The Biology and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses

  • H. Wege
  • St. Siddell
  • V. ter Meulen
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 99)


The coronavirases were first recognized and morphologically defined as a group by Tyrrell and co-workers (1968, 1975, 1978). Biochemical studies have recently provided additional information which allows better characterization of these agents. Presently, coronaviruses are defined as being particles which are pleomorphic to rounded with a diameter of 60–220 nm, surrounded by a fringe or layer of typical club-shaped spikes. The virion is composed of about four to six proteins and possesses a lipid bilayer. The genome consists of a single-stranded polyadenylated RNA which is infectious and of positive polarity. During maturation these viruses are released by internal budding into vesicles derived from the endoplasmatic reticulum. These viruses are widespread in nature and are associated with a great variety of diseases with an acute, subacute, or subclinical disease process.


Infectious Bronchitis Virus Mouse Hepatitis Virus Feline Infectious Peritonitis Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adams NR, Ball RA, Hofstad MS (1970) Intestinal lesions in transmissible enteritis of turkeys. Avian Dis 14:392–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams NR, Hofstad MS (1971) Isolation of transmissible enteritis agent of turkeys in avian em bryos. Avian Dis 15:426–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams NR, Hofstad MS, Gough PM (1972) Physical and morphological characterization of transmissible enteritis virus of turkeys. Avian Dis 16:817–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akashi H, Inaba Y, Miura Y, Sato K, Tokuhisa S, Asagi M, Hayashi Y (1981) Propagation of the Kakegawa strain of bovine coronavirus in suckling mice, rats and hamsters. Arch Virol 67:367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander DJ, Gough RE (1977) Isolation of infectious bronchitis virus from experimentally infected chickens. Res Vet Sci 23:344–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alexander DJ, Gough RE, Pattison M (1978) A long-term study of the pathogenesis of infection of fowls with three strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Res Vet Sci 24:228–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andries K, Pensaert MB (1980a) Virus isolation and immunofluorescene in different organs of pigs infected with hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus. Am J Vet Res 41:215–218Google Scholar
  8. Andries K, Pensaert MB (1980b) Immunofluorescence studies on the pathogenesis of hemag glutinating encephalomyelitis virus infection in pigs after oronasal inoculation. Am J Vet Res 41:1372–1378Google Scholar
  9. Andries K, Pensaert M (1981) Vomiting and wasting disease. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of coronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 399–408Google Scholar
  10. Andries K, Pensaert M, Callebaut P (1978) Pathogenicity of hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (vomiting and wasting disease) virus of pigs, using different routes of inoculation. Zentralbl Veterinaermed [B] 25:461–468Google Scholar
  11. Apostolov K, Spasic P, Bojanic N (1975) Evidence of a viral aetiology of endemic (Balkan) nephro-pathy. Lancet II:1271–1273Google Scholar
  12. Appel MJG, Cooper BJ, Greisen H, Scott F, Carmichael LE (1979) Canine viral enteritis. I. Status report on corona- and parvo-like viral enteritides. Cornell Vet 69:123–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arnheiter H, Haller O (1981) Inborn resistance of mice to mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3). In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of coronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 409–417Google Scholar
  14. Bailey OT, Pappenheimer AM, Cheever FS, Daniels JB (1949) A murine viras (JHM) causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin. H Pathology. J Exp Med 90:195–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bang FB (1981) The use of a genetically incompatible combination of host and viras (MHV) for the study of mechanisms of host resistance. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemis try and biology of coronavirases. Plenum Press, New York, pp 359–373Google Scholar
  16. Bang FB, Warwick A (1960) Mouse macrophages as host cells for the mouse hepatitis viras and the genetic base of their susceptibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 46:1065–1075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bárdos V, Schwanzer V, Pesko J (1980) Identification of Tettnang viras (possible arboviras) as mouse hepatitis viras. Intervirol 13:275–283Google Scholar
  18. Bass EP, Sharpee RL (1975) Coronavirus and gastroenteritis in foals. Lancet II:822Google Scholar
  19. Beare AS, Reed SE (1977) The study of antiviral compounds in volunteers. In: Oxford JS (ed) Che-moprophylaxis and viras infections of the respiratory tract CRC Press, Cleveland, pp 27–35Google Scholar
  20. Bhatt PN, Jacoby RC (1977) Experimental infection of adult axenic rats with Parker’s rat corona-viras. Arch Virol 54:345–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bhatt PN, Percy DH, Jones AM (1972) Characterization of the viras of sialodacryoadenitis of rats: a member of the coronaviras group. J Infect Dis 126:123–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Biggers DC, Kraft LM, Sprinz H (1964) Lethal intestinal viras infection of mice (LIVIM). Am J Pathol 45:413–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Binn LN, Lazar EC, Keenan KP, Huxson DL, Marchwicki RM, Strano AJ (1975) Recovery and characterisation of a coronaviras from military dogs with diarrhoea. Proc. 78th Ann. Meeting U.S. Anim. Health Assoc. Roanoke, Va., Oct 1974, pp 366–459Google Scholar
  24. Black JW (1980) Recovery and in vitro cultivation of a coronaviras from laboratory induced cases of feline infectious peritonitis (FTP). Vet Med Small Anim Clin 75:811–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bradburne AF, Bynoe ML, Tyrrell DAJ (1967) Effects of a “new” human respiratory viras in volunteers. Br Med J 3:767–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Broderson JR, Murphy FA, Hierholzer JC (1976) Lethal enteritis in infant mice caused by mouse hepatitis viras. Lab Anim Sci 26:824–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Burks JS, DeVald BL, Jankovsky LD, Gerdes JC (1980) Two coronavirases isolated from central nervous system tissue of two multiple sclerosis patients. Science 209:933–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Carson CA, Naqi CA, Hall CF (1972) Serologic response of turkeys to an agent associated with infectious enteritis (bluecomb). App1 Environ Microbiol 23:903–907Google Scholar
  29. Carthew P (1977) Lethal intestinal viras of infant mice is mouse hepatitis viras. Vet Rec 101:465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Carthew P, Sparrow S (1981) Murine coronavirases: the histopathology of disease induced by in-tranasal inoculation. Res Vet Sci 30:270–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Caul EO, Clarke SKR (1975) Coronaviras propagated from patient with non bacterial gastroenteri tis. Lancet II:953–954Google Scholar
  32. Caul EO, Egglestone SI (1977) Further studies on human enteric coronavirases. Arch Virol 54:107–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Caul EO, Paver WK, Clarke SKR (1975) Coronaviras particles in faeces from patients with gas troenteritis. Lancet I:1192Google Scholar
  34. Cheever FS, Daniels JB, Pappenheimer AM, Bailey OT (1949) A murine viras (JHM) causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destraction of myelin. I. Isolation and biological properties of the viras. J Exp Med 90:181–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chhabra PC, Goel MC (1980) Normal profile of immunoglobulins in sera and tracheal washings of chickens. Res Vet Sci 29:148–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Clewley JP, Morser J, Avery RJ, Lomniczi B (1981) Oligonucleotide fingerprinting of the RNA of different strains of infectious bronchitis viras. Infect Immun 32:1227–1233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Collins MS, Alexander DJ (1980) The polypeptide composition of isolated surface projections of avian infectious bronchitis viras. J Gen Virol 48:213–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cotter SM, Gilmore CE, Rollins C (1973) Multiple cases of feline leukemia and feline infectious peritonitis in a household. J Am Vet Med Assoc 162:1054–1058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Darbyshire JH (1980) Assessment of cross-immunity in chickens to strains of avian infectious bronchitis viras using tracheal organ cultures. Avian Pathol 9:179–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Darbyshire JH (1981) Immunity to avian infectious bronchitis virus. In: Rose ME, Payne LN, Freeman BM (eds) Avian Immunology. Poultry Science Symposium Series 16, Edinburgh, Brit Poult Science Ltd, pp 205–226Google Scholar
  41. Darbyshire JH, Cook JKA, Peters RW (1975) Comparative growth kinetic studies on avian in fectious bronchitis virus in different systems. J Comp Pathol 85:623–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Darbyshire JH, Rowell JG, Cook JKA, Peters RW (1979) Taxonomic studies on strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus using neutralisation tests in tracheal organ cultures. Arch Virol 61:227–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dawson PS, Gough RE (1971) Antigenic variation in strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Arch Ges Virusforsch. 34:32–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dea S, Roy RS, Begin ME (1980a) Physicochemical and biological properties of neonatal calf diarrhea coronaviruses isolated in Quebec and comparison with the Nebraska calf coronavirus. Am J Vet Res 41:23–29Google Scholar
  45. Dea S, Roy RS, Begin ME (1980b) Bovine coronavirus isolation and cultivation in continuous cell lines. Am J Vet Res 41:30–38Google Scholar
  46. Debouck P, Pensaert M (1980) Experimental infection of pigs with a new porcine enteric corona virus CV 777. Am J Vet Res 41:219–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Deshmukh DR, Pomeroy BS (1974) Physicochemical characterization of a bluecomb coronavirus of turkeys. Am J Vet Res 35:1549–1552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Deshmukh DR, Sautter JH, Patel BL, Pomeroy BS (1976) Histopathology of fasting and bluecomb disease in turkey poults and embryos experimentally infected with bluecomb disease corona virus. Avian Dis 20:631–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dick GWA, Niven JFS, Gledhill AW (1956) A virus related to that causing hepatitis in mice (MHV). Br J Exp Pathol 37:90–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Doughri AM, Storz J (1977) Light and ultrastructural pathologic changes in intestinal coronavirus infection of newborn calves. Zentralbl Veterinärmed [B] 24:367–385Google Scholar
  51. Doughri AM, Storz J, Hajer I, Fernando HS (1976) Morphology and morphogenesis of a corona virus infecting intestinal epithelial cells of newborn calves. Exp Molec Pathol 25:355–370Google Scholar
  52. Doyle LP, Hutchings LM (1946) A transmissible gastroenteritis in pigs. J Am Vet Assoc 108:257–259Google Scholar
  53. Dupuy JM, Levy-Leblond E, Le Prevost C (1975) Immunopathology of mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection. II. Effects of immunosuppression in resistant mice. J Immunol 114:226–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Estola T (1967) Sensitivity of suckling mice to various strains of infectious bronchitis virus. Acta Vet Scand 8:86–87Google Scholar
  55. Evermann JF, Foreyt W, Maag-Miller L, Leathers W, McKeirnan AJ, Leamaster B (1980) Acute hemorrhagic enteritis associated with canine coronavirus and parvovirus infections in a captive coyote population. J Am Vet Med Assoc 177:784–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Evermann JF, Baumgartener L, Ott RL, Davis EV, McKeirnan AJ (1981) Characterization of a feline infectious peritonitis isolate. Vet Pathol 18:256–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fleury HJA, Sheppard RD, Bornstein MB, Raine CS (1980) Further ultrastructural observations of virus morphogenesis and myelin pathology in JHM virus encephalomyelitis. Neuropath Appl Neurobiol 6:165–179Google Scholar
  58. Frederick GT, Bohl E (1976) Local and systemic cell-mediated immunity against transmissible gastroenteritis, an intestinal viral infection of swine. J Immunol 116:1000–1004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Furuta T, Goto Y, Tamura T, Kai Ch, Ueda K (1979) Pulmonary vascular lesions in nude mice persistently infected with mouse hepatitis virus. Jpn J Exp Med 49:423–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gallily A, Warwick A, Bang FB (1964) Effect of cortisone on genetic resistance to mouse hepatitis virus in vivo and in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 51:1158–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Garwes DJ, Reynolds DJ (1981) The polypeptide structure of canine coronavirus and its relation ship to porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus. J Gen Virol 52:153–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Garwes DJ, Lucas MH, Higgins DA, Pike BV, Cartwright SF (1978/1979) Antigenicity of structural components from porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Vet Microbiol 3:179–190Google Scholar
  63. Gerdes JC, Jankovsky LD, DeVald BL, Klein I, Burks JS (1981a) Antigenic relationships of corona-viruses detectable by plaque neutralization, competitive enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay and immunoprecipitation. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of coronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 29–41Google Scholar
  64. Gerdes JC, Klein I, DeVald B, Burks JS (1981b) Coronavirus isolates SK and SD from multiple sclerosis patients are serologically related to murine coronavirus A59 and JHM and human coronavirus OC43 but not to human coronavirus 229E. J Virol 38:231–238Google Scholar
  65. Gerna G, Cattano E, Cereda P, Revello MG (1978) Seroepidemiological study on human corona virus OC43 infections in Italy. Boll Inst Sieroter. Milan. 57:535–542Google Scholar
  66. Gerna G, Cereda PM, Revello MG, Cattaneo E, Battaglia M, Gerna MT (1981) Antigenic and biological relationships between human coronavirus OC43 and neonatal calf diarrhoea corona virus. J Gen Virol 54:91–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gledhill AW, Andrewes CA (1951) A hepatitis virus of mice. Br J Exp Pathol 32:559–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gomez L, Raggi LG (1974) Local immunity to avian infectious bronchitis in tracheal organ culture. Avian Dis 18:346–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gonder E, Patel BL, Pomeroy BS (1976) Scanning electron, light and immunofluorescent micro scopy of coronaviral enteritis of turkeys (bluecomb). Am J Vet Res 37:1435–1439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Goto N, Hirano N, Aiuchi M, Hayashi T, Fujiwara K (1977) Nasoencephalopathy of mice infected intranasally with a mouse hepatitis virus, JHM strain. Jpn J Exp Med 47:59–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Goto N, Takahashi K, Huang KJ, Katami K, Fujiwara K (1979) Giant cell formation in the brain of suckling mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus, JHM strain. Jpn J Exp Med 49:169–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gouffaux M, Pastoret PP, Henroteaux M, Massip A (1975) Feline infectious peritonitis proteins of plasma and ascitic fluid. Vet Pathol 12:335–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gough RE, Alexander DJ (1979) Comparison of duration of immunity in chickens infected with a live infectious bronchitis vaccine by three different routes. Res Vet Sci 26:329–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Greig AS, Mitchell D, Corner AH (1962) A hemagglutinating virus producing encephalomyelitis in baby pigs. Can J Comp Med 26:49–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Haelterman EO (1962) Epidemiological studies of transmissible gastroenteritis of swine. Proc. 66th Annual Meeting US Livestock San. Assoc, pp 305–315Google Scholar
  76. Hajer I, Storz J (1978) Antigens of bovine coronavirus strain LY-138 and their diagnostic properties. Am J Vet Res 39:441–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hardy WD, Hurvitz AI (1971) Feline infectious peritonitis: experimental studies. J Am Vet Med Assoc 158:994–1002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hasony HJ, Macnaughton MR (1981) Antigenicity of mouse hepatitis strain 3 subcomponents in C57 strain mice. Arch Virol 69:33–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Haspel VM, Lampert PW, Oldstone MBA (1978) Temperature-sensitive mutants of mouse hepatitis virus produce a high incidence of demyelination. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:4033–4036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hayashi T, Utsumi F, Takahashi R, Fujiwara K (1980) Pathology of non-effusive type feline in fectious peritonitis and experimental transmission. Jpn J Vet Sci 42:197–210Google Scholar
  81. Helfer-Baker C, Evermann JF, McKeirnan AJ, Morrison WB, Slack RL, Miller CW (1980) Serological studies on the incidence of canine enteritis viruses. Canine Pract 7:37–42Google Scholar
  82. Herndon RM, Griffin DE, McCormick U, Weiner LP (1975) Mouse hepatitis virus-induced recur rent demyelination. Arch Neurol 32:32–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Herndon RM, Price DL, Weiner LP (1977) Regeneration of oligodendroglia during recovery from demyelinating disease. Science 195:693–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hess RG, Bachmann PA, H änichen T (1977) Versuche zur Entwicklung einer Immunprophylaxe gegen die übertragbare Gastroenteritis (TGE) der Schweine. I. Pathogenität des Stammes B1 im Verlaufe von Serienpassagen. Zentralbl Veterinärmed [B] 24:753–763Google Scholar
  85. Hierholzer JC, Broderson JR, Murphy FA (1979) New strain of mouse hepatitis virus as the cause of lethal enteritis in infant mice. Infect Immun 24:508–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hirai K, Hitchner SB, Calnek BW (1979) Characterization of a new coronavirus like agent isolated from parrots. Avian Dis 23:515–525Google Scholar
  87. Hirano N, Tamura T, Taguchi F, Ueda K, Fujiwara K (1975) Isolation of low virulent mouse hepatitis virus from nude mice with wasting syndrome and hepatitis. Jpn J Exp Med 45:492–496Google Scholar
  88. Hirano N, Miyajima H, Fujiwara K (1979) Isolation of low virulent mouse hepatitis virus from feces in infected mouse breeding colony. Jpn J Vet Sci 41:31–40Google Scholar
  89. Hirano N, Goto N, Ogawa T, Ono K, Murakami T, Fujiwara K (1980) Hydrocephalus in suckling rats infected intracerebrally with mouse hepatitis virus, MHV A59. Microbiol Immunol 24:825–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hirano N, Murakami T, Taguchi F, Fujiwara K, Matumoto M (1981a) Comparison of mouse hepa titis strains for pathogenicity in weanling mice infected by various routes. Arch Virol 70:69–73Google Scholar
  91. Hirano N, Goto N, Makino S, Fujiwara K (1981b) Persistent infection with mouse hepatitis virus JHM strain in DBT cell culture. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of eoronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 301–308Google Scholar
  92. Holmes HC (1973) Neutralizing antibody in nasal secretions of chickens following administration of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Arch Ges Virusforsch 43:235–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Holmes KV, Behnke JN (1981) Evolution of a coronavirus during persistent infection in vitro. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of coronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 287–300Google Scholar
  94. Holzworth J (1963) Some important disorders of cats. Cornell Vet 53:157–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hopkins SR (1974) Serological comparisons of strains of infectious bronchitis virus using plaque-purified isolants. Avian Dis 18:231–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Horváth I, Mocsári E (1981) Ultrastructural changes in the small intestinal epithelium of suck ling pigs affected with a transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)-like disease. Arch Virol 68:103–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Horzinek MC, Osterhaus ADME, Ellens DJ (1977) Feline infectious peritonitis virus. Zentralbl Veterinaermed [B] 24:398–405Google Scholar
  98. Horzinek MC, Osterhaus ADME (1978) Feline infectious peritonitis: a coronavirus disease of cats. J Small Anim Pract 19:561–568Google Scholar
  99. Horzinek MC, Osterhaus ADME (1979) The virology and pathogenesis of feline infectious peri tonitis. Arch Virol 59:1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hoshino Y, Scott FW (1978) Replication of feline infectious peritonitis virus in organ cultures of feline tissue. Cornell Vet 68:411–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Hoshino Y, Scott FW (1980a) Immunofluorescent and electron microscopic studies of feline small intestinal organ cultures infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus. Am J Vet Res 41:672–675Google Scholar
  102. Hoshino Y, Scott FW (1980b) Coronavirus-like particles present in the feces of normal cats. Arch Virol 63:147–152Google Scholar
  103. Ishida T, Fujiwara K (1979) Pathology of diarrhea due to mouse hepatitis virus in the infant mouse. Jpn J Exp Med 49:33–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Ishida T, Taguchi G, Lee Y, Yamada A, Tamura T, Fujiwara K (1978) Isolation of mouse hepatitis virus from infant mice with fatal diarrhea. Lab Anim Sci 28:269–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Jacobse-Geels H, Daha MR, Horzinek M (1980) Isolation and characterization of feline C3 and evidence for the immune complex pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis. J Immunol 125:1606–1610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Jacoby RO, Bhatt PN, Jonas AM (1975) Pathogenesis of sialodacryoadenitis in gnotobiotic rats. Vet Pathol 12:196–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Jonas AM, Craft J, Black CL, Bhatt PN, Hilding D (1969) Sialodacryoadenitis in rats. A light and electron microscope study. Arch Pathol 88:613–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kai C, Tamura T, Fujiwara K (1981) Effect of immune heterozygous spleen cell transfer on resistance to mouse hepatitis virus infection in nude mice. Microbiol Immunol 25:1011–1018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kapikian AZ (1975) The coronaviruses. Dev Biol Stand 28:42–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Katami K, Taguchi F, Nakayama M, Goto N, Fujiwara K (1978) Vertical transmission of mouse hepatitis virus infection in mice. Jpn J Exp Med 48:481–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kaye HS, Dowdle WR (1975) Seroepidemiologic survey of coronavirus (strain 229E) infections in a population of children. Am J Epidemiol 101:238–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kaye HS, Yarbrough WB, Reed CV (1975) Calf diarrhoea coronavirus. Lancet II:509Google Scholar
  113. Kaye HS, Yarbrough WB, Reed CJ, Harrison AK (1977) Antigenic relationship between human coronavirus strain OC43 and hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus strain 67N of swine: antibody response in human and animal sera. J Infect Dis 135:201–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Keenan KP, Jervis HR, Marchwicki RH, Binn LN (1976) Intestinal infection of neonatal dogs with canine coronavirus 1–71: studies by virologic, histologic, histochemical and immunofluores cent techniques. Am J Vet Res 37:247–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kersting G, Pette E (1956) Zur Pathohistologie und Pathogenese der experimentellen JHM-Virus-encephalomyelitis des Affen. Dtsch Zeitschr f Nervenheilkd 174:283–304Google Scholar
  116. Knobler RL, Dubois-Dalcq M, Haspel MV, Claysmith AP, Lampert PW, Oldstone MBA (1981a) Selective localization of wild type and mutant mouse hepatitis virus (JHM strain) antigens in CNS tissue by fluorescence, light and electron microscopy. J Neuroimmunol 1:81–92Google Scholar
  117. Knobler RL, Haspel MV, Oldstone MBA (1981b) Mouse hepatitis virus type-4 (JHM strain) in duced fatal nervous system disease, part I (Genetic control and the murine neuron as the susceptible site of disease). J Exp Med 133:832–843Google Scholar
  118. Kodama Y, Ogata M, Shimizu Y (1980) Characterization of immunoglobulin A antibody in serum of swine inoculated with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Am J Vet Res 41:740–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kraaijveld CA, Madge MH, Macnaughton MR (1980a) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for coronavirases HCV 229E and MHV 3. J Gen Virol 49:83–89Google Scholar
  120. Kraaijveld CA, Reed SE, Macnaughton MR (1980b) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody in volunteers experimentally infected with human coronavirus 229E group viruses. J Clin Microbiol 12:493–497Google Scholar
  121. Kraft LM (1962) An apparently new lethal virus disease of infant mice. Science 137:282–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Krystyniak K, Dupuy JM (1981) Early interaction between mouse hepatitis virus 3 and cells. J Gen Virol 57:53–61Google Scholar
  123. La Bonnardiere C, Laude H (1981) High interferon titer in newborn pig intestine during experimentally induced viral enteritis. Infect Immun 32:28–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Lahmy C, Virelizier JL (1981) Role of prostaglandins in the suppression of antibody production by mouse hepatitis virus infection. Ann Immunol (Paris) 132C:101–105Google Scholar
  125. Lai MMC, Stohlman SA (1981a) Comparative analysis of RNA genome of mouse hepatitis viruses. J Virol 38:661–670Google Scholar
  126. Lai MMC, Stohlman SA (1981b) Genome structure of mouse hepatitis virus: comparative analysis by oligonucleotide mapping. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and bio logy of coronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 69–82Google Scholar
  127. Lai MMC, Brayton PR, Armen RC, Patton CD, Stohlman SA (1981) Mouse hepatitis virus A59 messenger RNA structure and genetic localization of the sequence divergence from the hepa-tropic strain MHV-3. J Virol 39:823–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Lai YL, Jacoby RO, Bhatt PN, Jonas AM (1976) Keratoconjunctivitis associated with sialodacryo-adenitis in rats. Invest Ophthalmol 15:538–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lampert PW, Sims JK, Kniazeff AJ (1973) Mechanism of demyelination in JHM virus encephalo-myelitis. Electron microscopic studies. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 24:76–85Google Scholar
  130. Larson DJ, Morehouse LG, Solorzano RF, Kinden DA (1979) Transmissible gastroenteritis in dogs: Experimental intestinal infection with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Am J Vet Res 40:477–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Larson HE, Reed SE, Tyrrell DAJ (1980) Isolation of rhinoviruses and coronaviruses from 38 colds in adults. J Med Virol 5:221–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Leinikki PO, Holmes KV, Shekarchi J, Iivanainen M, Madden D, Sever JL (1981) Coronavirus antibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of coronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 323–326Google Scholar
  133. Le Prévost C, Levy-Leblond B, Virelizier JL, Dupuy JM (1975a) Immunopathology of mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection. I. Role of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in resistance mechanism. J Immunol 117:221–225Google Scholar
  134. Le Prévost C, Virelizier JL, Dupuy JM (1975b) Immunopathology of mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection, in. Clinical and virologic observation of a persistent viral infection. J Immunol 115:640–645Google Scholar
  135. Leslie GA, Martin LN (1973) Studies on the secretory immunologic system of fowl. m. Serum and secretory IgA of the chicken. J Immunol 110:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Levy GA, Leibowitz JL, Edgington TS (1981) Induction of monocyte procoagulant activity by murine hepatitis type 3 parallels disease susceptibility in mice. J Exp Med 154:1150–1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Levy-Leblond E, Dupuy JM (1977) Neonatal susceptibility to MHV-3 infection in mice. I. Transfer of resistance. J Immunol 118:1219–1222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Levy-Leblond E, Oth D, Dupuy JM (1979) Genetic study of mouse sensitivity to MHV-3 infection: Influence of the H-2 complex. J Immunol 122:1359–1362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lewis LD, Phillips RW (1978) Pathophysiologic changes due to coronavirus induced diarrhea in the calf. J Am Vet Med Assoc 173:636–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Loeffler DG, Ott RL, Evermann JF, Alexander JE (1978) The incidence of naturally occurring antibodies against feline infectious peritonitis in selected cat populations. Feline Pract 8:43–45Google Scholar
  141. Lucas A, Flintoff W, Anderson R, Percy D, Coulter M, Dales S (1977) In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases: tropism of the JHM strain of murine hepatitis virus for cells of glial origin. Cell 12:553–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Macnaughton MR (1981) Structural and antigenic relationships between human, murine and avian coronaviruses. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of corona-viruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 19–28Google Scholar
  143. Macnaughton MR, Davies HA (1981) Human enteric coronaviruses. Arch Virol 70:301–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Macnaughton MR, Hasony HJ, Madge H, Reed S (1981) Antibody to virus components in volun teers experimentally infected with human coronaviruses 229E group viruses. Infect Immun 31:845–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Macnaughton MR, Patterson S (1980) Mouse hepatitis virus strain 3 infection of C57, A/Sn and A/J strain mice and their macrophages. Arch Virol 66:71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Málková D, Holubová J, Kolman JM, Lobkovic F, Pohlreichová L, Zikmundová L (1980) Isolation of Tettnang coronavirus from man. Acta Virol 24:363–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Manaker RA, Piczak CV, Miller AA, Stanton MF (1961) A hepatitis virus complicating studies with mouse leukemia. J Natl Cancer Inst 27:29–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. McIntosh K (1974) Coronaviruses: a comparative review. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 63:85–129Google Scholar
  149. McIntosh K, Becker WB, Chanock RM (1967) Growth in suckling mouse brain of “IBV-like” vi ruses from patients with upper respiratory tract disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 58:2268–2273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. McIntosh K, Kapikian AZ, Hardison KA, Hartley JW, Chanock RM (1969) Antigenic relationships among coronaviruses of man and between human and animal coronaviruses. J Immunol 102:1109–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. McIntosh K, Kapikian AZ, Turner HC, Hartley JW, Parrot RH, Chanock RM (1970) Seroepi-demiologic studies of coronavirus infection in adults and children. Am J Epidemiol 91:585–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. McIntosh K, Ellis EF, Hoffman LS, Lybass TG, Eller JJ, Fulginiti VA (1973) The association of viral and bacterial respiratory infections with exacerbations of wheezing in young astmatic children. J Pediatr 82:578–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. McIntosh K, Chao RK, Krause HE, Wasil R, Mocega HE, Mufson MA (1974) Coronavirus in fection in acute lower respiratory tract disease of infants. J Infect Dis 139:502–507Google Scholar
  154. McIntosh K, McQuillin J, Reed SE, Gardener PS (1978) Diagnosis of human coronavirus infection by immunofluorescence: method and application to respiratory disease in hospitalized chil dren. J Med Virol 2:341–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. McKeirnan AJ, Evermann JF, Hargis A, Miller LM, Ott RE (1981) Isolation of feline corona viruses from two cats with diverse disease manifestations. Feline Pract 11:16–20Google Scholar
  156. Mebus CA, Stair EL, Rhodes MB, Twiehaus MJ (1973a) Pathology of neonatal calf diarrhoea induced by a coronavirus-like agent. Vet Pathol 10:45–64Google Scholar
  157. Mebus CA, Stair EL, Rhodes MB, Twiehaus MJ (1973b) Neonatal calf diarrhoea: propagation, attenuation, and characteristics of a coronavirus-like agent. Am J Vet Res 34:145–150Google Scholar
  158. Mebus CA, Newman LE, Stair EL (1975) Scanning electron, light and immunofluorescent micro scopy of intestine of gnotobiotic calf infected with calf diarrhea coronavirus. Am J Vet Res 36:1719–1725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Mebus CA, Torres-Medina A, Twiehaus MJ (1976) Immune response to orally administered calf reovirus-like agent and coronavirus vaccine. Dev Biol Stand 33:396–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Mengeling WL, Cutlip RC (1976) Pathogenicity of field isolates of hemagglutinating encephalo-myelitis virus for neonatal pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 128:236–239Google Scholar
  161. Mockett A, Darbyshire JH (1981) Comparative studies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathol 10:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Monto AS (1974) Medical Reviews: Coronaviruses. Yale J Biol Med 47:234–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Moon HW (1978) Mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diarrhea: a review. J Am Vet Med Assoc 172:443–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Moore B, Lee P, Hewish M, Dixon B, Mukherjee T (1977) Coronaviruses in training centre for intellectually retarded. Lancet 1:261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Moscovici O, Chany C, Lebon P, Rousset S, Laporte (1980) Association d’infection à coronavirus avec l’entérocolite hémorragique du nouveau-né. CR Acad Sc [D] (Paris) 290:869–872Google Scholar
  166. Nagaraja KV, Pomeroy BS (1980) Cell-mediated immunity against turkey coronaviral enteritis (bluecomb). Am J Vet Res 41:915–917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Nagaraja KV, Pomeroy BS (1978) Secretory antibodies against turkey coronaviral enteritis. Am J Vet Res 39:1463–1465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Nagaraja KV, Pomeroy BS (1981) Immunofluorescent studies on localization of secretory immuno-globulins in the intestines of turkeys recovered from turkey coronaviral enteritis. Am J Vet Res 41:1283–1284Google Scholar
  169. Nagashima K, Wege H, ter Meulen V (1978a) Early and late CNS-effeets of coronavirus infection in rats. Adv Exp Med Biol 100:395–409Google Scholar
  170. Nagashima K, Wege H, Meyermann R, ter Meulen V (1978b) Corona virus induced subacute demyelinating encephalomyelitis in rats. A morphological analysis. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 44:63–70Google Scholar
  171. Nagashima K, Wege H, Meyermann R, ter Meulen V (1979) Demyelinating encephalomyelitis induced by a long-term corona virus infection in rats. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 45:205–213Google Scholar
  172. Nagy E, Lomniczi B (1979) Polypeptide patterns of infectious bronchitis virus serotypes fall into two categories. Arch Virol 61:341–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Naqui SA, Panigrahy B, Hall CF (1975) Purification and concentration of viruses associated with transmissible (coronaviral) enteritis of turkeys (bluecomb). Am J Vet Res 36:548–552Google Scholar
  174. Nelson DT, Eustin SL, McAdarach JP, Stotz I (1979) Lesions of spontaneous canine viral enteritis. Vet Pathol 16:680–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Nelson JB (1952) Acute hepatitis associated with mouse leukemia. I. Pathological features and transmission of the disease. J Exp Med 96:293–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. O’Reilly KJ, Fishman B, Hitchcock LM (1979) Feline infectious peritonitis. Isolation of a corona-virus. Vet Rec 104:348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Osterhaus ADME, Horzinek MC, Ellens DJ (1976) Untersuchungen zur Ätiologie der felinen infektiösen Peritonitis. Berl Münch Tieraerztl Wochenschr 89:135–137Google Scholar
  178. Osterhaus ADME, Horzinek MC, Reynolds DJ (1977) Seroepidemiology of feline infectious peri tonitis virus infections using transmissible gastroenteritis virus as antigen. Zentralbl Veteri-naermed [B] 24:835–841Google Scholar
  179. Osterhaus ADME, Horzinek MC, Wirahadiredja RMS (1978a) Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus. H. Propagation in suckling mouse brain. Zentralbl Veterinaermed [B] 25:301–307Google Scholar
  180. Osterhaus ADME, Horzinek MC, Wirahadiredja RMS, Kroo A (1978b) Feline infectious peri tonitis (FIP) virus. IV. Propagation in suckling rat and hamster brain. Zentralbl Veterinaermed [B] 25:816–825Google Scholar
  181. Panigrahy B, Naqi SA, Hall CE (1973) Isolation and characterization of viruses associated with transmissible enteritis (bluecomb) of turkeys. Avian Dis 17:430–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Parker JC, Cross SS, Rowe WP (1970) Rat coronavirus (RCV): a prevalent, naturally occurring pneumotropic virus of rats. Arch Ges Virusforsch 31:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Pedersen NC (1976a) Morphologic and physical characteristics of feline infectious peritonitis virus and its growth in autochthonous peritoneal cell cultures. Am J Vet Res 37:567–572Google Scholar
  184. Pedersen NC (1976b) Serological studies of naturally occuring feline infectious peritonitis. Am J Vet Res 37:1449–1453Google Scholar
  185. Pedersen NC, Boyle BS (1980) Immunologic phenomena in the effusive form of feline infectious peritonitis. Am J Vet Res 41:868–876Google Scholar
  186. Pedersen NC, Ward J, Mengeling WL (1978) Antigenic relationship of the feline infectious peritonitis virus to coronaviruses of other species. Arch Virol 58:45–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Pensaert M, Callebaut P (1978) The coronaviruses: clinical and structural aspects with some practical implications. Ann Méd Vét 122:301–322Google Scholar
  188. Pensaert M, Haelterman EO, Burnstein T (1970) Transmissible gastroenteritis of swine: virus-intestinal cell interactions. Arch Ges Virusforsch 31:321–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Pensaert MB, Debouck P (1978) A new coronavirus-like particle associated with diarrhoea in swine. Arch Virol 58:243–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Pensaert MB, Debouck P, Reynolds DJ (1981) An immunelectron microscopic and immuno fluorescent study on the antigenic relationship between the coronavirus like agent, CV777, and several coronavirus. Arch Virol 68:45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Phillips RW, Case GL (1980) Altered metabolism, acute shock and therapeutic response in a calf with coronavirus induced diarrhea. Am J Vet Res 41:1039–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Piazza M (1969) Experimental viral hepatitis. Thomas, Springfield IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  193. Pickel K, Müller MA, ter Meulen V (1981) Analysis of age-dependent resistance to murine corona virus JHM infection in mice. Infect Immun 34:375–387Google Scholar
  194. Pomeroy BS, Larsen CT, Deshmukh DR, Patel BL (1975) Immunity to transmissible (coronaviral) enteritis of turkeys (bluecomb). Am J Vet Res 36:553–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Powell HC, Lampert PW (1975) Oligodendrocytes and their myelin-plasma membrane connections in JHM mouse hepatitis viras encephalomyelitis. Lab Invest 33:440–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Purcell DA, McFerran JB (1972) The histopathology of infectious bronchitis in the domestic fowl. Res Vet Sci 13:116–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Reynolds DJ, Garwes DJ (1979) Viras isolation and serum antibody responses after infection of cats with transmissible gastroenteritis viras. Arch Virol 60:161–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Reynolds DJ, Garwes DJ, Gaskell CJ (1977) Detection of transmissible gastroenteritis viras neu tralizing antibody in cats. Arch Virol 55:77–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Reynolds DJ, Garwes DJ, Lucey S (1980) Differentiation of canine coronaviras and porcine trans missible gastroenteritis viras by neutralization with canine, porcine and felina sera. Vet Microbiol 5:283–290Google Scholar
  200. Riski H, Hovi T (1980) Coronaviras infections of man associated with diseases other than the common cold. J Med Virol 6:259–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Ritchie AE, Deshmukh DR, Larsen CT, Pomeroy BS (1973) Electron microscopy of coronaviras-like particles characteristic of turkey bluecomb disease. Avian Dis 17:546–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Robb JA, Bond CW (1979) Coronaviridae. In: Fraenkel-Conrat H, Wagner RR (eds) Comprehen sive virology. Plenum Press, New York 14:193–247Google Scholar
  203. Robb JA, Bond CW, Leibowitz JL (1979) Pathogenic murine Coronaviruses III. Biological and biochemical characterization of temperature sensitive mutants of JHMV. Virol 94:385–399Google Scholar
  204. Robison RL, Holzworth J, Gilmore CE (1971) Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis: signs and clinical diagnosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 158:981–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Roe CK, Alexander TJL (1958) A disease of nursing pigs previously unreported in Ontario. Can J Comp Med 22:305–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Rosenberger JK, Gelb J (1978) Response to several avian respiratory viruses as affected by infec tious bursal disease viras. Avian Dis 22:95–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Rowe WP, Hartley JW, Capps UJ (1963) Mouse hepatitis viras infection as a highly contagious, prevalent, enteric infection of mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 112:161–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Sabesin SM (1972) Isolation of a latent murine hepatitis viras from cultured mouse liver cells. Am J Gastroenterol 58:259–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Saif LJ, Bohl EH (1979) Passive immunity in transmissible gastroenteritis of swine. Am J Vet Res 40:115–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Sato K, Mara M, Wata T (1976) Some characteristics of corona-like viras isolated from infant mice with diarrhea and inflammatory submaxillary gland of rats (in Japanese). Viras 26:97Google Scholar
  211. Sato K, Inaba Y, Kurogi H, Takahashi E, Ito Y, Goto Y, Omori T, Matumoto M (1977) Physico-chemical properties of calf coronaviras. Vet Microbiol 2:73–81Google Scholar
  212. Schalk AE, Hawn MC (1931) An apparently new respiratory disease of baby chicks. J Am Vet Med Assoc 78:413–422Google Scholar
  213. Schindler L, Streissle H, Kirchner H (1981) Protection of mice against mouse hepatitis viras by Corynebacterium parvum. Infect Immun 32:1128–1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Schmidt OW, Kenny GE (1981) Immunogenicity and antigenicity of human coronaviras 229E and OC43. Infect Immun 32:1000–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Schnagl RD, Holmes IH, Mackay-Scollay EM (1978) Coronavirus-like particles in aboriginals and non-aboriginals in Western Australia. Med J Australia 1:307–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Sebesteny A, Hill AC (1974) Hepatitis and brain lesions due to mouse hepatitis viras accompanied by wasting in nude mice. Lab Anim 8:317–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Sharpee RL, Mebus CA, Bass EP (1976) Characterization of a calf diarrheal coronaviras. Am J Vet Res 37:1031–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Sheets P, Shah KV, Bang FB (1978) Mouse hepatitis viras (MHV) infection in thymectomized C3H mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 159:34–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Shepherd RW, Butler DG, Cutz E, Gall DG, Hamilton JR (1979a) The mucosal lesion in viral enteritis: extent and dynamics of the epithelial response to viras invasion in transmissible gastroenteritis in piglets. Gastroenterol 75:770–777Google Scholar
  220. Shepherd RW, Gall DG, Butler DG, Hamilton JR (1979b) Determinants of diarrhea in viral enteri tis. The role of ion transport and epithelial changes in the ileum in transmissible gastroenteritis in piglets. Gastroenterol 76:20–24Google Scholar
  221. Shif I, Bang FB (1970a) In vitro interaction of mouse hepatitis viras and macrophages from gene tically resistant mice. I. Absorption of viras and growth curve. J Exp Med 131:843–850Google Scholar
  222. Shif I, Bang FB (1970b) In vitro interaction of mouse hepatitis viras and macrophages from gene tically resistant mice. II. Biological characterization of a variant viras (MHV C3H) isolated from stocks of MHV (PRI). J Exp Med 131:851–862Google Scholar
  223. Shimizu M, Shimizu Y (1979) Demonstration of cytotoxic lymphocytes to viras infected target cells in pigs inoculated with transmissible gastroenteritis viras. Am J Vet Res 40:208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Sorensen O, Percy D, Dales S (1980) In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases. III. JHM viras infection of rats. Arch Neurol 37:478–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Sorensen O, Coulter-Mackie M, Percy D, Dales S (1981) In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinat ing diseases. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of corona-viruses, Plenum Press, New York, pp 271–286Google Scholar
  226. Stair EL, Rhodes MB, White RG (1972) Neonatal calf diarrhea: purification and electron micro scopy of a coronaviras-like agent. Am J Vet Res 33:1147–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Stohlman SA, Frelinger JA (1978) Resistance to fatal central nervous system disease by mouse hepatitis viras strain JHM. I. Genetic analysis. Immunogen 6:277–281Google Scholar
  228. Stohlman SA, Weiner LP (1981) Chronic central nervous system demyelination in mice after JHMV viras infection. Neurology 31:38–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Stohlman SA, Sakaguchi A, Weiner LP (1979a) Rescue of a positive stranded RNA viras from antigen negative neuroblastoma cells. Life Sci 24:1029–1036Google Scholar
  230. Stohlman SA, Sakaguchi AY, Weiner LP (1979b) Characterization of the cold-sensitive murine hepatitis viras mutants rescued from latently infected cells by cell fusion. Virology 98:448–455Google Scholar
  231. Stohlman SA, Frelinger JA, Weiner LP (1980) Resistance to fatal central nervous system disease by mouse hepatitis viras, strain JHM. II. Adherent cell mediated protection. J Immunol 124:1733–1739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Stohlman SA, Frelinger JA (1981) Macrophages and resistance to JHM viras. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of coronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 387–398Google Scholar
  233. Stone SS, Kemeny LS, Woods RD, Jensen MT (1977) Efficacy of isolated colostral IgA, IgG, IgM(A) to protect neonatal pigs against the coronaviras of transmissible gastroenteritis. Am J Vet Res 38:1285–1288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Storz J, Rott R (1980) Über die Verbreitung der Coronavirasinfektion bei Rindern in ausgewählten Gebieten Deutschlands: Antikörpernachweis durch Mikroimmundiffusion und Neutrali sation. Dtsch Tierärzti Wochenschr 87:252–254Google Scholar
  235. Storz J, Rott R (1981) Reactivity of antibodies in human serum with antigens of an enteropathogenic bovine coronaviras. MMI 169:169–178Google Scholar
  236. Storz J, Rott R, Kaluza G (1981) Enhancement of plaque formation and cell fusion of an entero pathogenic coronaviras by trypsin treatment. Infect Immun 31:1214–1222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Sugiyama K, Amano Y (1980) Hemagglutination and structural polypeptides of a new coronaviras associated with diarrhea in infant mice. Arch Virol 66:95–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Taguchi F, Hirano N, Kiuchi Y, Fujiwara K (1976) Difference in response to mouse hepatitis viras among susceptible mouse strains. Jpn J Microbiol 20:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Taguchi F, Aiuchi M, Fujiwara K (1977) Age-dependent response of mice to a mouse hepatitis viras, MHV-S. Jpn J Exp Med 47:109–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Taguchi F, Yamada A, Fujiwara K (1979a) Asymptomatic infection of mouse hepatitis viras in the rat Arch Virol 59:275–279Google Scholar
  241. Taguchi F, Yamada A, Fujiwara K (1979b) Factors involved in the age-dependent resistance of mice infected with low-virulence mouse hepatitis viras. Arch Virol 62:333–340Google Scholar
  242. Taguchi F, Goto Y, Aiuchi M, Hayashi T, Fujiwara K (1979c) Pathogenesis of mouse hepatitis viras infection. The role of nasal epithelial cells as a primary target of low-virulence viras, MHV-S. Microbiol Immunol 23:249–262Google Scholar
  243. Taguchi F, Yamada A, Fujiwara K (1980) Resistance to highly viraient mouse hepatitis viras acquired by mice after low-virulence infection: enhanced antiviral activity of macrophages. Infect Immun 29:42–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Takahashi K, Hirano N, Goto N, Fujiwara K (1980) Massive cerebral cortical necrosis in suckling rats inoculated intracerebrally with mouse hepatitis viras, A59 strain. Jpn J Vet Sci 42:311–321Google Scholar
  245. Takeuchi A, Binn LN, Jervis HR, Keenan KP, Hildebrandt PK, Valas RB, Bland FF (1976) Electron microscope study of experimental enteric infection in neonatal dogs with a canine coronavirus. Lab Invest 34:539–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Tamura T, Fujiwara K (1979) IgM and IgG response to sheep red blood cells in mouse hepatitis virus infected nude mice. Microbiol Immunol 23:177–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Tamura T, Ueda K, Hirano N, Fujiwara K (1976) Response of nude mice to a mouse hepatitis viras isolated from a wasting nude mouse. Jpn J Exp Med 46:19–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Tamura T, Taguchi F, Ueda K, Fujiwara K (1977) Persistent infection with mouse hepatitis viras of low virulence in nude mice. Microbiol Immunol 21:683–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Tamura T, Machii K, Ueda K, Fujiwara K (1978) Modification of immune response in nude mice infected with mouse hepatitis viras. Microbiol Immunol 22:557–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Tamura T, Kai Ch, Sakaguchi A, Ishida T, Fujiwara K (1979) The role of macrophages in the early resistance to mouse hepatitis viras infection in nude mice. Microbiol Immunol 23:965–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Tamura T, Sakaguchi A, Kai Ch, Fujiwara K (1980) Enhanced phagocytic activity of macrophages in mouse hepatitis viras infected nude mice. Microbiol Immunol 24:243–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Tardieu M, Hery C, Dupuy JM (1980) Neonatal susceptibility to MHV-3 infection in mice. II Role of natural effector marrow cells in transfer of resistance. J Immunol 124:418–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Taylor CE, Weiser WY, Bang FB (1981) In vitro macrophage manifestation of cortisone induced decrease in resistance to mouse hepatitis viras. J Exp Med 153:732–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Timms LM, Bracewell CD, Alexander DJ (1980) Cell mediated and humoral immune response in chickens infected with avian infectious bronchitis. Br Vet J 136:349–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Traavik T, Mehl R, Kjeldsberg E (1977) “Runde” viras, a coronavirus-like agent associated with seabirds and ticks. Arch Virol 55:25–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Tyrrell DAJ, Bynoe ML (1965) Cultivation of a novel type of common cold viras in organ cultures. Br Med J 1:1467–1470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Tyrrell DAJ, Almeida JD, Berry DM, Cunningham CH, Hamre D, Hofstad MS, Malluci L, Mc-Intosh K (1968) Coronavirases. Nature 220:650Google Scholar
  258. Tyrrell DAJ, Almeida JD, Cunningham CH, Dowdle WR, Hofstad MW, McIntosh K, Tajima M, Zastelskaya LY, Easterday BC, Kapikian A, Bingham RW (1975) Coronaviridae. Intervirol 5:76–82Google Scholar
  259. Tyrrell DAJ, Alexander JD, Almeida JD, Cunningham CH, Easterday BC, Garwes DJ, Hierholzer JC, Kapikian AZ, Macnaughton MR, McIntosh K (1978) Coronaviridae: second report. Inter virol 10:321–328Google Scholar
  260. Underdahl NR, Mebus EL, Stair EL, Rhodes MB, McGill LD, Twiehaus MJ (1974) Isolation of transmissible gastroenteritis viras from lungs of market-weight swine. Am J Vet Res 35:1209–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Underdahl NR, Mebus CA, Torres-Medina A (1975) Recovery of transmissible gastroenteritis viras from chronically infected experimental pigs. Am J Vet Res 36:1473–1476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Virelizier JL (1979) Effects of immunosuppressive agents on leucocyte interferon production in normal or thymus-deprived mice. Transplantation 27:353–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Virelizier JL (1981) Role of macrophages and interferon in natural resistance to mouse hepatitis viras infection. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 92:51–64Google Scholar
  264. Virelizier JL, Allison AC (1976) Correlation of persistent mouse hepatitis viras (MHV-3) infection with its effect on mouse macrophage cultures. Arch Virol 50:279–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Virelizier JL, Gresser I (1978) Role of interferon in the pathogenesis of viral diseases of mice as demonstrated by the use of anti-interferon serum. V. Protective role in mouse hepatitis viras type 3 infection of susceptible and resistant strains of mice. J Immunol 120:1616–1619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Virelizier JL, Dayan AD, Allison AC (1975) Neuropathological effects of persistent infection of mice by mouse hepatitis viras. Infect Immun 12:1127–1140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Virelizier JL, Virelizier AM, Allison AC (1976) The role of circulating interferon in the modifica tions of immune responsiveness by mouse hepatitis viras (MHV-3). J Immunol 117:748–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Ward JM (1970) Morphogenesis of a viras in cats with experimental feline infectious peritonitis. Virol 41:191–194Google Scholar
  269. Ward JM, Gribble DH, Dungworth DL (1974) Feline infectious peritonitis: experimental evidence for its multiphasic nature. Am J Vet Res 35:1271–1275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Ward JM, Collins MJ, Parker JC (1977) Naturally occurring mouse hepatitis virus infection in the nude mouse. Lab Anim Sci 27:372–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Watanabe H, Kobayas MK, Isayama Y (1975) Peculiar secretory IgA system identified in chickens. II. Identification and distribution of free secretory component and immunoglobulins of IgA, IgM and IgG in chicken external secretions. J Immunol 115:998–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Watt RG (1978) Virological study of two commercial pig herds with respiratory disease. Res Vet Sci 24:147–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Wege H, Stephenson JR, Koga M, Wege Hanna, ter Meulen V (1981a) Genetic variation of neuro-tropic and non neurotropic murine coronaviruses. J Gen Virol 54:67–74Google Scholar
  274. Wege H, Koga M, Wege Hanna, ter Meulen V (1981b) JHM infections in rats as a model for acute and subacute demyelinating disease. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of coronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 327–349Google Scholar
  275. Weiner LP (1973) Pathogenesis of demyelination induced by a mouse hepatitis virus (JHM virus). Arch Neurol 28:293–303Google Scholar
  276. Weisbroth SH, Peress N (1977) Ophthalmic lesions and dacryoadenitis: a naturally occurring aspect of sialodacryoadenitis virus infection of the laboratory rat. Lab Animal Sci 27:466–473Google Scholar
  277. Weiser WY, Bang FB (1976) Macrophages genetically resistant to mouse hepatitis virus converted in vitro to susceptible macrophages. J Exp Med 143:690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Weiser WY, Bang FB (1977) Blocking of in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to mouse hepatitis virus. J Exp Med 146:1467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Weiser W, Vellisto I, Bang FB (1976) Congenic strains of mice susceptible and resistant to mouse hepatitis virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 152:499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Weiss RC, Dodds JW, Scott FW (1980) Disseminated intravascular coagulation in experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis. Am J Vet Res 41:663–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Weiss SR, Leibowitz JL (1981) Comparison of the RNAs of murine and human coronaviruses. In: ter Meulen V, Siddell S, Wege H (eds) Biochemistry and biology of coronaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 245–259Google Scholar
  282. Werdin RE, Sorensen DK, Stewart MS (1976) Porcine encephalomyelitis caused by hemagglutinat-ing encephalomyelitis virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 168:240–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Witte KH, Tuch K, Dubenkropp H, Walther C (1977) Untersuchungen über die Antigenverwandt-schaft der Viren der felinen infektiösen Peritonitis (FTP) und der transmissiblen Gastroenteritis (TGE) des Schweines. Berl Münch Tieraerzti Wochenschr 80:396–401Google Scholar
  284. Wolfe LG, Griesemer RD (1966) Feline infectious peritonitis. Pathol Vet 3:255–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Woods RD, Cheville NF, Gallagher JE (1981) Lesions in the small intestine of newborn pigs in-oclated with porcine, feline and canine coronaviruses. Am J Vet Res 42:1163–1169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Yamada A, Taguchi F, Fujiwara K (1979) T-lymphocyte dependent difference in susceptibility between DDD and C3H mice to mouse hepatitis virus, MHV 3. Jpn J Exp Med 49:413–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Yaseen SA, Johnson-Lussenburg M (1981) Antigenic studies on coronavirus. I. Identification of the structural antigens of human coronavirus, strain 229E. Can J Microbiol 27:334–342PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Wege
    • 1
  • St. Siddell
    • 1
  • V. ter Meulen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Virology and ImmunobiologyWuerzburgFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations