Depressionen im Alter

  • E. Murphy
Part of the Psychiatrie der Gegenwart book series (GEGENWART)


Das höhere Alter wird gemeinhin als eine Zeit der Sorge und Verzweiflung angesehen. Depressionen im höheren Alter wurden häufig als voraussagbare, verständliche Antworten auf die Verluste und den Verfall im letzten Lebensabschnitt aufgefaßt; die winterlichen Themen des Alterns und der Traurigkeit, wie sie in der Literatur entfaltet werden, hängen eng damit zusammen. Wir wissen jetzt aber, daß die Mehrzahl der älteren Menschen sich nicht deprimiert, unglücklich oder unerfüllt fühlt, und daß der Pessimismus, mit welchem viele junge Menschen ihr künftiges Alter betrachten, im wesentlichen auf stereotypen Mißverständnissen beruht.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alarcon RD de (1964) Hypochondriasis and depression in the aged. Gerontologia Clinica 6:266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd edn. APA, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldwin RC, Jolley DJ (1986) The prognosis of depression in old age. Br J Psychiatry 149:574–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barsa J, Jones J, Lantigua R, Gurland B (1986) Ability of internists to recognize and manage depression in the elderly. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bird JM, Levy R, Jacoby RJ (1986) Computed tomography in the elderly: change over time in the normal population. Br J Psychiatry 148:80–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blazer DG (1978) The OARS Durham Surveys: description and application. In: Multidimensional functional assessment: the OARS methodology, 2nd edn. The Centre for the Study of Ageing and Human Development. Duke University, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  7. Blazer DG, Williams CD (1980) THe epidemiology of dysphoria and depression in an elderly population. Am J Psychiatry 137:439–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bollerup TR (1975) Prevalence of mental illness among 70 year olds domiciled in nine Copenhagen suburbs: The glostrup survey. Acta Psychiatr Scand 57:327–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown GW, Harris TO (1978) Social origins of depression. Tavistock, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Burch EA, Goldschmidt TJ (1983) Depression in the elderly: a beta adrenergic receptor dysfunction. Int J Psychiatry Med 13:207–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Calloway SP, Dolan RJ, Fonagy P, Souza V de, Wakeling A (1984) Endocrine changes and clinical profiles in depression. Psychol Med 14:749–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carroll BJ (1982) The dexamethasone suppression test for melancholia. Br J Psychiatry 140:292–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coppen A, Abou-Saleh M, Miller P, Metcalfe M, Harwood J, et al. (1981) (A) Lithium Continuation therapy following ECT. Br J Psychiatry 139, 284–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coppen A, Abou-Saleh M, Miller P, Metcalfe M, Harwood J, Bailey J (1983) (B) Dexamethasone suppression test in depressive and other psychiatric illness. Br J Psychiatry 142:498–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ebrahim S, Barer D, Nouri F (1987) Affective illness after stroke. Br J Psychiatry 151:52–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feinmann C, Harris M, Cawley R (1984) Psychogenic facial pain: presentation and treatment. Br Med J 288:436–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Furstner P. (1989) Senile insanity. Am J Insanity 45:432Google Scholar
  18. Georgotas A, Stokes P, Krakowski M, Farrelli C, Cooper T (1984) Hypothalamic-pituitary-ad-renocortical function in geriatric depression. Biol Psychiatry 19:685–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gillis LS, Zabow A (1982) Dysphoria in the elderly. Afr Med J 62:410–413Google Scholar
  20. Griesinger W (1861) Mental pathology and therapeutics. Republished 1967. The New Sydenham Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Gruer R (1975) Needs of the elderly in the Scottish borders. Scottish Home and Health Department, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  22. Gurland B (1976) The comparative frequency of depression in various adult age groups. J Gerontol 31:283–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gurland B, Copeland J, Kuriansky J, Kelleher M, Sharpe L, Dean LL (1983) The mind and mood of ageing. Haworth, New York Croom Helm LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Hendrickson E, Levy R, Post F (1979) Average evoked responses in relation to cognitive and affective states in elderly psychiatric patients. Br J Psychiatry 134:494–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holden NL (1983) Depression and the Newcastle scale: their relationship to the dexamethasone suppression test. Br J Psychiatry 142:505–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacoby RJ, Levy R (1980) Computed tomography in the elderly: 3. Affective Disorder. Br J Psychiatry 136:270–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacoby RJ, Dolan R, Levy R, Baldy D (1983) Quantitative computed tomography in elderly depressed patients. Br J Psychiatry 143:124–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Janowsky DS, El-Youset M, Davis J, Serkeske H (1972) A cholinergic-adrenergic hypothesis of mania and depression. Lancet 2:632–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jarvik L, Perl M (1981) Overview of physiologic dysfunctions related to psychiatric disorders in the elderly. In: Levenson AJ, Hall REW (eds) Neuropsychiatric manifestations of physical disease in the elderly. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Jolley D, Arie T (1976) Psychiatric services for the elderly: how many beds. Br J Psychiatry 129:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kay DWK (1962) Outcome and cause of death in mental disorders of old age: a long term follow-up of functional and organic psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand 38:249–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kay DWK, Bergmann K (1966) Physical disability and mental health in old age. J Psychosom Res 10:3–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kendell RE (1976) The classification of depressions: a review of contemporary confusions. Br J Psychiatry 129:15–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kiloh LG, Garside RF (1963) The independence of neurotic depression and endogenous depression. Br J Psychiatry 109:541–563Google Scholar
  35. Kraepelin E (1921) Manic depressive insanity and paranoia. In: Textbook of Psychiatry, 8th edn, translated Barclay, RM Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  36. Kupfer DJ (1984) Neurophysiological markers: EEG sleep measures. J Psychiatr Res 18:467–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laffey P, Peyster R, Nathan R, Haskin M, McGinley J (1984) Computed tomography and ageing: results in a normal elderly population. Neuroradiology 26:2773–278Google Scholar
  38. Lewis A (1934) Melancholia; a clinical survey of depressive states. J Ment Sci 80:277–293Google Scholar
  39. Liston EH, LaRue A (1983) Clinical differentiation of primary degenerative and multi-infarct dementia. Biol Psychiatry 18:1451–1484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Litzelman DK, Thompson LW, Michaelewski H, Patterson JV, Bowman TE (1980) Visual event related potentials and depression in the elderly. Neurol Ageing 1:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lloyd KG, Varley IJ, Deck J, Hornykiewicz O (1974) Serotonin and 5HIAA indiscrete areas of the brainstem of suicide victims and control patients. In: Costa E, Gersa G, Sandler M (eds) Serotonin: new vistas. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Lowenthal MF, Haven C (1968) Interaction and adaptation; intimacy as a critical variable. American Sociological Review 33:20–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. MacDonald AJD (1986) Do general practitioners miss depression in elderly patients? Br Med J 292:1365–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mann AH, Graham N, Ashby D (1984 a) Psychiatric illness in residential homes for the elderly: a survey in one London borough. Age Ageing 13:257–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mann AH, Wood K, Cross P, Gurland B, Schieber P, Hafner H (1984 b) Institutional care of the elderly: a comparison of the cities of New York, London and Mannheim. Soc Psychiatry 19:97–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mathew L, Meyer J, Semchuk K, Francis D et al. (1980) Cerebral blood flow in depression. Lancet 1:1308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mendlewicz J, Kerkhofs M, Hoffman G, Linowski P (1984) Dexamethasone suppression test and REM sleep in patients with major depressive disorder. Br J Psychiatry 145:383–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miller E, Lewis P (1977) Recognition memory in elderly patients with dementia and depression: a signal detection analysis. J Abnorm Psychol 86:84–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morgan K, Dallosso HM, Arie T, Byrne EJ, Jones R, Waite J (1987) Mental health and psychological well-being among the very old living at home. Br J Psychiatry 150:801–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Murphy E (1982) Social origins of depressions in old age. Br J Psychiatry 1441:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Murphy E (1983) The prognosis of depression in old age. Br J Psychiatry 142:111–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Murphy E, Grundy E (1984) A comparative study of bed usage by younger and older patients with depression. Psychol Med 14:445–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Murphy E, Smith EAR, Lindesay JAB, Slattery J (1988) mortality increased rates in late life depression. Br J Psychiat 152, 347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Murray N, Hopwood S, Balfour D, Ogstar S, Hewick D (1983) The influence of age on lithium efficacy and side effects in outpatients. Psychol Med 13:53–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Myers JK, Weissman MM, Tischler GL, Holzer CE, Leaf PJ et al. (1984) Six month prevalence of psychiatrie disorders in three communities. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:959–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Paykel ES (1982) Life events and early environment. In: Paykel EC (ed) Handbook of Affective Disorders. Churchill Livingstone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Perris C (1968) Genetic transmission of depressive psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand. Suppl 203Google Scholar
  58. Phelps ME, Mazziotta JC, Bastei L, Gernes R (1984) Positron emission tomography study of affective disorders. Ann Neurol (Suppl) 15:S149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Philpot MP, Levy R (1987) A memory clinic for the early diagnosis of dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2, 195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Popkin SJ, Gallagher D, Thompson L, Moore M (1982) Memory complaint and performance in normal and depressed older adults. Exp Ageing Res 8:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Post F (1962) The significance of affective symptoms in old age. Mandsley Monographs 10. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Post F (1972) The management and nature of depressive illness in late life: a follow through study. Br J Psychiatry 121:393–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rabins P, Merchant A, Nestradt G (1984) Criteria for diagnosing reversible dementia caused by depression: validation by two year follow-up. Br J Psychiatry 144:488–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Raskind M, Peskind E, Rivard M, Veith R, Barnes R (1982) DST and Cortisol circadian rhythm in primary degenerative dementia. Am J Psychiatry 179:1468–1471Google Scholar
  65. Robins LN, Heizer J, Croughan J, Ratcliff KS (1981) National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: its history, characteristics and validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38:381–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Robinson DS, Davies JM, Nies A (1972) Ageing, monoamines and monoamine oxidase levels. Lancet 1:1290Google Scholar
  67. Robinson RG, BookStarr L, Price TR (1984) A two year longitudinal study of mood disorders following stroke: a six month follow-up. Br J Psychiatry 144:256–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rosenbaum A, Schatzberg A, MacLaughlin M, Snyder K, Jiang N-S et al. (1984) The DST in normal control subjects: comparison of 2 assays and the effects of age. Am J Psychiatry 141:1550–1555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Roth M (1955) The natural history of mental disorder in old age. J Ment Sci 101:281–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Roth M (1983) Depression and affective disorders in later life. In: Angst M (ed) The origins of depression: current concepts and approaches. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Roth M, Kay DWK (1956) Affective disorders arising in the senium in physical disability as an aetiological factor. J Ment Sci 102:141–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Sachar EJ (1975) Neuroendocrine abnormalities in depressive illness. In: Sachar EJ (ed) Topics in psychoendocrinology. Grune & Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Schleifer S J, Keller Siris SG, Davis K, Stein M (1985) Depression and immunity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:129–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shepard RJ (1983) Physical activity and the healthy mind. Can Med Assoc J 128:525Google Scholar
  75. Small GW, Komanduri R, Getten M, Jarvik LF (1986) The influence of age on guilt expression in depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Srole L, Fischer AK (1980) The Midtown Manhattan longitudinal study versus the “Paradise Lost” doctrine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37:209–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stenstedt A (1959) Involutional melancholia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. Suppl 127Google Scholar
  78. Thielman S, Blazer DG 1986) Depression and dementia. In: Pitt B (ed) Dementia in old age. Churchill Livingstone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  79. Weissman MM, Myers JK (1978) Rates and risks of depressive symptoms in a U.S. urban community. Acta Psychiatr Scand 57:219–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wells EC (1979) Pseudodementia. Am J Psychiatry 131:895–900Google Scholar
  81. Whitehead A (1974) Factors in the learning defect of elderly depressives. Br J Soc Clin Psychol 13:201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Williamson J, Stokoe IH, Gray S, Fish M, Smith M et al. (1964) Old people at home; their unreported needs. Lancet 1:1117–1120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wing J, Cooper JE, Sartorius N (1974) The measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. Winokur G (1969) Family history studies. VIII. Diseases of the nervous system 33:94–99Google Scholar
  85. World Health Organisation (1978) Mental disorders glossary and guide to their classification in accordance to the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  86. Wright EC, Harding GFA, Orwin A (1984) Presenile dementia, the use of the flash and pattern VEP in diagnosis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 57:405–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zemore R, Eames N (1979) Psychic and somatic symptoms of depression among young adults, institutionalised aged and noninstitutionalised aged. J Gerontol 31:283–292Google Scholar
  88. Zung WWK (1967) Depression in the normal aged. Psychosomatics 8:287–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Murphy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations