs increase resistance against sepsis in traumatized mice. J Trauma 26:625–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hansbrough J, Peterson V, Kortz EL (1982) Postburn immunosuppression in an animal model: monocyte dysfunction induced by burned tissue. Surgery 93:415–423.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Faist E, Markewitz A, Fuchs D (1991) Immunomodulatory therapy with thymopentin and indomethacin: successful restoration of IL-2 synthesis in patients undergoing major surgery. Ann Surg 214:264–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Stephan RN, Ayala A, Harkema JM et al (1989) Mechanism of immunosuppression following hemorrhage: defective antigen presentation by macrophages. J Surg Res 46:553–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Stephan RN, Saizawa M, Conrad PJ et al (1987) Depressed antigen presentation function and membrane interleukin-1 activity of peritoneal macrophages after laparotomy. Surgery 102:147–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Browder W, Williams DL, Sherwood E et al (1987) Synergistic effect of nonspecific immunostimula-tion and antibiotics in experimental peritonitis. Surgery 102:206–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Browder W, Williams D, Lucore P et al (1988) Effect of enhanced macrophage function on early wound healing. Surgery 104:224–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dinarello CA (1984) Interleukin-1 and the pathogenesis of the acute phase response. N Engl J Med 311:1413–1418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rodrick ML, Wood JJ, O’Mahoney JB et al (1986) Mechanisms of immunosuppression associated with severe nonthermal traumatic injuries in man: Production of interleukin-1 and 2. J Clin Immunol 6:310–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Browder W, Williams D, Pretus H et al (1990) Beneficial effect of glucan enhances macrophage function in the trauma patient. Ann Surg 211:605–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Vogel SN, Douches SD, Kaufman EN et al (1987) Induction of colony stimulating factor in vivo by recombinant interleukin-1 α and recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α. J Immunol 138:2143–2148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Livingston DH, Malangoni MA, Sonnenfeld G (1989) Immune enhancement by tumor necrosis factor-α improves antibiotic efficacy after hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma 29:967–971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Takayawa TK, Miller C, Szabo G (1990) Elevated tumor necrosis factor production concomitant to elevated prostaglandin E2 production by trauma patient’s monocytes. Arch Surg 125:29–35.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nathan CF, Murray HW, Wiebe ME et al (1983) Identification of interferon-gamma as the lymphokine that activates human macrophage oxidative metabolism and antimicrobial activity. J Exp Med 158:670–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Cerami CA, Beutler B (1988) The role of cachectin/ TNF in endotoxin shock and cachexia. Immunol Today 9:28–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Mathison JC, Wolfson E, Ulevitch JR (1986) Participation of tumor necrosis factor in the mediation of gram negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced injury in rabbits. J Clin Invest 81:1925–1937.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Beutler B, Cerami CA (1986) Cachectin and tumor necrosis factor as two sides of the same biological coin. Nature 320:548–584.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kaskashiwa H, Wright SC, Bonavide B (1987) Regulation of β cell maturation and differentiation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). J Immunol 138:1883–1890.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Shalaby MR, Espeoik T, Rice GC et al (1988) The involvement of human tumor necrosis factors L and B in the mixed lymphocyte reaction. J Immunol 141:499–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tracey KJ, Fong Y, Kesse DA (1987) Anti-cachetin/ TNF monoclonal antibiotics prevent septic shock during lethal bacteremia. Nature 330:662–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Michie HR, Manogue KR, Spriggs DR et al (1988) Detection of circulating tumor necrosis factor after endotoxin administration. NEJM 23:1481–1486.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sufferimi MD, Framm RE, Parker MM et al (1989) The cardiovascular response of normal humans to the administration of endotoxin. NEJM 321:280–287.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Debets JM, Kampmeyer R, Marielle PM et al (1989) Plasma tumor necrosis factor and mortality in critically ill septic patients. Crit Care Med 17:489–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Movat HZ, Burrow CE, Cybulsky MI (1987) Acute inflammation and a Shwartzman-like reaction induced by interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Am J Pathol 129:463–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Nijsten MW, DeGroot ER, Ten Duis HJ (1987) Serum levels of interleukin-6 and acute phase responses. Lancet 2:921–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Garman RD, Jacob KA, Clark SC (1987) βCell stimulatory factor O (B2 interferon) functions as a second signal for interleukin 2 production by mature murine T cells. Acad Sci 84:7629–7633.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Miller-Graziano CL, Szabo G, Kodys K et al (1990) Aberrations in post trauma monocyte subpopulations: role of septic shock syndrome. J Trauma 30:s86–s97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Miller SE, Trunkey DD, Miller CL (1983) The immunologic effects of trauma. In: Ninnemann JL (ed) Traumatic injury: infection and other immunologie sequelae. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 17–23.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Bauer AR, McNeil C, Trentelman E et al (1978) The depression of T lymphocytes after trauma. Am J Surg 136:674–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ninnemann JL (1982) Immunologic defenses against infection: alterations following thermal injuries. J Burn Care Rehabil 3:355–366.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    King RD, Kaiser GC, Lempke RE (1963) The delayed amnestic response to tetanus toxoid. Surg Gynecol Obstet 116:745–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Rapaport FT, Milgrom F, Kano K (1968) Immunologie sequela of thermal injury. Ann NY Acad Sci 15:1004–1008.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Tompkins SD, Gregory S, Hoyt DB et al (1990) In vitro inhibition of IL-2 biosynthesis in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by a trauma-induced glycopeptide. Immunol Lett 23:205–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Brown JM, Grosso MA, Harken AH (1989) Cytokines, sepsis and the surgeon. Surg Gynecol Obstet 169:568–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Theodorczyk-Injeyan J, Sparkes B, Mills GB et al (1989) Increase of serum interleukin-2 receptor level in thermally injured patients. Clin Immunol 51:205–215.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gadd MA, Hansbrough JF, Hoyt DB et al (1989) Defective T-cell surface antigen expression after mitogen stimulation. Ann Surg 209:112–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Antonacci AC, Reaves LE, Calvano SE et al (1984) Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations after thermal injury in human beings. Surg Gynecol Obstet 159:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Brunda MJ, Herberman RB, Holden HT (1980) Inhibition of natural killer cell activity by prostaglandins. J Immunol 124:262–268.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Trowbridge IS, Omary MB (1981) Human cell surface glycoprotein related to cell proliferation is the receptor for transferrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:3039–3043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Uchiyama T, Broder S, Waldman TA (1981) A monoclonal antibody (anti-Tac) reactive with activated and functionally mature human T cells. J Immunol 126:1393–1397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hansbrough JF, Gadd MA (1989) Temporal analysis of murine lymphocyte subpopulations by monoclonal antibodies and dual-color flow cytometry after burn and nonburn injury. Surgery 106(1):69–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Reed JC, Nowell PC (1988) Soluble inhibitors of T lymphocyte proliferation: tools for dissecting pathways of T cell activation. Immunol Res 7:93–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Whitfield JF (1990) Cycles and signals in calcium cell cycles and cancer. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 24–25.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Cotner T, Williams JM, Christenson L et al (1983) Simultaneous flow cytometric analysis of human T cell activation: antigen expression and DNA content. J Exp Med 157:461–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hoyt DB, Ozkan AN, Hansbrough JF et al (1990) Head injury: an immunologic deficit in T-cell activation. J Trauma 30:761–769.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Chouaib S, Weite K, Mertelsmann R et al (1985) Prostaglandin E2 acts at two distinct pathways of T lymphocyte activation: inhibition of interleukin 2 production and down regulation of transferrin receptor expression. J Immunol 135:1171–1179.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Wood JJ, Grobic JT, Rodric ML et al (1987) Suppression of interleukin 2 production in an animal model of thermal injury is related to prostaglandin synthesis. Arch Surg 122:179–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Pennica D, Nedwin GBE, Hayflick JS et al (1984) Human tumor necrosis factor: precursor structure, expression and homology to lymphotoxin. Nature 312:724–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Jegasothy BU, Battles DR (1981) Immunosuppressive lymphocyte factors. III. Complete purification and partial characterization of human inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Mol Immunol 18:395–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Rogers TJ, Howowiejoki I, Webb DR (1980) Partial characterization of a prostaglandin-induced suppressor factor. Cell Immunol 50:82–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Grey PW, Aggarwal BB, Benton CV et al (1984) Cloning and expression of cDNA for human lymphotoxin, a lymphokine with tumor necrosis activity. Nature 312:721–724.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Newman SL, Tucci MA (1990) Regulation of human monocyte/macrophage function by extracellular matrix. J Clin Invest 81:703–714.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Krzystyniak K, Starcharska J, Rysewski K et al (1978) Suppressive effects of low molecular weight fibrinogen degradation products on human and rat lymphocytes. Thromb Res 12:523–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Edgington TS, Curtiss LK, Plow EF (1985) A linkage between the hemostatic and immune systems embodied in the fibrinolytic release of lymphocyte suppressive peptide. J Immunol 134:471–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Plow EF, Edgington TS (1986) Lymphocyte suppressive peptides from fibrinogen are derived predominantly from the A alpha chain. J Immunol 137:1910–1915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Ehrlich MI, Krushell JS, Blumenstock FA et al (1981) Depression of phagocytosis by plasmin degradation products of plasma fibronectin. J Lab Clin Med 98:263–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Hoyt DB, Ozkan AN, Easter DW (1988) Isolation of an immunosuppressive trauma peptide and its relationship to fibronectin. J Trauma 28:907–913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Easter DW, Hoyt DB, Ozkan AN (1988) Immunosuppression by a peptide from the gelatin binding domain of human fibronectin. J Surg Res 45:370–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Dayer JM, Trentham DE, Krane SM (1982) Collagens act as ligands to stimulate monocytes to produce mononuclear cell factor and prostaglandins. Coll Rel Res 2:523–540.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Ozkan AN, Ninnemann JL (1985) Burn-associated suppressor active peptide: relationship to tissue collagen. Proc Am Burn Assoc 15:50–51.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Constantian MB, Menzoian JO, Nimberg RB et al (1977) Association of a circulating immunosuppressive polypeptide with operative and accidental trauma. Ann Surg 185:73–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Hakim AA (1977) An immunosuppressive factor from serum of thermally injured patients. J Trauma 17:908–919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Christou NV, Meakins JL (1983) Partial analysis and purification of polymorphonuclear neutrophil chemotactic inhibitors in serum from anergic patients. Arch Surg 118:156–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Ozkan AN, Ninnemann JL (1985) Suppression of in vitro lymphocyte and neutrophil responses by a low molecular weight suppressor active peptide from burn patients sera. J Clin Immunol 5:221–228.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ozkan AN, Ninnemann JL (1986) Progress in the characterization of an immunosuppressive glycopeptide from patients with major thermal injuries. J Burn Care Rehabil 7:388–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ozkan AN, Ninnemann JL (1985) Circulating mediators in thermal injuries: isolation and characterization of a burn-injury induced immunosuppressive serum component. J Burn Care Rehabil 6:147–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ozkan AN, Ninnemann JL (1987) Reversal of suppressor active peptide induced immunosuppression and SAP detection by a monoclonal antibody. J Trauma 27:123–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ozkan AN, Hoyt DB, Ninnemann JL (1987) Generation and activity of suppressor peptides following traumatic injury. J Burn Care Rehabil 8:527–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Ozkan AN, Hoyt DB, Tompkins S (1988) Immunosuppressive effects of a trauma induced suppressor active peptide. J Trauma 28:589–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Ozkan AN, Hoyt DB, Mitchell MD et al (1988) Trauma peptide mediated prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis: a potential mechanism for trauma-induced immunosuppression. Immunol Lett 17:79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Tompkins SD, Gregory S, Hoyt DB et al (1988) Inhibition of IL-2 biosynthesis by a trauma-induced glycopeptide. FASEB J 2:8978.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Pinney E, Hoyt DB, Ozkan AN (1988) The effect of a trauma-induced immunosuppressive peptide on phorbol ester activated T lymphocytes. FASEB J 2:8974.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Hoyt DB, Pinney EM, Ozkan AN (1989) Trauma peptide T cell induced suppression: mechanism of action. In: Faist A (ed) Immune consequences of trauma, shock and sepsis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 413–417.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Lener A, Jacobson B, Miller RA (1988) Cyclic AMP concentrations modulate both calcium flux and hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol phosphase in mouse T-lymphocytes. J Immunol 140:936–940.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Aussei MD, Ferrue C, Fehlmann B (1987) Regulation of interleukin-2 synthesis by cAMP in human T cells. J Immunol 139:1179–1184.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Baker PE, Fahey JV, Munck A (1981) Prostaglandin inhibition of T cell proliferation is mediated at two levels. Cell Immunol 61:52–61-.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Ozkan AN, Tompkins S, Gregory S et al (1988) Immunologic mechanisms of a trauma associated glycopeptide. J Leukoc Biol 44:300.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ozkan AN, Hoyt DB (1989) Sites of T cell activation inhibition by a trauma peptide. Circ Shock 27:307.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Hoyt DB, Ozkan AN, Frevert J et al (1991) Alteration in Ca2+ homeostasis by a trauma peptide. J Surg Res 51:477–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. B. Hoyt
    • 1
  • W. G. Junger
    • 1
  • A. N. Ozkan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma, 8896University of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations