The Automated Differential; Pattern Recognition Systems, Precision, and the Spun Smear

  • Thomas C. Kingsley
Conference paper


Utilizing normal patient blood samples, two automated differential pattern recognition systems, the ADC-500 and the Hematrak 360, were compared in a duplicate study with the manual eye method, using spun and wedge smear preparations. The study showed a superior precision for the 500-cell differential, but occasional data points with spun smears were unusually drifted from the central cluster for both the manual and instrument methods. Analysis of the data uncovered at least two reasons for these unusual outliers: “star artifacts” and warped glass slides. The importance of these method-related artifacts are discussed, along with the future of the 500-cell differential with today’s automated technology.

Key Words

Leukocyte count Automated differential Instrumentation Precision. 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    CRUICKSHANK, J.M., ALEXANDER, W.K.: The effect of age, sex, parity, haemoglobin level, and oral contraceptive preparations on the normal leucocyte count. Br. J. Hematol. 18, 541, 1970 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    DAVIDSON, E.: The distribution of cells in peripheral blood smears. J. Clin. Pathol. 11, 410, 1958 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ENGLAND, J.M., BAIN, B.J.: Total and differential leukocyte count. Br. J. Hematol. 33, 1, 1976 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    GOLDNER, F.M., MANN, W.N.: The statistical error of the differential leukocyte count. Guys Hosp. Rep. 88, 54, 1938 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    KOEPKE, J.A.: A delineation of performance criteria for the differentiation of leukocytes. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 68, 202, 1977 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    MACGREGOR, R.G.S., RICHARDS, W., LOH, G.L.: The differential leucocyte count. J. Pathol. 51, 337, 1940 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    ORFANEKIS, N.G., OSTLUND, R.E., BISHOP, C.R., ATHENS, J.W.: Normal blood leukocyte concentration values. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 53, 647, 1970 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    RÜMKE, C.L.: Variability of results in differential cell counts on blood smears. Triangle 4, 154, 1960 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    SCHLEICHER, E.M.: Technique for determination of the differential leukocyte ratio and total leukocyte count. Minn. Med. 45, 914, 1962 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    SIMMONS, A., LEAVERTON, P., HILDEBRANT, J.: Factors affecting manual white cell differential counts. Am. J. Med. Technol. 39, 354, 1973 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    STATLAND, B.E., WINKEL, P., HARISS, S.C., BURDSALL, M.J., SAUNDERS, A.M.: Evaluation of biologic sources of variation of leukocyte counts. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 69, 48, 1978 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    WENKE, R.E.: Comparison of five methods for preparing blood smears. Am. J. Med. Technol. 42, 71, 1976 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    WINTROBE, M.M.: Clinical Hematology. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1974 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. Kingsley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyKenneston HospitalMariettaUSA

Personalised recommendations