Pathological Aspects of Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF)

  • F. von Bruchhausen
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 126)


Elucidation of the involvement of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in physiological and pathological processes is hampered by analytical problems concerning the low amounts of PAF to be detected, the kinetics of this mediator when given or released endogenously, and the restrictions resulting from studies with PAF receptor antagonists, the pharmacokinetics of which are not fully understood and which also reduce actions of PAF-like lipids (Imaizumi et al. 1995). Endogenous inhibitory factors may interfere with PAF actions (Woodard et al. 1995). Another problem is presented by the fact that PAF, like other mediators or cytokines, acts within a framework (network), so that mutual influences occur on other mediators regarding their release and priming effects in the target, i.e., on the cellular level.


  1. Abisogun AO, Braquet P, Tsafiri A (1989) The involvement of platelet-activating factor in ovulation. Science 243:381–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acker G, Hecquet F, Etienne A, Braquet P, Mencia-Huerta JM (1988) Role of platelet-activating factor (paf) in ovo implantation in the rat: effect of the specific paf-acether antagonist BN 52021. Prostaglandins 35:233–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acker G, Braquet P, Mencia-Huerta JM (1989) Role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the initiation of the decidual reaction in the rat. J Reprod Fertil 85:623–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ackerman Z, Karmeli F, Ligumsky M, Rachmilewitz D (1990) Enhanced gastric and duodenal platelet-activating factor and leukotriene generation in duodenal ulcer patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 25:925–934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adams JG, Dhar A, Shukla SD, Siver D (1995) Effect of pentoxifylline on tissue injury and platelet-activating factor production during ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Vasc Surg 21:742–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Adnot S, Lefort J, Lagente V, Braquet P, Vargaftig BB (1986) Interference of BN 52021, a PAF-acether antagonist, with endotoxin-induced hypotension in ther guinea-pig. Pharmacol Res Commun 18[Suppl]:197–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Argiolas F, Fabi F, del Basso P (1995) Mechanisms of pulmonary vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction produced by PAF in the guinea-pig: role of platelets and cyclo-oxygenase metabolites. Br J Pharmacol 114:203–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ais G, Lopez-Farre A, Gomez-Garre DN, Novo C, Romero JM, Braquet P, Lopez-Novoa M (1991) Role of platelet-activating factor in hemodynamic derangements in an acute rodent pancreatic model. Gastroenterology 102:181–187Google Scholar
  9. Akopov SE, Sercombe R, Seylaz J (1995) Leukocyte-induced endothelial dysfunction in the rabbit basilar artery: modulation by platelet-activating factor. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal 11:267–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Albertini M, Clement MG (1994) In pigs, inhaled nitric oxide (NO) counterbalances PAF-induced pulmonary hypertension. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 51:357–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alecozay AA, Casslen BG, Riehl RM, Leon FD, Harper MJK, Silva M, Nouchi TA, Hanahan DJ (1989) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) in human luteal phase endometrium. Biol Reprod 41:578–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alecozay AA, Harper MJK, Schenken RS, Hanahan DJ (1991) Paracrine interactions between platelet-activating factor and prostaglandins in hormonally-treated human luteal phase endometrium in vitro. J Reprod Fertil 91:301–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Alexander BM, van Kirk EA, Murdoch WJ (1990) Secretion of platelet-activating factor by periovulatory ovine follicles. Life Sci 47:865–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Alonso R, Montero A, Arévalo M, Garciá LJ, Sanchez-Vicente C, Rodrigez-Nodal F, Lopez-Novoa J, Calvo JC (1994) Platelet-activating factor mediates pancreatic function derangement in caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Clin Sci 87:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Amiel ML, Testart J, Benveniste J (1991) Platelet-activating factor-acether is a component of human follicular fluid. Fertil Steril 56:62–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ammit AJ, Wells XE, O’Neill C (1992) Structural heterogeneity of platelet-activating factor produced by murine preimplantation embryos. Hum Reprod 7:865–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Amorim CZ, Cordeiro RS, Vargaftig BB (1993) Involvement of platelet-activating factor in death following anaphylactic shock in boosted and unboosted mice. Eur J Pharmacol 235:17–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Anderson BO, Bensard DD, Harken AH (1991) The role of platelet activating factor and its antagonists in shock, sepsis and multiple organ failure. Surg Gynecol Obstet 172:415–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Anderson GP, Whittle HL, Fennessy MR (1988) Increased airway reponsiveness to histamine induced by platelet activating factor in the guinea pig: possible role of lipoxygenase metabolites. Agents Actions 24:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ando M, Suginami H, Matsuura S (1990) Pregnancy suppression by a platelet activating factor antagonist, ONO-6240, in mice. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol 16:169–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Angle MJ, Jones MA, McManus LM, Pinckard RN, Harper MJK (1988) Platelet-activating factor in the rabbit uterus during early pregnancy. J Reprod Fertil 83:711–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Angle MJ, Tom RA, McClure RD (1989) The effect of platelet activating factor on sperm-egg interactions. Progr Suppl, Am Fertility Soc, Ann Meeting 1989, p S46Google Scholar
  23. Angle MJ, Tom R, Khoo D, McClure RD (1991) Platelet-activating factor in sperm from fertile and subfertile men. Fertil Steril 56:314–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Appleyard CB, Hillier K (1992) Catabolism of PAF by human colonic mucosa. Calcium dependence of the catabolizing enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol 43:2503–2509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Appleyard CB, Hillier K (1995) Biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in normal and inflamed human colon mucosa: evidence for the involvement of the pathway of platelet-activating factor synthesis de novo in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Sci 88:713–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Arai A, Lynch G (1992) Antagonists of platelet-activating factor receptor block long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices. Eur J Neurosci 4:411–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Archer CB, Page CP, Paul W, Morley J, MacDonald DM (1984) Inflammatory characteristics of platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) in human skin. Br J Dermatol 110:45–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Archer CB, Page CP, Morley J, MacDonald DM (1985) Accumulation of inflammatory cells in response to intracutaneous platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) in man. Br J Dermatol 112:285–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Archer CB, Cunningham FM, Greaves MW (1988) Actions of platelet-activating factor (PAF) homologues and their combinations on neutrophil chemokinesis and cutaneous inflammatory responses in man. J Invest Dermatol 91:82–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Arditi M, Manogue KR, Caplan M, Yogev R (1990) Cerbrospinal fluid cachectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and platelet-activating factor concentrations and severity of bacterial meningitis in children. J Infect Dis 162:139–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Arend WP, Dayer JM (1990) Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors or antagonists in rheumatiod arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 33:305–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Arnoux B, Duval D, Benveniste J (1980) Release of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) from alveolar macrophages by the calcium ionophore A 23187 and phagocytosis. Eur J Clin Invest 10:437–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Aursudkij B, Rogers DF, Evans TW, Alton EWFW, Chung KF, Barnes PJ (1987) Reduced tracheal mucus velocity in guinea-pig in vivo by platelet activating factor. Am Rev Respir Dis 136A160Google Scholar
  34. Averill FJ, Hubbard WC, Liu MC (1991) Detection of platelet-activating factor and lyso-PAF in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from allergic subjects following allergen challenge. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:A811Google Scholar
  35. Badr KF, de Boer DK, Takahashi K, Harris RC, Fogo A, Jacobson HR (1989) Glomerular responses to platelet-activating factor in the rat: role of thromboxane A2. Am J Physiol 256:F35–F43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Baldi E, Falsetti C, Krausz C, Cervasi G, Carloni V, Casano R, Forti G (1993) Stimulation of platelet-activating factor synthesis by progesterone and A 23187 in human spermatozoa. Biochem J 292:209–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ball HA, Cokk JA, Wise WC, Halushka PV (1986) Role of thromboxane, prostaglandins and leukotrienes in endotoxic and septic shock. Intensive Care Med 12:116–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Baranes J, Hellegouarch A, Le Hagarat M, Viossat I, August M, Charbrier PE, Clostre F, Braquet P (1986) The effect of PAF-acether on the cardiovascular system and their inhibition by a new highly specific PAF-acether receptor antagonist BN 52021. Pharmacol Res Commum 18:717–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Barker JNWN, Mitra RS, Griffiths CEM, Dixit VM, Nickoloff BJ (1991) Keratinocytes as initiators of inflammation. Lancet 337:211–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bar-Natan MF, Wilson MA, Spain DA, Garrison RN (1995) Platelet-activating factor and sepsis-induced small intestinal microvascular hypoperfusion. J Surg Res 58:38–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Barnes PJ (1988) Platelet-activating factor and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:152–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Barnes PJ, Liew FY (1995) Nitric oxide and asthmatic inflammation. Immunol Today 16:128–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Barnes PJ, Chung KF, Page CP (1981) Platelet-activating factor as a mediator of allergic disease. J Allergy 81:919–934Google Scholar
  44. Barnes PJ, Chung KF, Page CP (1988a) Inflammatory mediators and asthma. Pharmacol Rev 40:49–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Barnes PJ, Chung KF, Page CP (1988b) Platelet-activating factor as a mediator of allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:919–934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Barnes PJ, Page CP, Henson PM (eds) (1989) Platelet-activating factor and human disease. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Basran GS, Page CP, Paul W, Morley J (1984) Platelet activating factor: a possible mediator of the dual response to allergen. Clin Allergy 14:75–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Battye KM, Evans G, O’Neill C (1989) A role for platelet activating factor in maintenance of the ovine corpus luteum. Austr Soc Reprod Biol, Proc 21th Ann Confer, abstr 32Google Scholar
  49. Battye KM, Ammit AJ, O’Neill C, Evans G (1991) Production of platelet-activating factor by the pre-implantation sheep embryo. J Reprod Fertil 93:507–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bautista AB, Spitzer JJ (1992) Platelet activating factor stimulates and primes liver, Kupffer cells and neutrophils to release superoxide anion. Free Radic Res Commun 17:195–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bazan HEP, Reddy STK, Woodland JM, Bazan NG (1987) The accumulation of platelet-activating factor in the injured cornea may be interrelated with the synthesis of lipoxygenase products. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 149:915–920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Bazan NG (1989) Arachidonic acid in the modulation of excitable membrance function and at the onset of brain damage. Ann NY Acad Sci 559:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Bazan NG (1995) A signal terminator. Nature 374:501–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Bazan NG, Zorumski CF, Clark GD (1993) The activation of phospholipase A2 and release of arachidonic acid and other lipid mediators at the synapse: the role of platelet-activating factor. J Lipid Mediat 6:421–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Bazan NG, Rodriguez de Turco EB (1995) Platelet-activating factor is a synapse messenger and a modulator of gene expression in the nervous system. Neurochem Int 26:435–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Beer HJ (1984) Wirkungen des “platelet-activating factors” auf die Thrombozyten des Menschen. Doctoral Thesis, University of ZürichGoogle Scholar
  57. Beer JH, Wütherich B, von Feiten A (1995) Allergen exposure in acute asthma causes the release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) as demonstrated by the desensitization of platelets to PAF. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 106:291–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Bel EH, Desmet M, Rossing TH, Timmers MC, Dijkman JH, Sterk PJ (1991) The effect of specific oral PAF-antagonist, MK-287, on antigen-induced early and late asthmatic reactions in man. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:A811Google Scholar
  59. Benveniste J, Henson PM, Cochrane CG (1972) Leucocyte dependent histamine release from rabbit platelet: the role of IgE, basophils and platelet activating factor. J Exp Med 136:1356–1377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Benveniste J, Boullet C, Brink C, Labat C (1983) The actions of PAF-acether (platelet-activating factor) on guinea-pig isolated heart preparations. Br J Pharmacol 80:81–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Benveniste J, Nunez D, Dureiz P, Korth R, Bidault J, Frichart J-C (1988) Preformed PAF-acether and lyso PAF-acether are bound to blood lipoproteins. FEBS Lett 226:371–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Bern MJ, Sturbaum CW, Karayalcin SS, Berschneider HM, Wachsman JT, Powell DW (1989) Immune system control of rat and rabbit colonic electrolyte transport. Role of prostaglandins and enteric nervous system. J Clin Invest 83:1810–1820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Bertani T, Livion M, Macconi D, Morigi M, Bisogno G, Patrono C, Remuzzi G (1987) Platelet activating factor (PAF) as a mediator of injury in nephrotoxic nephritis. Kidney Int 31:1248–1256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Bessin P, Bonnet J, Apffel D, Soulard C, Desgroux L, Benveniste J (1983) Acute circulatory collapse caused by platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) in dogs. Eur J Pharmacol 86:403–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Beutler B, Cerami A (1988) Tumor necrosis factor, cachexia, shock and inflammation: a common mediator. Annu Rev Biochem 57:505–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Bielenberg GW, Wagener G, Beck T (1992) Infarct reduction by the platelet activating factor antagonist apafant in rats. Stroke 23:98–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Bienvenue K, Granger DN (1993) Molecular determinants of shear rate-dependent leukocyte adhesion in postcapillary venules. Am J Physiol 264:H1504–H1508Google Scholar
  68. Bienvenue K, Russell J, Granger DN (1993) Platelet-activating factor promotes shear rate-dependent leukocyte adhesion in postcapillary venules. J Lipid Mediat 8:95–103Google Scholar
  69. Biffl WL, Moore EE, Moore FA, Barnett CC, Silliman CC, Peterson VM (1996) Interleukin-6 stimulate neutrophil production of platelet-activating factor. J Leukocyte Biol 59:569–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Binnaka T, Yamaguchi T, Kubota T (1990) Gastric hemodynamic disturbance induced by hemorrhagic shock in rats. Scand J Gastroenterol 25:555–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Bito H, Nakamura M, Honda Z, Izumi T, Iwatsubo T, Seyama Y, Ogura A, Kudo Y, Shimizu T (1992) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor in rat brain: PAF mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in hippocampal neurons. Neuron 9:285–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Björk J, Smedegard G (1983) Acute microvascular effects of PAF-acether, as studied by intravital microscopy. Eur J Pharmacol 96:87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Blank ML, Snyder F, Byers LW, Brooks B, Muirhead EE (1979) Antihypertensive activity of an alkyl ether analog of phosphatidylcholine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 90:1194–1200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Blank ML, Lee T, Fitzgerald T, Snyder F (1981) A specific acethydrolase for 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (a hypertensive and platelet-activating lipid). J Biol Chem 256:175–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Blank ML, Hall MN, Cress EA, Snyder F (1983) Inactivation of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine by a plasma acetylhydrolase: higher activities in hypertensive rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 113:666–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Bloch KJ, Ng BP, Bishara SM, Bloch M (1991) Inhibition of immune complex-induced enteropathy by three different PAF receptor antagonists. Prostaglandins 41:237–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Bolin RW, Martin TR, Albert RK (1987) Lung endothelial and epithelial permeability after platelet-activating factor. J Appl Physiol 63:1770–1774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Bonavida B, Mencia-Huerta JM (1994) Platelet-activating factor and the cytokine network in inflammatory processes. Clin Rev Allergy 12:381–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Bonavida B, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P (1989) Effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) on monocyte activation and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 88:157–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Bonavida B, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P (1990) Effects of platelet activating factor on peripheral blood monocytes: induction and priming for TNF secretion. J Lipid Mediat 2:S65–S76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Bonnet J, Thibaudeau D, Bessin P (1983) Dependency of the Paf-acether induced bronchospasm on the lipoxygenase pathway in the guinea pig. Prostaglandins 26:457–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Boschetto P, Mapp CE, Picotti G, Fabbri LM (1989) Neutrophils and asthma. Eur Respir J [Suppl 6] 2:456S–459SGoogle Scholar
  83. Boughton-Smith NK, Whittle BJR (1988) Formation of the proinflammatory mediator, PAF-acether, in different models of colitis. Gastroenterology 94:A45Google Scholar
  84. Boughton-Smith NK, Hutcheson I, Whittle BJR (1989) Relationship between PAF-acether and thromboxane A2 biosynthesis in endotoxin-induced intestinal damage in the rat. Prostaglandins 38:319–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Boughton-Smith NK, Deakin AM, Whittle BJR (1992) Actions of nitric oxide on the acute gastrointestinal damage induced by PAF in the rat. Agents Actions (Spec issue) C4-C9Google Scholar
  86. Bourgain RH, Maes L, Braquet P, Andries R, Touqui L, Braquet M (1985) The effect of 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAF-acether) on arterial wall. Prostaglandins 30:185–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Bourgain RH, Maes L, Andries R, Braquet P (1986) Thrombus induction by endogenic PAF-acether and its inhibition by ginkgo biloba extracts in the guinea pig. Prostaglandins 32:142–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Brady HR, Lamas S, Papayanni A, Takata S, Matsubara M, Marsden PA (1995) Lipoxygenase product formation and cell adhesion during neutrophil-glomerular endothelial cell interaction. Am J Physiol 268:F1–F12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Braquet P, Rola-Pleszczynski M (1987) Platelet activating factor and cellular immune response. Immunol Today 8:345–352Google Scholar
  90. Braquet P, Etienne A, Touvay C, Bourgain R, Lefort J, Vargaftig BB (1985) Involvement of platelet-activating factor in respiratory anaphylaxis, demonstrated by Paf-acether inhibitor BN 52021. Lancet I:1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Braquet P, Etienne A, Mencia-Huerta JM, Clostre F (1988) Effects of the specific platelet-activating factor antagonist, BN 52021, and BN 52063, on various experimental gastrointestinal ulcerations. Eur J Pharmacol 150:269–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Braquet J, Paubert-Braquet M, Bourgain RH, Bussolino F, Hosford D (1989) PAF/ cytokine auto-generated feedback networks in microvascular immune injury: consequences in shock, ischemia and graft rejection. J Lipid Res 1:75–112Google Scholar
  93. Brochet B, Orogogozo JM, Dartigues JF, Henry P, Loiseau P (1992) Pilot study of ginkgolide B, a paf-acether specific inhibitor in the treatment of acute outbreaks of multiple sclerosis. Rev Neurol (Paris) 148:299–301Google Scholar
  94. Brodie C (1994) Functional PAF receptor in glia cells: binding parameters and regulation of expression. Int J Dev Neurosci 12:631–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Brodie C (1995) Platelet activating factor induces nerve growth factor production by rat astrocytes. Neurosci Lett 186:5–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Brüggmann J (1988) Entwicklung einer validierten Rezeptur- und Defekturvorschrift für eine amästhetisierende Salben- und Gelzubereitung. Pharm Ztg 133:69–72Google Scholar
  97. Bruynzeel PL, Bruynzeel-Koomen CA (1989) Skin eosinophilia in atopic dermatitis. Allerg Immunol 21:224–227Google Scholar
  98. Buckley TL, Hoult JRS (1989) Platelet activating factor is a potent colonic secreta-gogue with actions independent of specific PAF receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 163:275–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Burshop KE, Garcia JG, Selig WM, Lo SK, van der Zee H, Kaplan JE, Malik AB (1986) Platelet-activating factor increases lung vascular permeability to protein. J Appl Physiol 61:2210–2217Google Scholar
  100. Burtin G, Noirot C, Scheinmann P, Paupe J, Benveniste J (1990) Decreased skin response to intradermal platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) in cancer patients. Allergy Clin Immunol 86:418–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Bussolino F, Camussi G, Aglietta M, Braquet P, Bosia A, Pescamona G, Sanavio F, D’Urso N, Marchisio PC (1987a) Human endothelial cells are target for platelet activating factor I. Platelet-activating factor induces changes in cytoskeleton structures. J Immunol 139:2439–2446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Bussolino F, Porcellini MG, Varese L, Bosia A (1987b) Intravascular release of platelet activating factor in children with sepsis. Thromb Res 48:619–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Bussolino F, Pescarmona G, Camussi C, Cremo F (1988a) Acetylcholine and dopamine promote the production of platelet activating factor in immature cells of chick embryonic retina. J Neurochem 51:1755–1759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Bussolino F, Camussi G, Baglioni C (1988b) Synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor by human vascular endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor or interleukin 1 α. J Biol Chem 263:11856–11861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Butterfly DW, Spurney RF, Ruiz P, Pirotzky E, Braquet P, Coffman TM (1995) Role of platelet activating factor in kidney transplant rejection in the rat. Kidney Int 48:337–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Cabello C, McIntyre DE, Forrest M, Burroughs M, Prasad S, Tuomanen E (1992) Differing roles for platelet activating factor during inflammation of the lung and subarachnoid space. J Clin Invest 90:612–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Cakici I, Mataraci N, Ersoy S, Tunctan B, Abacioglu N, Kanzik I (1995) Effects of platelet-activating factor antagonists WEB 2086 and BN 50730 on digoxin-induced arrhythmias. Pharmacol Toxicol 76:343–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Calignano A, Cirino G, Meli R, Persico P (1988) Isolation and identification of platelet-activating factor in UV-irradiated guinea pig skin. J Pharmacol Methods 19:89–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Camussi G (1986) Potential role of platelet-activating factor in renal pathopsysiology. Kidney Int 29:469–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Camussi G, Pawlowski L, Tetta C, Raffinello C, Alberton M, Brentjens J, Andres G (1983a) Acute lung inflammation induced in the rabbit by local instillation of 1-O-octadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine or of native platelet-activating factor. Am J Pathol 112:78–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Camussi G, Aglietta M, Malavesi F, Tetta C, Piacibello W, Sanovio F, Bussolino F (1983b) The release of platelet-activating factor from human endothelial cells in culture. J Immunol 131:2397–2403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Camussi G, Bussolino F, Salvidio G, Baglioni C (1987) Tumor necrosis factor/cachectin stimulates peritoneal macrophages, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and vascular endothelial cells to synthetisize and release platelet-activating factor. J Exp Med 166:1390–1404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Camussi G, Tetta C, Bussolino F, Baglioni C (1989) Tumor necrosis factor stimulates human neutrophils to release leukotriene B4 and platelet-activating factor. Induction of phospholipase A2 and acetyl-CoA: l-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine O-acetyltransferase activity and inhibition by antiproteinase. Eur J Biochem 182:661–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Camussi G, Montrucchio G, Lupia E, de Martino A, Perona L, Arese M, Vercellone A, Toniolo A, Bussolino F (1995) Platelet-activating factor directly stimulates in vivo migration of endothelial cells and promotes in vivo angiogenesis by a heparin-dependent mechanism. J Immunol 154:6492–6501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Caplan MS, Hsueh W (1990) Necrotizing enterocolitis: role of platelet activating factor, endotoxin, and tumor necrosis factor. J Pediatr 117:S47–S51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Caplan MS, Sun X-M, Hsueh W (1990a) Hypoxia causes ischemic bowel necrosis in rats: the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether). Gastroenterology 99:979–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Caplan MS, Sun XM, Hsueh W, Hagmann R (1990b) Role of platelet activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr 116:960–964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Caplan MS, Kelly A, Hsueh W (1992a) Endotoxin and hypoxia-induced intestinal necrosis in rats: the role of platelet activating factor. Pediatr Res 31:428–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Caplan MS, Adler L, Kelly A, Hsueh W (1992b) Hypoxia increases stimulus-induced PAF production and release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1128:205–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Caramelo C, Fernandez-Gallardo S, Marin-Cao D, Inarrea P, Santos JC, Lopez-Novoa J, Sanchez-Crespo M (1984) Presence of platelet-activating factor in blood from humans and experimental animals. Its absence in anephric individuals. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 120:789–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Caramelo C, Fernandez-Gallardo S, Santos JC, Inarrea P, Sanchez-Crespo M, Lopez-Novoa JM, Hernando L (1987) Increased levels of platelet-activating factor in blood from patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Eur J Clin Invest 17:7–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Carveth HJ, Shaddy RE, Whatley RE, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA (1992) Regulation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis and PAF-mediated neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells activated by thrombin. Semin Thromb Hemost 18:126–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Casals-Stenzel J (1987a) Bronchial and vascular effects of PAF in the rat isolated lung are completely blocked by WEB 2086, a novel specific PAF antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 91:799–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Casals-Stenzel J (1987b) Effects of WEB 2086, a novel antagonist of platelet-activating factor in active and passive anaphylaxis. Immunopharmacology 13:117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Casals-Stenzel J (1987c) Protective effect of WEB 2086, a novel antagonist of platelet activating factor in endotoxin shock. Eur J Pharmacol 135:117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Cerinski-Hennig D, von Bruchhausen F (1991) Inhibition of acetylating formation of PAF (platelet-activating factor) by some polyethylene glycols and bituminosulfonates. Arch Pharmacol 344:R100Google Scholar
  127. Chanarin N, Johnston SL (1994) Leukotrienes as a target in asthma therapy. Drugs 47:12–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Chang SW (1994a) Endotoxin-induced pulmonary leukostasis in the rat: role of platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor. J Lab Clin Med 123:65–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Chang SW (1994b) TNF potentiates PAF-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in the rat: role of neutrophils and thromboxane A2. J Appl Physiol 77:2817–2826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Chang SW, Fedderson CO, Henson PM, Voelkel NF (1987) Platelet-activating factor mediates hemodynamic changes and lung injury in endotoxin-treated rats. J Clin Invest 79:1498–1509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Chang SW, Fernyak S, Voelkel NF (1990) Beneficial effect of platelet-activating factor antagonist, WEB 2086, on endotoxin-induced lung injury. Am J Physiol 258:H153–H158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Chao W, Siafaka-Kapadai A, Olson MS, Hanahan DJ (1989a) Biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor by cultured rat Kupffer cells stimulated with calcium ionophore A 23187. Biochem J 257:823–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Chao W, Liu H, DeBuysere M, Hanahan DJ, Olson MS (1989b) Identification of receptors for platelet-activating factor in rat Kupffer cells. J Biol Chem 264:13591–13598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Chaussade S, Denizot Y, Colombel JF, Cherouki N, Guerre J, Couturier D, Benveniste J (1991) Presence of PAF-acether (PAF) in stool of patients with bacterial diarrhea (BD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). Gastroenterology 100:A202Google Scholar
  135. Chaussade S, Denizot Y, Colombel JF, Benveniste J, Couturier D (1992) PAF-acether in stool as marker of intestinal inflammation. Lancet 339:739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Chen CR, Voelkel NF, Chang S-W (1989) PAF potentiates protamine-induced lung edema: role of pulmonary venoconstriction. J Appl Physiol 66:1059–1068Google Scholar
  137. Chesney CM, Pifer DD, Huch KM (1985) Desensitization of human platelets by platelet-activating factor (PAF). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 127:24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Chiba Y, Mikoda N, Kawasaki H, Ito K (1990) Endothelium-dependent relaxant action of platelet activating factor in the rat mesenteric artery. Arch Pharmacol 341:68–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Chignard M, Le-Couedic JP, Tence M, Vargaftig BB, Benveniste J (1979) The role of platelet-activating factor in platelet aggregation. Nature 279:799–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Chignard M, Le Couedic JP, Vargaftig BB (1980) Platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) secretion from platelets: effect of aggregating agents. Br J Haematol 46:455–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Choi IH, Ha TY, Lee DG, Park JS, Lee JH, Park YM, Lee HK (1995) Occurence of dissiminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in active systemic anaphylaxis: role of platelet-activating factor. Clin Exp Immunol 100:390–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Christman BW, Lefferts PL, King GA, Snapper JR (1988) Role of circulating platelets and granulocytes in PAF-induced pulmonary dysfunction in awake sheep. J Appl Physiol 64:2033–2041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Christman BW, Lefferts PL, Snapper JR (1990) Effect of platelet-activating factor on aerosol histamine response in awake sheep. Am Rev Respir Dis 135:1267–1270Google Scholar
  144. Chu K-M, Gerber JG, Nies AS (1988) Local vasodilator effect of platelet activating factor in the gastric, mesenteric and femoral arteries of the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 246:996–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Chung KF (1986) Role of inflammation in the hyperactivity of the airways in asthma. Thorax 41:657–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Chung KF (1992) Platelet-activating factor in inflammation and pulmonary disorders. Clin Sci 83:127–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Chung KF, Barnes PJ (1989) Effect of inhaled platelet-activating factor on airway calibre, bronchial responsiveness and circulating cells in asthmatic subjects. Thorax 44:108–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Chung KF, Aizawa H, Leikauf GD, Ueli IF, Evans TW, Nadel JA (1986) Airway hyperresponsiveness induced by platelet-activating factor: role of thromboxane generation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 236:580–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Chung KF, Dent C, McCusker M, Guinot P, Page CP, Barnes PJ (1987) Effect of a ginkgolide mixture (BN 52063) in antagonising skin and platelet responses to platelet activating factor in man. Lancet 1:248–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Clark GD, Happel LT, Zorumski CF, Bazan NG (1992) Enhancement of hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission by platelet-activating factor. Neuron 9:1211–1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Clark PO, Hanahan DJ, Pinckard RN (1980) Physical and chemical properties of platelet-activating factor obtained from human neutrophils and monocytes and rabbit neutrophils and basophils. Biochim Biophys Acta 628:69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Clark WF, Naylor CD (1989) The role of platelets in progressive glomerulosclerosis: mechanism for intraglomerular platelet activation and pathogenetic consequences. Med Hypotheses 28:51–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Collins CE, Rampton DS (1995) Platelet dysfunction: a new dimension in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 36:5–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Corbett G, Perry DJ (1983) Significance of thrombocytosis. Lancet 1:77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Corrigan CJ, Hartneil A, Kay AB (1988) T lymphocyte activation in acute severe asthma. Lancet I:1129–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Coyle A, Sjoerdsma K, Page CP, Brown L, Metzger WJ (1987) Modification of the late asthmatic response and bronchial hyperreactivity by BN 52021, a platelet-activating factor antagonist. Clin Res 35:A254Google Scholar
  157. Coyle AG, Urwin SC, Page CP (1988) The effect of the selective PAF antagonist BN 52021 on PAF-and antigen-induced tracheal hyperreactivity and eosinophil accumulation. Eur J Pharmacol 148:51–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Crea AEG, Nakhosteen JA, Lee TH (1992) Mediator concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with mild asymptomatic bronchial asthma. Eur Respir J 5:190–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Csato M, Czarnetzki BM (1988) Effect of BN 52021, a platelet activating factor antagonist, on experimental murine contact dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 111:475–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Csato M, Rosenback T, Moler A, Czarnetzki BM (1987) Generation of platelet aggregation activity from murine epidermal cells. J Invest Dermatol 89:440PGoogle Scholar
  161. Csato M, Kenderessy ASZ, Judak R, Dobozy A (1990) Inflammatory mediators are involved in the Candida albicans killing activity of human epidermal cells. Arch Dermatol Res 282:348–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Cucula M, Wallace JL, Salas A, Guarner F, Rodriguez R, Malagelada JR (1989) Central regulation of gastric secretion by platelet-activating factor in anesthetized rats. Prostaglandins 37:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Cueva JP, Hsueh W (1988) Role of oxygen derived-free radicals in platelet activating factor induced bowel necrosis. Gut 29:1207–1212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Cunningham FM, Leigh I, Mallet AI (1987) The production of platelet activating factor (PAF) by human epidermal cells. Br J Pharmacol 90:117PGoogle Scholar
  165. Cush JJ, Lipsky PE (1991) Cellular basis for rheumatoid inflammation. Clin Orthop 265:9–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Cuss FM, Dixon CMS, Barnes PJ (1986) Effects of inhaled platelet activating factor on pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in man. Lancet II:189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Czarnetzki B (1983) Increased monozyte Chemotaxis towards leukotriene B4 and platelet-activating factor in patients with inflammatory dermatoses. Clin Exp Immunol 54:486–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Czarnetzki BM, Benveniste J (1981) Effect of synthetic PAF-acether on human neutrophil function. Agents Actions II:549–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Dabrowski A, Gabryelewicz A, Chyczewski L (1995) The effect of platelet activating factor antagonist (BN 52021) on acute experimental pancreatitis with reference to multiorgan oxidative stress. Int J Pancreatol 17:173–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Damas J, Prunescu P (1993) Presence of immunoreactive platelet-activating factor in peritoneal exudate induced by zymosan. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 322:115–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Damas J, Remade-Volon G, Nguyen TP (1990) Inhibition by WEB 2086, a PAF-acether antagonist of oedema and peritonitis by zymosan. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 306:161–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Darius H, Lefer DJ, Smith B, Lefer AM (1986) Role of platelet-activating factor-acether in mediating guinea pig anaphylaxis. Science 232:58–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Deacon RW, Melden MK, Saunders RN, Handley DA (1986) PAF involvement in dermal extravasation in the reverse passive Arthus reaction. Fed Proc 45:995Google Scholar
  174. Dechanet J, Rissoan MC, Bauchereaut J, Miossec P (1995) Interleukin 4, but not interleukin 10, regulates the production of inflammation mediators by rheumatoid synoviocytes. Cytokine 7:176–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Decker K (1990) Biologically active products of stimulated liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). Eur J Biochem 192:245–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. D’Cruz OJ, Haas GG (1989) Platelet-activating factor induces acrosome reaction and fertilization capacity of guinea pig spermatozoa with special reference to the possible involvement of lysophospholipids in the acrosome-reaction. Proc Serono Symp on Fertilization in Mammals, Boston, p 53 (abstr II 6)Google Scholar
  177. Deeming K, Mazzoni L, Page CP, Sanjar S, Smith DL (1985) PAF antagonism in asthma. Prostoglandins 30:715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. de Fily DV, Kuo L, Chilian WM (1996) PAF attenuates endothelium-dependent coronary arteriolar vasodilation. Am J Physiol 270:H2094–H2099Google Scholar
  179. Del Cerro S, Arai A, Lynch G (1990) Inhibition of long-term potentiation by an antagonist of platelet-activating factor receptors. Neural Biol 54:213–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. De Lima WT, Kwasniewski FH, Sirois P, Jancar S (1995) Studies on the mechanism of PAF-induced vasopermeability in rat lungs. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 52:245–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. de Longo WE, Standeren T, Chandel B, Deshpande Y, Vernava AM, Kaminski DL (1995) Platelet-activating factor mediates trinitrobenzene induced dysmotility in the left colon. Mediat Inflamm 4:17–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. de Longo WE, Polities G, Vernava AM, Deshpande Y, Niejhoff M, Chandel B, Kulkarni A, Kaminski DL (1994) Platelet-activating factor mediates trinitrobenzene induced colitis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 51:419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Demarkarian RM, Israel E, Rosenberg MA (1991) The effect of Sch-37370, a dual platelet activating factor and histamine antagonist, on the bronchoconstriction induced in asthmatics by cold, dry air isocapnic hyperventilation (ISH). Am Rev Respir Dis 143:A812Google Scholar
  184. Dembinska-Kiec A, Peskar B A, Müller MK, Peskar BM (1989) The effect of platelet-activating factor on flow rate and eicosanoid release in the isolated perfused rat gastric vascular bed. Prostaglandins 37:69–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Demling RH (1990) Current concept on the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Circ Shock 30:297–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. de Monchy JGR, Kauffman HF, Venge P, Jansen GH, Sluiter HJ, Vires K (1985) Bronchoalveolar eosinophils during allergen-induced late asthmatic reactions. Am Rev Respir Dis 131:373–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Denizot Y, Chaussade S, Colombel JF, Benveniste J, Couturier D (1991a) Presence of PAF-acether in stools of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. C R Acad Sci III 312:329–333Google Scholar
  188. Denizot Y, Chaussade S, Benveniste J, Couturier D (1991b) Presence of PAF-acether in stool of patients with infectious diarrhea. J Infect Dis 163:1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Denizot Y, Chaussade S, Nathan N, Colombel JF, Bossant MJ, Cherouki N, Benveniste J, Couturier D (1992a) PAF-acether and acetylhydrolase in stool of patients with Crohn’s disease. Dig Dis Sci 37:432–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Denizot Y, Chaussade S, de Boissieu D, Dupont C, Nathan N, Benveniste J, Coutourier D (1992b) Presence of paf-acether in stool of patients with bacterial but not with viral or parasitic diarrhea. Immunol Inf Dis 2:269–273Google Scholar
  191. Denizot Y, Chaussade S, Couturier D (1993) Fecal platelet-activating factor (PAF). A marker of digestive inflammatory disorders. Presse Med 22:1704–1706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Denizot Y, Dupuis F, Trimoreau F, Praloran V, Liozon E (1995) Decreased levels of platelet-activating factor in blood of patients with lymphoid and non-lymphoid hematologic malagnancies. Blood 85:2992–2993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. De Vos C, Joseph M, Leprevost C, Vorng H, Tomassini M, Carvon M, Capron A (1989) Inhibition of human eosinophil Chemotaxis and of the IgE-dependent Stimulation of human blood platelets by cetirizine. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 88:212–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Dewar A, Archer CB, Page CP, Paul W, Morley J, McDonald DM (1984) Cutaneous and pulmonary histopathological responses to platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) in the guinea-pig. J Pathol 144:25–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Dieter P, Schulze-Specking A, Decker K (1986) Differential inhibition of prostaglandin and superoxide production by dexamethasone in primary cultures of rat Kupffer cells. Eur J Biochem 159:451–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Dillon PK, Fitzpatrick MF, Ritter AB, Duran WN (1988a) The effect of platelet activating factor on leukocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium: time course and dose-response relationships. Inflammation 12:563–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Dillon PK, Ritter AB, Duran WN (1988b) Vasoconstrictor effects of platelet-activating factor in the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation: dose related relations and pathways of reaction. Circul Res 62:722–731Google Scholar
  198. Diserbo M, Cand F, Ziade M, Verdetti J (1995) Stimulation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor increases inositol phosphate production and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. Cell Calcium 17:442–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Diserbo M, Fatome H, Verdetti J (1996) Activation of large conductance Ca2+-acti-vated K+ channels in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells by platelet-activating factor. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 218:745–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Dobbins DE, Buehn MJ, Dabney JM (1990) The inflammatory actions of platelet activating factor are blocked by levorotatory terbutaline. Microcirc Endothelium Lymphatics 6:437–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Dobrowsky RT, Voyksner RD, Olson NC (1991) Effect of SRI 63–675 on hemodynamics and blood PAF levels during porcine endotoxemia. Am J Physiol 260:H1455–H1465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Doebber TW, Wu MS, Robbins JC, Choy BM, Chang MN, Shen TY (1985) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) involvement in endotoxin-induced hypotension in rats: studies with PAF-receptor antagonist Kadsurenone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 127:799–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Doebber TW, Wu M, Biftu T (1986) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) mediation of rat anaphylactic responses to soluble immune complexes. J Immunol 136:4659–4668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Doherty GM, Lange JR, Langstein HN, Alexander HR, Buresh CM, Norton JA (1992) Evidence for IFN-gamma as a mediator for the lethality of endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Immunol 149:1666–1670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Domanska-Janik K, Zablocka B (1995) Modulation of signal transduction in rat synaptoneurosomes by platelet activating factor. Mol Chem Neuropathol 25:51–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Domingo MT, Spinnewyn B, Chabrier PE, Braquet P (1988) Presence of specific binding sites for platelet-activating factor (PAF) in brain. Biochim Biophys Res Commun 151:730–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Dray F, Rougeot C, Tiberghien C, Junier M-P (1993) PAF and hypothalamic secretions in the rat. NATO ASI series vol H 70. In: Massarelli R, Horrocks LA, Kanfer JN, Löffelholz K (eds) Phospholipid and signal transmission. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 387–402Google Scholar
  208. Droy-Lefaix MT, Drouet Y, Gerard G (1988) Involvement of platelet-activating factor in rat ischemia reperfusion gastric damage. In: Braquet P (ed) Ginkgolides-chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives. Prous, Barcelona, pp 563–574Google Scholar
  209. Dubois C, Bissonnette E, Rola-Pleszczynski M (1989) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) enhances tumor necrosis factor production by alveolar macrophages. J Immunol 143:964–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Dulioust A, Vivier E, Salem P, Benveniste J, Thomas Y (1988) Immunoregulatory functions of paf-acether I. Effect of paf-acether on CD4+ cell proliferation. J Immunol 140:240–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Dulioust A, Duprez V, Pilton C (1990) Immunoregulatory function of PAF acether III. Down regulation of CD4+ T cells high affinity IL 2 receptor expression. J Immunol 144:3123–3129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Dunoyer-Geindre S, Ludi F, Perez T, Terki N, Grunowski PI, Girard JP (1992) PAF acether release on antigenic challenge. A method for the investigation of drug allergic reactions. Allergy 47:50–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Duran WN, Milazzo VJ, Sabido F, Hobson RW (1996) Platelet-activating factor modulates leukocyte adhesion to endothelium in ischemia-reperfusion. Microvasc Res 51:108–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Eliakim R, Karmeli F, Razin E, Rachmilewitz D (1988) Role of platelet-activating factor in ulcerative colitis. Enhanced production during active disease and inhibition by sulfasalazine and prednisolone. Gastroenterology 95:1167–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Emanuelli G, Montrucchio G, Gaia E, Dughera L, Corvetti G, Gubetta L (1989) Experimental acute pancreatitis induced by platelet activating factor in rabbits. Am J Pathol 134:315–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Emanuelli G, Montrucchio G, Dughera L, Gaia E, Lupia E, Battaglia E, de Martino A, de Giuli P, Gubetta L, Camussi G (1994) Role of platelet activating factor in acute pancreatitis induced by lipopolysaccharides in rabbits. Eur J Pharmacol 261:265–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Erger RA, Casale TB (1995) Interleukin-8 is a potent mediator of eosinophil Chemotaxis through endothelium and epithelium. Am J Physiol 268:L117–L122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Espey LL (1980) Ovulation as an inflammatory reaction: a hypothesis. Biol Reprod 22:73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Esplugues JV, Whittle BJR (1988) Gastric mucosal damage induced by local intraarterial administration of PAF in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 93:222–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Esplugues JV, Whittle BJR (1989) Mechanisms contributing to gastric motility changes induced by PAF-acether and endotoxin in rats. Am J Physiol 256:G275–G282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Etienne A, Hecquet F, Soulard C, Spinnewyn B, Clostre F, Braquet P (1986) In vivo inhibition of plasma protein leakage and Salmonella enteritidis-induced mortality in the rat by a specific paf-acether antagonist: BN 52021. Agents Actions 17:368–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Etienne AF, Thonier F, Hecquet F, Braquet P (1988) Role of neutrophils in gastric damage induced by platelet activating factor. Arch Pharmacol 338:422–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Evans TW, Chung KF, Rogers DF, Barnes PJ (1987) Effect of platelet-activating factor on airway vascular permeability: possible mechanisms. J Appl Physiol 63:479–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Everaerdt B, Brouchart P, Shaw A, Fiers W (1989) Four different interleukin-1 species sensitize to the lethal action of tumor necrosis factor. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 163:378–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Fadel R, Herpin-Richard N, Rihoux JP, Henocq E (1987) Inhibitory effect of cetirizine 2HC1 on eosinophil migration. Clin Allergy 17:373–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Fadel R, David B, Herpin-Richard N, Borgnon A, Rassemont R, Rihoux JP (1990) In vivo effects of cetirizine on cutaneous reactivity and eosinophil migration induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) in man. J Allergy Clin Immunol 86: 314–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Faden AI, Salzman SK (1992) Pharmacological strategies in CNS trauma. Trends Pharmacol Sci 13:29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Faden AI, Tzendzalian PA (1992) Platelet-activating factor antagonists limit glycine changes and behavioral deficits after brain trauma. Am J Physiol 263:R909–R914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Faden AI, Tzendzallian P, Lemke M, Valone F (1989) Role of platelet-activating factor in pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Soc Neurosci Abstr 15:1112Google Scholar
  230. Fauler JG, Sielhorst G, Frölich JC (1989) Platelet-activating factor induces the production of leukotrienes by human monocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1013:80–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Felix SB, Baumann G, Niemczyk M, Ahmad Z, Hashemi T, Berdel WE (1991) Effects of platelet-activating factor on beta- and H2-receptor-mediated increase of myocardial contractile force in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. Res Exp Med (Berl) 191:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Felsen D, Loo M, Marion D, Vaughan E (1990) Involvement of platelet-activating factor and thromboxane A2 in the renal response to unilateral ureteral obstruction. J Urol 144:141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Ferguson-Chanowitz KM, Katocs AS, Pickett WC, Kaplan JB, Sass PM, Oronsky KL, Kerwar SS (1990) Platelet activating factor or a platelet activating factor antagonist decreases tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the plasma of mice treated with endotoxin. J Infect Dis 162:1081–1086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Fernandez-Gallardo S, Gijon MA, Garcia MC, Cano E, Sanchez-Crespo M (1988) Biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in glandular gastric mucosa. Evidence for the involvement of the “de novo” pathway and modulation by fatty acids. Biochem J 254:707–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Ferraris L, Karmeli F, Eliakim R, Klein J, Fiocchi C, Rachmilewitz D (1993) Intestinal epithelial cells contribute to the enhanced generation of platelet activating factor in ulcerative colitis. Gut 34:665–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Ferreira MG, Braquet P, Fonteies MC (1991) Effects of PAF antagonists on renal vascular escape and tachyphylaxis in perfused rabbit kidney. Lipids 26:1329–1332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Feuerstein G, Boyd LM, Ezra D, Goldstein RE (1984) Effect of platelet-activating factor on coronary circulation of the domestic pig. Am J Physiol 246:H466–H471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Feuerstein G, Yue TL, Lysko PG (1990) Platelet-activating factor: a putative mediator in central nervous system injury? Stroke 21[Suppl III]:90–94Google Scholar
  239. Filep J, Herman F, Braquet J, Mozes T (1989) Increased levels of platelet-activating factor in blood following intestinal ischemia in the dog. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 158:353–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Filep JG, Foldes-Filep E (1993) Modulation by nitric oxide of platelet-activating factor-induced albumin extravasation in the conscious rat. Br J Pharmacol 110:1347–1352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Filep J, Braquet P, Mozes T (1991a) Significance of platelet-activating factor in mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion. Lipids 26:1336–1339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Filep J, Herman F, Braquet P (1991b) Platelet actvating factor may mediate dexamethasone-induced gastric damage in the rat. Lipids 26:1356–1358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Filep JG, Braquet P, Mozes T (1991c) Interactions between platelet-activating factor and prostanoids during mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion-induced shock in the anesthetized dog. Circ Shock 35:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Findlay SR, Lichtenstein LM, Hanahan DJ, Pinckard RN (1981) The contraction of guinea pig ileal smooth muscle by acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine. Am J Physiol 241:C130–C133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Fisher RA, Sharma RV, Bhalla RC (1989) Platelet-activating factor increases inositol phosphate production and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations in cultured rat Kupffer cells. FEBS Lett 251:22–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Fitzgerald MF, Lees IW, Parente L, Payne AN (1987) Exposure to PAF-acether aerosol induces airway hyperresponsiveness to 5-HT in guinea pigs. Br J Pharmacol 90:112PGoogle Scholar
  247. Fjellner B, Hägermark O (1985) Experimental pruritus evoked by platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) in human skin. Acta Derm Venereol 65:409–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Floch A, Bousseau A, Hetier E, Floch F, Bost PE, Cavero I (1989) RP 55778, a PAF receptor antagonist, prevents and reverses LPS-induced hemoconcentration and TNF α release. J Lipid Mediat 1:349–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Foegh M, Khirabadi BS, Braquet P, Ramwell PW (1985) Platelet-activating factor antagonist BN 52021 prolongs experimental cardiac allocraft survival. Prostaglardins 30:718 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Foegh ML, Hartmann DP, Rowles JR, Khirabadi BS, Alijani MR, Helfrich GB, Ramwell PW (1987) Leukotrienes, thromboxane, and platelet activating factor in organ transplantation. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res 6:140–146Google Scholar
  251. Formela LJ, Wood LM, Whittaker M, Kingsnorth AN (1994) Amelioration of experimental acute pancreatitis with a potent platelet-activating factor antagonist. Br J Surg 81:1783–1785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Foster AP, Lees P, Cunningham FM (1995) Platelet activating factor mimics antigen-induced cutaneous inflammatory responses in sweet itch horses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 44:115–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Fouda SI, Molski EP, Ashour MS-E, Sha’afi RI (1995) Effect of lipopolysaccharide on mitogen-activated protein kinases and cytosolic phospholipase A2. Biochem J 308:815–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Francescangeli E, Goracci P (1989) The de novo biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in rat brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 161:107–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Freitag A, Watson RM, Matsos G, Eastwood C, O’Byrne PM (1993) Effect of a PAF antagonist WEB-2086, on allergen induced asthmatic response. Thorax 48:594–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Frerichs KU, Feuerstein GZ (1990) Platelet-activating factor — key mediator in neural injury? Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 2:148–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Frerichs KU, Lindsberg PJ, Hallenbeck JM, Feuerrtein GZ (1990) Platelet-activating factor and progressive brain damage following focal brain injury. J Neurosurg 73:223–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Frigas E, Gleich GJ (1986) The eosinophil and the pathology of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77:527–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Fujii E, Irie K, Uchida Y, Ohba K, Muraki T (1995) Role of eicosanoids but not nitric oxide in the platelet-activating factor-induced increase in vascular permeability in mouse skin. Eur J Pharmacol 273:267–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Fujimura K, Sugatani J, Miwa M, Mizuno T, Sameshima Y, Saito K (1989) Serum platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in rats with gastric ulcers induced by water-immersion stress. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 162:59–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Fujimura K, Kubota Y, Ogura M, Yamaguchi T, Binnaka T, Tani K, Kitagawa S, Mizuno T, Inoue K (1992) Role of platelet activating factor in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats: protective effects of a PAF-antagonist. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:199–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Fukuda A, Roudebush WE, Thatcher SS (1994) Platelet activating factor enhances the acrosome reaction, fertilization in vitro by subzonal sperm injection and resulting embryonic development in the rabbit. Hum Reprod 9:94–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Furukawa M, Lee EL, Johnston JM (1993) Platelet-activating factor-induced ischemic bowel necrosis: the effect of platelet-activating factor acetylthydrolase. Pediatr Res 34:237–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Furukawa M, Muguruma K, Frenkel RA, Johnston JM (1995) Metabolic fate of platelet-activating factor in the rat enterocyte: the role of specific lysophospholipase D. Arch Biochem Biophys 319:274–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Gao Y, Zhou H, Raj JU (1995) PAF induces relaxation of pulmonary arteries but contraction of pulmonary veins in the ferret. Am J Physiol 269:H704–H709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Garcia JGN, Azghani A, Callahan KS, Johnson AR (1988) Effect of platelet activating factor on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. Thromb Res 51:83–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Gardiner KR, Halliday MI, Barclay GR, Milne L, Brown D, Stephens S, Maxwell RJ, Rowlands BJ (1995) Significance of systemic endotoxaemia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 36:897–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Gardner CR, Laskin JD, Laskin DL (1995) Distinct biochemical responses of hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells to platelet-activating factor during endotoxemia. J Leukoc Biol 57:269–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Gateau O, Arnoux B, Deriz H, Viars P, Benveniste J (1984) Acute effects of intratracheal administration of PAF-acether (platelet-activating factor) in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 129:A3Google Scholar
  270. Gay JC (1993) Mechanism and regulation of neutrophil priming by platelet-activating factor. J Cell Physiol 156:189–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Gay JC, Beckman JK, Zaboy KA, Lukens JN (1986) Modulation of neutrophil oxidative responses to soluble stimuli by platelet-activating factor. Blood 67:931–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Gebhardt BM, Braquet P, Bazan H, Bazan N (1988) Modulation of in vitro immune reactions by platelet activating factor and a platelet activating factor antagonist. Immunopharmacology 15:11–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Gelhard HA, Nottet HS, Swindells S, Jett M, Dzenko KA, Genis P, White R, Wang L, Choi YB, Zhang D (1994) Platelet-activating factor: a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced neurotoxin. J Virol 68:4628–4635Google Scholar
  274. Geng JG, Bevilacqua MP, Moore KL, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Kim JM, Zimmerman GA, McEver RP (1990) Rapid neutrophil adhesion to activated endothelium mediated by GMP-140. Nature 343:757–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Gandhi CR, Olson NC (1991) PAF effects on transmembrane signalling pathways in rat Kupffer cells. Lipids 26:1038–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Giembycz MA, Kroegel C, Barnes PJ (1990) Platelet activating factor stimulates cyclooxygenase activity in guinea pig neutrophils: concerted biosynthesis of thromboxane A2 and E series prostaglandins. J Immunol 144:3489–3497Google Scholar
  277. Gilboe DD, Kinter D, Fitzpatrick JH, Emoto SE, Braquet P, Bazan NG (1991) Recovery of postischemic brain metabolism and function following treatment with a free radical scavenger and platelet-activating factor antagonists. J Neurochem 56:311–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Giri SN, Sharma AK, Hyde DM, Wild JS (1995) An amelioration of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by treatment with the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist WEB 2086 in hamsters. Exp Lung Res 21:287–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Glauser MP, Zanetti G, Baumgartner JD, Cohen J (1991) Septic shock:pathogenesis. Lancet 338:732–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Gleich GJ, Adolphson CR (1986) The eosinophil leukocyte: structure and function. Adv Immunol 39:177–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Gonzales-Crussi F, Hsueh W (1983) Experimental model of ischemic bowel necrosis. The role of platelet-activating factor and endotoxin. Am J Pathol 112:127–135Google Scholar
  282. Goswami SK, Okashi M, Panagiotis S, Maron Z (1987) Platelet activating factor enhances mucous glycoprotein release from human airways in vitro. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:A159Google Scholar
  283. Graham RM, Stephens CJ, Sturm MJ, Taylor RR (1992) Plasma platelet-activating factor degradation in patients with severe coronary artery disease. Clin Sci 82:535–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Graham RM, Stephens CJ, Silvester W, Leong LL, Sturm MJ, Taylor RR (1994) Plasma degradation of platelet-activating factor in severely ill patients with clinical sepsis. Crit Care Med 22:204–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Grandel KE, Farr RS, Wanderer AA, Eisenstadt TC, Wasserman SI (1985) Association of platelet-activating factor with primary acquired cold urticaria. N Engl J Med 313:405–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Granger DN (1988) Role of xanthine oxidase and granulocytes in ischemia reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol 255:H1269–H1275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Granger DN, Korthuis RJ (1995) Physiologic mechanisms of post-ischemic tissue injury. Annu Rev Physiol 57:311–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Guimbaud R, Izzo A, Martinolle P, Oidon N, Coutourier D, Benveniste J, Chaussade S (1995) Intraluminal excretion of PAF, lyso PAF, and acetyl-hydrolase in patients with ulcerative colitis. Digest Dis Sci 40:2635–2640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Guinot P, Braquet P, Duchier J, Cournot A (1986) Inhibitors of PAF-acether-induced wheal and flare reaction in man by a specific antagonist. Prostaglandins 32:160–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Guitierrez S, Palacios I, Egido J, Zarco P, Miguelez R, Gonzalez E, Herrero-Beaumont G (1995) IL-1β and IL-6 stimulate the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF) by cultured rabbit synovial cells. Clin Exp Immunol 99:364–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Gustafson C, Tagesson C (1989) Phospholipase activation and arachidonic acid release in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (INT407). Scand J Gastroenterol 24:475–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Gustafson C, Kald B, Sjödahl R, Tagesson C (1991) Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens stimulates formation and release of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (INT-407). Scand J Gastroenterol 26:1000–1006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Hallenbeck JM, Dutka AJ, Tanishima T, Kochanek PM, Kumarov KK, Thompson CB, Obrenovitch TP, Contreras TJ (1986) Polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation in brain regions with low blood flow during the early postischemic period. Stroke 17:246–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Halonen M, Palmer JD, Lohman IC, McManus LM, Pinckard RN (1980) Respiratory and circulatory alterations induced by acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine, a mediator of IgE anaphylaxis in the rabbit. Am Rev Respir Dis 122:915–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Halonen M, Lohman IC, Dunn AM, McManus LM, Palmer JD (1985) Participation of platelet in the physiologic alterations of AGEPC response anf of IgE anaphylaxis in the rabbit. Am Rev Respir Dis 131:11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Hamasaki Y, Mojarad M, Saga T, Tai HH, Said SI (1984) Platelet-activating factor raises airway and vascular pressures and induces edema in lungs perfused with platelet free solutions. Am Rev Respir Dis 129:742–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Hammer C (1995) Xenotransplantation. Dtsch Ärztebl 92:A133–A137Google Scholar
  298. Handa RK, Strandhoy JW, Buckley VM (1990) Platelet-activating factor is a renal vasodilator in the anesthetized rat. Am J Physiol 258:F1504–F1509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Handa RK, Strandhoy JW, Buckley VM (1991) Vasorelaxant and C18-PAF on renal blood flow and systemic blood pressure in the anesthetized rat. Life Sci 49:747–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Handley DA, van Valen GR, Melden MK, Saunders RN (1984) Evaluation of dose and route effects of platelet activating factor-induced extravasation in the guinea pig. Thromb Haemost 52:34–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Handley DA, van Valen RG, Saunders RN (1986) Vascular responses of platelet-activating factor in the Cebus apella primate and inhibitory profiles of antagonists SRI 63–072 and SRI 63–119. Immunpharmacology 11:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Handley DA, Houlihan WJ, Saunders RN, Tomesch JC (eds) (1990) PAF in endotoxin and immune disease. Dekker, New York, pp 63–119Google Scholar
  303. Hanglow AC, Bienenstock J, Perdue MH (1989) Effects of platelet-activating factor on ion transport in isolated rat jejunum. Am J Physiol 257:G845–G850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Harlan JM, Liu DY (1992) Adhesion: its role in inflammatory disease. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  305. Harper MJK (1989) Platelet-activating factor: a paracrine factor in pre-implantation stages of reproduction? Biol Reprod 40:907–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Harper MJK, Woodard DS, Norris CJ (1989) Spermicidal effect of antagonists of platelet-activating factor. Fertil Steril 51:890–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Harries AD, Beeching NJ, Rog erson SJ, Nye JF (1991) The platelet count as a simple measure to distinguish inflammatory bowel disease from infective diarrhea. J Infect 22:247–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Hashikura Y, Kawasaki S, Matsunami H, Ikegami T, Nakazawa Y, Makuuchi M (1994) Effect of platelet-activating factor on cold-preserved liver grafts. Br J Surg 81:1779–1782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Hattori M, Arai H, Inoue K (1993) Purification and characterization of bovine brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. J Biol Chem 268:18748–18753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Hattori M, Adachi H, Tsugimoto M, Arai H, Inoue K (1994) Miller-Dieker lissencephaly gene encodes a subunit of brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. Nature 370:216–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Hawrylowicz CM (1993) Viewpoint. A potential role for platelet derived cytokines in the inflammatory response. Platelets 4:1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Hayashi H, Kudo I, Kato T, Inoue K (1989) PAF and macrophage-lineage cells. In: Saito K, Hanahan DJ (eds) Platelet-activating factor and diseases. p 51Google Scholar
  313. Haynes J, Chang S, Morris KG, Voelkel NF (1988) Platelet-activating factor antagonists increase vascular reactivity in perfused rat lung. J Appl Physiol 65:1921–1928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Heffner JE, Shoemaker SA, Canham EM, Patel M, McMurthy IF, Morris HG, Repine JE (1983) Acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine-stimulated human platelets cause pulmonary hypertension and edema in isolated rabbit lung. J Clin Invest 71:351–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Heffner JE, Sahn SA, Repine JE (1987) The role of platelets in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 135; 482–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Hellewell PG (1990) The contribution of PAF to immune-complex mediated inflammation. In: Handley DA, Saunders RN, Houlihan WJ, Tomesch JC (eds) Platelet activating factor in endotoxin and immune diseases. Dekker, New York, pp 367–386Google Scholar
  317. Hellewell PG, Williams TJ (1986) A specific antagonist of platelet-activating factor suppresses oedema formation in an Arthus reaction but not oedema induced by leukocyte chemoattractants in rabbit skin. J Immunol 137:302–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Hellstrom WJC, Wang R, Sikka SC (1991) Platelet-activating factor stimulates motion parameters of cryopreserved human sperm. Fertil Steril 56:768–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Henocq E, Vargaftig BB (1986) Accumulation of eosinophils in response to intracutaneous PAF-acether and allergens. Lancet I:1378–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Henson PM (1987) Extracellular and intracellular activities of platelet activating factor. In: Winslow CM, Lee ML (eds) Horizons in platelet activating factor research. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  321. Henson PM, Cochrane CG (1969) Immunological induction of increased vascular permeability I A rabbit passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction requiring complement, platelets, and neutrophils. J Exp Med 129:153–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Heuer HO (1991) Inhibition of active anaphylaxis in mice and guinea pigs by the new hetrazepinoic PAF antagonist bepafant (WEB-2170). Eur J Pharmacol 199:157–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Hilliquin P, Menkes CJ, Lavoussadi S, Benveniste J, Arnoux B (1992) Presence of paf-acether in rheumatic diseases. Ann Rheumatol 51:29–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Hilliquin P, Houbaba H, Aissa J, Benveniste T, Menkes CJ (1995a) Correlations between PAF-acether and tumor necrosis factor in rheumatoid arthritis. Influence of parenteral corticosteroids. Scand J Rheumatol 24:169–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Hilliquin P, Dulioust A, Gregoir C, Arnoux A, Menkes CJ (1995b) Production of PAF-acether by synovial fluid neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis. Inflamm Res 44:313–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Hines KL, Fisher RA (1992) Regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis and vasoconstriction during antigen-induced anaphylaxis. Am J Physiol 262:G868–G877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Hines KL, Braillon A, Fisher RA (1991) Platelet activating factor increases hepatic vascular resistance and glycogenolysis in vivo. Am J Physiol 260:G471–G480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Hirafuji M, Shinoda H (1991) Platelet-leukocyte interaction in adhesion to endothelial cells induced by platelet-activating factor in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 103:1333–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Hirano T, Furuyama H, Tsuchitani T (1995) Platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist prevents impaired pancreatic blood flow in rabbits with caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Med Sci 23:209–212Google Scholar
  330. Hirashima Y, Endo S, Ohmori T, Kato R, Takaku A (1994) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) concentration and PAF acethydrolase activity in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 80:31–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Hirashima Y, Endo S, Kato R, Takaku A (1996) Prevention of cerebrovasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits by the platelet-activating factor antagonist, E 5880. J Neurosurg 84:826–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Hoffman DR, Romero R, Johnston JM (1990) Detection of platelet-activating factor in amniotic fluid of complicated pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162:525–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Hogaboam CM, Donigi-Gale D, Shoupe TS, Wallace JL (1992) PF 5901 inhibits gastrointestinal PAF synthesis in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 216:315–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Agrawal DK, Townley RG (1989) Effect of PAF inhalation on nonspecific bronchial reactivity in man. Chest 96:1070–1072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Horvath CJ, Kaplan JE, Malik AB (1991) Role of platelet-activating factor in mediating tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and plasma-lymph transport. Am Rev Respir Dis 144:1337–1341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Houlihan WJ, Munder P, Handley DA, Cheon SH, Parillo VA (1995) Antitumor activity of 5-aryl-2,3-dihydroimidazo (2,1-a) isoquinolines. J Med Chem 38:234–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Howard AD, Erickson KL (1995) The induction and augmentation of macrophage tumoricidal responses by platelet-activating factor. Cell Immunol 164:105–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Hsieh KH (1991) Effects of PAF antagonist, BN 52021, on the PAF-, methacholine-and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children. Chest 99:877–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Hsieh KH, Ng CK (1993) Increased plasma platelet-activating factor in children with acute asthmatic attacks and decreased in vivo and in vitro production of platelet-activating factor after immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91:650–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Hsueh W, Gonzales-Crussi F, Arroyave IL (1986a) Platelet-activating factor induced ischemic bowel necrosis: an investigation of secondary mediators in its pathogenesis. Am J Pathol 122:231–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Hsueh W, Gonzalez-Crussi F, Arroyave IL, Anderson RC, Lee ML, Houlihan WJ (1986b) Platelet activating factor-induced ischemic bowel necrosis: the effect of PAF antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol 123:79–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Hsueh W, Gonzales-Crussi F, Arroyave IL (1986c) Release of leukotriene C4 by isolated perfused rat small intestine in response to platelet activating factor. J Clin Invest 78:108–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Hsueh W, Gonzales-Crussi F, Arroyave JL (1987) Platelet-activating factor: is an endogenous mediator for bowel necrosis in endotoxemia. FASEB J 1:403–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Hsueh W, Gonzalez-Crussi F, Arroyave IL (1988) Sequential release of leukotrienes and norepinephrine in rat bowel after platelet-activating factor. A mechanistic study of platelet-activating factor-induced bowel necrosis. Gastroenterology 94:1412–1418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Huang Y-CT, Nozik ES, Piantadosi CA (1994) Superoxide dismutase potentiates platelet-activating-factor-induced injury in perfused lung. Am J Physiol 266:L246–L254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Humphrey DM, Hanahan DJ, Pinckard RN (1982a) Induction of leukocytic infiltrates in rabbit skin by acetyl glyceryl ether phophorylcholine. Lab Invest 47:227–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Humphrey DM, McManus LM, Satonchi K, Hanahan DJ, Pinckard RN (1982b) Vasoactive properties of acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine. Lab Invest 46:422–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Humphrey DM, McManus LM, Hanahan DJ, Pinckard RN (1984) Morphologic basis of increased vascular permeability induced by acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine. Lab Invest 50:16–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Hurst JS, Bazan HEP (1993) The platelet-activating factor precursor of the injured cornea is selectively implicated in arachidonate and eicosanoid release. Curr Eye Res 12:655–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Husz S, Toth-Kasa I, Obal F, Jancso G (1991) A possible pathomechanism of the idiopathic cold contact urticaria. Acta Physiol Hung 77:209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Hutcheson IR, Whittle BJR, Boughton-Smith NK (1990) Role of nitric oxide in maintaining vascular integrity in endotoxin-induced acute intestinal damage in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 101:815–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Hwang SB, Lee CS, Cheah MJ, Shen TY (1983) Specific receptor sites for 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet-activating factor) on rabbit platelet and guinea pig smooth muscle membranes. Biochem 22:4756–4763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Hwang SB, Lam MH, Li CL, Shen TY (1986) Release of platelet activating factor and its involvement in the first phase of carrageenin-induced rat foot edema. Eur J Pharmacol 120:33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Ibbotson GC, Wallace JL (1989) Beneficial effects of prostaglandin E2 in endotoxic shock are unrelated to effects on PAF-acether synthesis. Prostaglandins 37:237–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Ide S, Kawahara K, Takahashi T, Sasaki N, Shingu H, Nagayasu T, Yamamoto S, Tagawa T, Tomita M (1995) Donor administration of PAF antagonist (TCV-309) enhances lung preservation. Transplant Proc 27:570–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Ikegami M, Jobe AH, Tabor BL, Rider ED, Lewis JF (1992) Lung albumin recovery in surfactant-treated preterm ventilated lambs. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:1005–1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Im SY, Ko HM, Ko YS, Kim JW, Lee HK, Ha TY, Lee HB, Oh SJ, Bai S, Chung KC, Lee Y-B, Kang H-S, Chun SB (1996) Augmentation of tumor metastasis by platelet-activating factor. Cancer Res 56:2662–2665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Imai Y, Hayashi M, Oh-Ishi S (1991) Key role of complement and platelet-activating factor in exudate formation in zymosan-induced rat pleurisy. Jpn J Pharmacol 57:225–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Imaizumi TA, Stafforini DM, Yamada Y, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA (1995) Platelet-activating factor: a mediator for clinicians. J Intern Med 238:5–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Imanishi N, Komuro Y, Morooka S (1991) Effect of a selective antagonist SM-10661 ((+/-)-cis-3,5-dimethyl-2-(3-pyridyl) thiazolidin-4-one HCl) on experimental disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Lipids 26:1391–1395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Inarrea P, Gomez-Cambronero J, Pascual J, Carmel-Ponte M, Hernando L, Sanchez-Crespo M (1985) Synthesis of PAF-acether and blood volume changes in gram negative sepsis. Immunopharmacology 9:45–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Inarrea P, Alonso F, Sanchez-Crespo M (1983) Platelet-activating factor: an effector substance of the vasopermeability changes induced by the infusion of immunoaggregates in the mouse. Immunopharmacology 6:7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Irvin CG, Berend N, Henson PM (1986) Airways hyperreactivity and inflammation produced by aerosolization of human C5b des arg. Am Rev Respir Dis 134:777–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Issekutz AC, Szejda M (1986) Evidence that platelet activating factor may mediate some acute inflammatory responses. Studies with platelet activating factor antagonist CV 3988. Lab Invest 54:275–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Issekutz AC, Ripley M, Jackson JR (1983) Role of neutrophils in the deposition of platelets during acute inflammation. Lab Invest 49:716–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Iwai A, Itoh M, Yokoyama Y (1989) Role of PAF in ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat stomach. Scand J Gastroenterol 24[Suppl 162]:63–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Izaki S, Yamamoto T, Goto Y, Ishimaru S, Yudate F, Kitamura K, Matsuzaki M (1996) Platelet-activating factor and arachidonic acid metabolites in psoriatic inflammation. Brit J Dermatol 134:1060–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Izquierdo I, Fin C, Schmitz PK, Da Silva RC, Jerusalinsky D, Quillfeldt JA, Fereira MBG, Medina JH, Bazan NG (1995) Memory enhancement by intrahippocampal, intraamygdala, or intraentorhinal infusion of platelet-activating factor measured in an inhibitory avoidance task. Proc Natl Acad Sci 92:5047–5051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Izumi T, Kishimoto S, Takano T, Nakamura M, Miyabe Y, Nakata M, Sakanaka C, Shimizu T (1995) Expression of human platelet-activating factor receptor gene in EoL-1 cells following butyrate-induced differentiation. Biochem J 305:829–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Jancar S, Giaccobi G, Mariano M, Mencia-Huerta JM, Sirois P, Braquet P (1988) Immune-complex pancreatitis: effects of BN 52021, a selective antagonist of platelet activating factor. Prostaglandins 35:757–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Janear S, Abdo EE, Sampietre SN, Kwasniewski FH, Coelho AMM, Bonizzia A, Machado MCC (1995) Effects of PAF antagonists on coerulein-induced pancreatitis. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal 11:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Jaranowska A, Bussolino F, Sogos V, Arese M, Lauro GM, Gremo F (1995) Platelet-activating factor production by human fetal microglia. Effect of lipopolysaccha-rides and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Mol Chem Neuropathol 24:95–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Jarvi K, Gagnon C, Miron P, Langlais J (1991) Platelet activating factor (PAF) metabolism by spermatozoa: role of metabolites in PAF action on sperm motility. J Cell Biol 115:836AGoogle Scholar
  374. Jarvi K, Roberts KD, Langlais J, Gagnon C (1993a) Effect of platelet-activating factor, lyso-platelet-activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine on sperm motion. Importance of albumin for motility stimulation. Fertil Steril 59:1266–1275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Jarvi K, Langlais J, Gagnon C, Roberts KD (1993b) Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in the male reproductive tract: origin and properties. Int J Androl 16:121–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Jeffery PK, Wardlaw AJ, Nelson FC, Collins JV, Kay AB (1989) Bronchial biopsies in asthma: an ultrastructural, quantitative study and correlation with hyperreactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 140:1745–1753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Jiang Z-G, Yue T-L, Feuerstein G (1993) Platelet-activating factor inhibits excitatory transmission in rat neostriatum. Neurosci Lett 155:132–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Johnson PRA, Armour CL, Black JL (1990) The action of platelet activating factor and its antagonism by WEB 2086 on human isolated airways. Eur Respir J 3:55–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Johnston S, Spencer D, Calverley P, Winter J, Dhillon P (1992) WEB 2086, a platelet activating factor antagonist, has no steroid sparing effect in asthmatic subjects requiring inhaled corticoids. Thorax 47:871 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  380. Joly F, Vilgrain J, Bossant MJ, Bessou G, Benveniste J, Ninio E (1990) Biosynthesis of paf-acether. Activators of protein kinase C stimulate cultered mast cell acetyltransferase without stimulating paf-acether synthesis. Biochem J 271:501–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Jones MA, Kudolo GB, Harper MJ (1992) Rabbit blastocysts accumulate platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF in vitro. Mol Reprod Dev 32:243–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Juncos LA, Ren Y, Arima S, Ito S (1993) Vasodilator and constrictor actions of platelet-activating factor in the isolated microperfused afferent arteriole of the rabbit kidney. Role of endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase products. J Clin Invest 91:1374–1379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Kald B, Olaison G, Sjodahl R, Tagesson C (1990) Novel aspect of Crohn’s disease: increased content of platelet-activating factor in ileal and colonic mucosa. Digestion 46:199–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Kald B, Gustavson C, Franzen L, Weström B, Sjödahl R, Tagesson C (1992) Platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) formation in neonatal intestinal mucosa and in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Eur Surg Res 24:325–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Kald B, Kald A, Ihse I, Tagesson C (1993) Release of platelet-activating factor in acute experimental pancreatitis. Pancreas 8:440–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Kaliner M, Eggleston PA, Mathews KP (1987) Rhinitis and asthma. JAMA 258:2851–2871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Kamata K, Mori T, Shigenobu K, Kasuya Y (1989) Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effects of platelet-activating factor on rat resistance vessels. Br J Pharmacol 98:1360–1364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Kaneko T, Ikeda H, Fu L, Nishiyama H, Okubo T (1995) Platelet-activating factor mediates the ozone-induced increase in airway microvascular leakage in guinea pigs. Eur J Pharmacol 292:251–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Kapp A (1991) Cytokines in atopic dermatitis. In: Ruzicka T, Ring J, Przybilla B (eds) Handbook of atopic eczema. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 256–262Google Scholar
  390. Katayama H, Hase T, Yaoita H (1994) Detachment of cultured normal human keratinocytes by contact with TNF alpha-stimulated neutrophils in the presence of platelet-activating factor. J Invest Dermatol 103:187–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Kaye MG, Smith LJ (1990) Effects of inhaled leukotriene D4 and platelet-activating factor on airway reactivity in normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 141:993–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Kazi N, Fields JZ, Sedghi S, Kottapalli V, Eiznhamer D, Winship D, Keshavarzian A (1995) Modulation of neutrophil function by novel colonic factors: possible role in pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis. J Lab Clin Med 126:70–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Kelly NM, Cross AS (1992) Interleukin 6 is a better marker of lethality than tumor necrosis factor in endotoxin-treated mice. FEMS Microbiol Immunol 89:317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Kentroti S, Baker R, Lee K, Bruce C, Vernadakis A (1991) Platelet-activating factor increases glutamine synthetase activity in early and late passage C-6 glioma cells. J Neurosci Res 28:497–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Keshav S, Lawson L, Chung LP, Stein M, Perry VH, Gordon S (1990) Tumor necrosis factor mRNA localized to Paneth cells of normal murine intestinal epithelium by in situ hybridization. J Exp Med 171:327–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Kilbourn RG, Griffith OW (1992) Overproduction of nitric oxide in cytokine-mediated and septic shock. J Natl Cancer Inst 84:827–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Kim BK, Ozaki H, Lee SM, Karaki H (1995) Increased sensitivity of rat myometrium to the contractile effect of platelet activating factor before delivery. Br J Pharmacol 115:1211–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. Kim DK, Fukuda T, Thompson BT, Cockrill B, Hales C, Bonventre JV (1995) Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid phospholipase A2 activities are increased in human respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Physiol 269:L109–L118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Kim FJ, Moore EE, Moore FA, Biffe WL, Fontes B, Banerjee A (1995) Reperfused gut elaborates PAF that chemoattracts and primes neutrophils. J Surg Res 58:636–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Kim JJ, Fortier MA (1995) Cell type specificity and protein kinase C dependency on the stimulation of prostaglandin E 2 and prostaglandin F-2alpha production by oxytocin and platelet-activating factor in bovine endometrial cells. Reprod Fertil 103:239–248Google Scholar
  401. Kim YD, Danchak RM, Heim KF, Lees DE, Myers AK (1993) Constriction of canine coronary arteries by platelet activating factor after brief ischemia. Prostaglandins 46:269–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Kingnorth AN (1996) Platelet-activating factor. Scand J Gasteroenterol 31[Suppl 219]:28–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Kirschbaum B (1991) Platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in the urine of patients with renal disease. Clin Chim Acta 199:139–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Kitagawa S, Kubota Y, Yamaguchi T, Fujimura K, Binnaka T, Tani K, Ogura M, Mizuno T, Inoue K (1992) Role of endogenous platelet-activating factor (PAF) in endotoxin-induced portal hypertension in rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:481–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Klee A, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Seifige D (1991) Effects of platelet activating factor on rat platelets in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 209:223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Kochanek PM, Hallenbeck JM (1992) Polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/ macrophages in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Stroke 23:1367–1379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Kochanek PM, Dutka AJ, Kumaro KK, Hallenbeck JM (1987) Platelet activating factor receptor blockade enhances recovery after multifocal brain ischemia. Life Sci 41:2639–2644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Kochanek PM, Nemeto EM, Melick JA, Evans RW, Burkle DF (1988) Cerebrovascular and cerebrometabolic effects of intracarotid infused platelet-activating factor in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 8:546–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Kochanek PM, Melick BS, Schoettle RJ, Magargee MJ, Evans RW, Nemoto EM (1990) Endogenous platelet activating factor does not modulate blood flow and metabolism in normal rat brain. Stroke 21:459–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Kochanek PM, Kochanek P, Schoettle R, Uhl M, Magargee MJ, Nemoto E (1991) Platelet-activating factor antagonists do not attenuate delayed posttraumatic cerebral edema in rats. J Neurotrauma 8:19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. Koltai M, Tosaki A, Hosford D, Esanu A, Braquet P (1991) Effect of BN 50739, a new platelet activating factor antagonist, on ischemia induced ventricular arrhythmias in isolated working rat hearts. Cardiovasc Res 24:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Kornecki E, Ehrlich P (1988) Neuroregulatory and neuropathological actions of the ether-phospholipid platelet-activating factor. Science 240:1792–1794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. Korthuis RJ, Anderson DC, Granger DN (1994) Role of neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion in inflammatory disorders. J Crit Care 9:47–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Krausz C, Gervasi G, Forti G, Baldi E (1994) Effect of platelet-activating factor on motility and acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod 9:471–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Kravis TC, Henson PM (1975) IgE-induced release of platelet-activating factor from rabbit lung. J Immunol 115:1677–1681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. Kroegel C (1992) Immunbiologie des eosinophilen Granulozyten. Pharm Unserer Zeit 21:61–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Kroegel C, Yukawa T, Dent G, Chanez P, Chung KF, Barnes PJ (1988) Platelet-activating factor induces eosinophil peroxidase release from purified human eosinophils. Immunology 64:559–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Kroegel C, Yukawa T, Dent G, Venge P, Chung KF, Barnes PJ (1989) Stimulation of degranulation from human eosinophils by platelet-activating factor. J Immunol 142:3518–3526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Kroegel C, Hubbard WH, Lichtenstein LM (1990) Spectrum of prostanoid generation by human blood eosinophils stimulated with platelet activating factor and calcymicin. Eur J Respir Dis 3:347SGoogle Scholar
  420. Kroegel C, Warner JA, Giembycz MA, Matthys H, Lichtenstein LM, Barnes PJ (1992) Dual transmembrane signalling mechanisms in eosinophils: Evidence for two functionally distinct receptors for platelet-activating factor. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 99:226–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Kruse-Elliott KT, Pino MV, Olson NC (1993) Effect of PAF receptor antagonism on cardiopulmonary alterations during coinfusion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha in pigs. Am J Physiol 264:L175–L182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. Kubes P, Granger DN (1992) Nitric oxide modulates microvascular permeability. Am J Physiol 262:H611–H615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. Kubes P, Suzuki M, Granger DN (1991a) Platelet-activating factor-induced microvascular dysfunction: role of adherent leukocytes. Am J Physiol 258:G158–G163Google Scholar
  424. Kubes P, Ibbotson G, Russell J, Wallace JL, Granger DN (1990b) Role of platelet-activating factor in ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adherence. Am J Physiol 259:G300–G305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. Kudolo GB, Harper MJK (1989) Characterization of platelet-activating factor binding sites on uterine membranes from pregnant rabbits. Biol Reprod 41:587–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Kudolo GB, Harper MJK (1990) Estimation of platelet-activating factor receptors in the endometrium of the pregnant rabbit: regulation of ligand availability and catabolism by bovine serum albumin. Biol Reprod 43:368–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Kudolo GB, Harper MJK (1992) Pregnancy-associated remodeling of rabbit endometrial platelet-activating factor receptors. J Lipid Mediat 5:271–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Kudolo GB, Kasamo M, Harper MJ (1991) Autoradiographic localization PAF binding sites in the rabbit endometrium during the peri-implantation period. Cell Tissue Res 265:231–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. Kuitert L, Barnes NC (1995) PAF and asthma. Time for an appraisal? Clin Exp Allerg 25:1159–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Kuitert LM, Hui KP, Uthayarkumar S, Burke W, Newland AC (1992) Effect of a platelet activating factor antagonist, UK 74505, on allergen induced early and late response. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:A292Google Scholar
  431. Kuitert LM, Angus RM, Barnes NC, Barnes PJ, Bone MF, Chung KF, Fairfax AJ, Higenbotham TW, O’Connor BJ, Piotrowska B (1995) Effect of a novel platelet-activating factor antagonist, modipafant, in clinical asthma. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 151:1331–1335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. Kumar R, Harper MJK, Hanahan DJ (1988a) Occurence of platelet activating factor in rabbit spermatozoa. Arch Biochem Biophys 260:497–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Kumar R, Harvey SAK, Kester M, Hanahan DJ, Olson MS (1988b) Production and effects of platelet-activating factor in rat brain. Biochim Biophys Acta 963:375–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Kunievsky B, Yavin E (1994) Production and metabolism of platelet-activating factor in the normal and ischemic fetal rat brain. J Neurochem 63:2144–2151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Kurosawa M, Yamashita T, Kurimoto F (1994) Increased levels of blood platelet-activating factor in bronchial asthmatic patients with active symptoms. Allergy 49:60–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Kuzan FB, Geissler FT, Henderson WR (1990) Role of spermatozoal platelet-activating factor in fertilization. Prostaglandins 39:61–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. Lachapelle MH, Bouzayen R, Langlais J, Jarvi K, Bourquet J, Miron P (1993) Effect of lyso-PAF on human sperm fertilizing ability. Fertil Steril 59:863–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. Lagente V, Fortes ZB, Garcia-Leme J, Vargaftig BB (1988) PAF-acether and endotoxin display similar effects on rat mesenteric microvessels: Inhibition by specific antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 247:254–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. Lai CKW, Jenkins JR, Polosa R, Holgate ST (1990) Inhaled PAF fails to induce airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in normal human subjects. J Appl Physiol 68:919–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. Lalouette F, Diserbo M, Martin C, Verdetti J, Fatome M (1995) Presence of specific platelet-activating fractor binding-sites in neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. Neurosci Lett 186:173–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Lang CH, Dobrescu C, Hargrove C, Bagby GJ, Spitzer JJ (1988) Platelet activating factor-induced increases in glucose kinetics. Am J Physiol 254:193–200Google Scholar
  442. Langlais J, Roberts KD (1985) A molecular membrane model of sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction of mammalian spermatozoa. Gamete Res 12:183–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Lapointe DS, Olson MS (1989) Platelet-activating factor-stimulated hepatic glyco-genolysis is not mediated through cyclooxygenase-derived metabolites of arachi-donic acid. J Biol Chem 264:12130–12133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Last-Barney K, Homon CA, Faanes RB, Merluzzi VJ (1988) Synergistic and overlapping activities of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1. J Immunol 141:527–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. Laszlo F, Whittle BJR, Moncada S (1994a) Time-dependent enhancement or inhibition of endotoxin-induced vascular injury in rat intestine by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Br J Pharmacol 111:1309–1315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Laszlo F, Whittle BJR, Moncada S (1994b) Interactions of constitutive nitric oxide with PAF and thromboxane on rat intestinal vascular integrity in acute endotoxaemia. Br J Pharmacol 113:1131–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. Le Poncin Lafitte M, Rapin J, Rapin JR (1986) Effects of Ginkgo biloba on changes induced by quantitative cerebral micro-embolization in rats. Arch Pharmacodyn 243:236–244Google Scholar
  448. Lee T-C, Malone B, Wasserman SJ, Fitzgerald V, Snyder F (1982) Activities of enzymes that metabolize platelet-activating factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) in neutrophils and eosinophils from humans and the effect of a calcium ionophore. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 105:1303–1308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Lee T-C, Lenihan DJ, Malone B, Roddy LL, Wasserman SJ (1984) Increased biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in activated human eosinophils. J Biol Chem 259:5526–5530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Lee T-C, Malone B, Woodward D, Snyder F (1989) Renal necrosis and involvement of a single enzyme of the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in the rat kidney inner medulla. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 163:1002–1005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. Lefer AM (1989) Significance of lipid mediators in shock states. Circ Shock 27:3–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. Leiferman KM, Ackerman SJ, Sampson HA, Haugen HS, Venencie PY, Gleich GJ (1985) Dermal deposition of eosinophil-granule major basic protein in atopic dermatitis. Comparison with onchocerciasis. N Engl J Med 313:282–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Lellouch-Tubiana A, Lefort J, Pirotzky E, Vargaftig BB (1985) Ultrastructural evidence for extravascular platelet recruitment in the lung upon intravenous injection of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) to guinea-pigs. Br J Exp Pathol 66:345–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Lellouch-Tubiana A, Lefort J, Simon MT, Pfister A, Vargaftig BB (1988) Eosinophil recruitment into guinea pig lungs after PAF-acether and allergen administration: modulation by prostacyclin, platelet depletion and selective antagonists. Am Rev Respir Dis 137:948–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. Leong L, Sturm M, Raylor R (1991) The lyso-precursor of platelet-activating factor (lyso-PAF) in ischaemic myocardium. J Lipid Mediat 4:277–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Leong LL, Stephens CJ, Sturm MJ, Taylor RR (1992) Effect of WEB 2086 on myocardial infarct size and regional blood flow in the dog. Cardiovasc Res 26:126–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. Leonhardt U, Exner B, Schrock E, Ritzel U, Nebendahl K, Stöckmann F (1992) Effect of platelet-activating factor antagonist on pancreas perfusion after 24h of ischemia. Pancreas 11:160–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. Letendre ED, Miron P, Roberts KD, Langlais J (1992) Platelet-activating factor acethydrolase in human seminal plasma. Fertil Steril 57:193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. Levi R, Burke JA, Guo ZG, Hattori Y, Hoppens CM, McManus LM, Hanahan DJ, Pinckard RN (1984) Acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC): putative mediator of cardiac anaphylaxis in the guinea pig. Circ Res 54:117–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. Levy JV (1987) Spasmogenic effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) on isolated rat stomach fundus strip. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 146:855–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. Lewis MS, Whatley RE, Cain P, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA (1988) Hydrogen peroxide stimulates the synthesis of platelet-activating factor by endothelium and induces endothelial cell-dependent neutrophil adhesion. J Clin Invest 82:2045–2055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Li M-S, Sun L, Satoh T, Fisher LM, Spry CDF (1995) Human eosinophil major basic protein, a mediator of allergic inflammation, is expressed by alternative splicing from two promotors. Biochem J 305:921–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. Li X-M, Sagawa N, Ihara Y, Okagaki A, Hasegawa M, Inamori K, Itoh H, Mori T, Ban C (1991) The involvement of platelet-activating factor in thrombocytopenia and follicular rupture during gonadotropin-induced superovulation in immature rats. Endocrinol 129;3132–3138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. Ligumsky M, Sestieri M, Karmeli F, Okon E, Rachmilewitz D (1990) The role of platelet activating factor in acute gastric injury and its protection by sucralfate. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 4:507–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Lindsberg PJ, Yue T-L, Frerichs KU, Hallenbeck JM, Feuerstein G (1990a) Evidence of platelet-activating factor (PAF) as a mediator of stroke. Stroke 21:179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Lindsberg PJ, Yue T-L, Frerichs KU, Hallenback JM, Feuerstein G (1990b) Evidence of platelet-activating factor as novel mediator in experimental stroke in rabbits. Stroke 21:1452–1457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. Lindsberg PJ, Hallenbeck JM, Feuerstein G (1991) Platelet-activating factor in stroke and brain injury. Ann Neurol 30:117–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. Lipton SA, Yeh M, Dreyer EB (1994) Update on current models of HIV-related neuronal injury: Platelet-activating factor, arachidonic acid and nitric oxide. Adv Neuroimmunol 4:181–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Leonhardt U, Fayyazzi A, Seidensticker F, Stöckmann F, Söling HD, Creutzfeldt W (1992) Influence of a platelet activating factor antagonist on several pancreatitis in two experimental models. Int J Pancreatol 12:161–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. Llianos EA (1989) Lipid inflammatory mediators in glomerulonephritis. J Lab Clin Med 113:535–536Google Scholar
  471. Llianos EA, Zanglis A (1990) Glomerular platelet-activating factor levels and origin in experimental glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 37:736–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. Longo WE, Carter JD, Chandel B, Niehoff M, Standeven J, Deshpande Y, Vernava AM, Polites G, Kulkarni AD, Kaminski DL (1995) Evidence for a colonic PAF receptor. J Surg Res 58:12–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. Lopez-Bernal A, Ross C, Laird E, Newman GE, Phizaacherly PJR (1991) Platelet activating factor levels in human follicular fluid and amniotic fluid. Soc Study Fertil (abstr 61)Google Scholar
  474. Lorant DE, Patel KD, McIntyre TM, McEver RP, Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA (1991) Coexpression of GMP-140 and PAF by endothelium stimulated by histamine or thrombin: a juxtacrine system for adhesion and activation of neutrophils. J Cell Biol 115:223–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. Lundgren JD, Kaliner M, Logun C, Shelhamer JH (1990) Platelet-activating factor and tracheobronchial respiratory glycoconjugate release in feline and human expiants: involvement of lipoxygenase pathway. Agents Actions 30:329–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Lynch JM, Lotner GZ, Betz SJ, Henson PM (1979) The release of platelet-activating factor by stimulated rabbit neutrophils. J Immunol 123:1219–1226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. Mabuchi K, Sugiura T, Ojima-Uchiyama A, Masuzawa Y, Waku K (1992) Differential effects of platelet-activating factor on superoxide anion production in human eosinophils and neutrophils. Biochem Int 26:1105–1113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. Maccia CA, Gallagher JS, Ataman G, Glueck HI, Brooks SM, Bernstein IL (1977) Platelet thrombopathy in asthmatic patients with elevated immunoglobulin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 59:101–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Macconi D, Foppolo M, Paris S, Noris M, Aiello S, Remuzzi G, Remuzzi A (1995) PAF mediates neutrophil adhesion to thrombin or TNF-stimulated endothelial cells under shear stress. Am J Physiol 269:C42–C47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  480. MacKendrick W, Caplan M, Hsueh W (1993) Endogenous nitric oxide protects against platelet-activating factor-induced bowel injury in the rat. Pediatr Res 34:222–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. Maki N, Hoffman DR, Johnston JM (1988) Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in maternal, fetal, and newborn rabbit plasma during pregnancy and lactation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:728–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. Maki N, Magness RR, Miyaura S, Gant NF, Johnston JM (1993) Platelet-activating-factor acetylhydrolase activity in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168:50–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. Makristathis A, Stauffer F, Feistauer SM, Georgopulos A (1993) Bacteria induce release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) from polymophonuclear neutrophil granulocytes: possible role of PAF in pathogenesis of experimentally induced bacterial pneumonia. Infect Immun 61:1996–2002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. Mallet AJ, Cunningham FM (1985) Structural identification of platelet activating factor in psoriatic scale. Biochem Biophs Res Commun 126:192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. Mallet AJ, Cunningham FM, Daniel R (1984) Rapid isokratic high performance liquid chromatographic purification of platelet activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF from human skin. J Chromatogr 309:160–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Mandi Y, Farkas G, Koltai M, Beladi I, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P (1989a) The effect of the platelet-activating factor antagonist BN 52021, on human natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Immunology 67:370–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. Mandi Y, Farkas G, Koltai M, Beladi I, Braquet P (1989b) Effect of the platelet-activating factor antagonist BN 52021 on human natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Int J Allergy Appl Immunol 88:222–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Manning PJ, Watson RM, Margolskee DJ, Williams VC, Schwarz JI, Byrne PM (1990) Inhibition of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by MK-571 a potent leukotriene D4-receptor antagonist. N Engl J Med 323:1736–1739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Marcheselli VL, Rossowska MJ, Domingo MT, Braquet P, Bazan NG (1990) Distinct platelet-activating factor binding sites in synaptic endings and in intracellular membranes of rat cerebral cortex. J Biol Chem 265:9140–9145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. Maridonneau-Parini I, Lagente V, Lefort J, Randon J, Russo-Marie F, Vargaftig BB (1985) Desensitization to PAF-induced bronchoconstriction and to activation of alveolar macrophages by repeated inhalations of PAF in the guinea pig. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 131:42–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. Markey AC, Barker JNW, Archer CB, Guinot P, Lee TH, MacDonald DM (1990) Platelet activating factor-induced clinical and histopathologic responses in atopic skin and their modification by the platelet activating factor antagonist BN 52063. J Am Acad Dermatol 23:263–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Marsh WR, Irvin CG, Murphy KR, Behrens BL, Larsen GL (1985) Increases in airway reactivity to histamine and inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage after late asthmatic response in an animal model. Am Rev Respir Dis 131:875–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  493. Marshall JS, Bienenstock J (1994) The role of mast cells in inflammatory reactions of the airways, skin, and intestine. Curr Opin Immunol 6:853–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Martinez-Cuesta MA, Barrachina MD, Pique JM, Whittle BJR, Esplugues JV (1992) The role of nitric oxide and platelet-activating factor in the inhibition by endotoxin of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Eur J Pharmacol 218:351–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. Martins MA, Silva PM, Castro HC, Neto F, Cordeiro RS, Vargaftig BB (1987) Interactions between local inflammatory and systemic haematological effects of PAF-acether in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 136:353–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. Martins MA, Silva PMR, Castro Faria Neto HC, Bozza PT, Dias PMFL, Lima MCR, Cordeiro RSB, Vargaftig BB (1989) Pharmacological modulatin of PAF-induced rat pleurisy and its role in inflammation by zymosan. Brit J Pharmacol 96:363–371Google Scholar
  497. Martins MA, Pasquale CP, Silva PMR, Pires ALA, Ruffle C, Rihoux JP, Cordeiro RSB, Vargaftig BB (1992) Interference of cetirizine with late eosinophil accumulation induced by either PAF or compound 48/80. Br J Pharmacol 105:176–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. Maruyama M, Farber NE, Vercelotti GM, Jacob HS, Gross GJ (1990) Evidence for a role of platelet actvating factor in the pathogenesis of irreversible but not reversible myocardial injury after reperfusion in dogs. Am Heart J 120:510–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Mascolo N, Autore G, Izzo AA, Biondi A, Capasso F (1992) Effects of senna and its active compounds rhein and rhein-anthrone on PAF formation by rat colon. J Pharm Pharmacol 44:693–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. Massey CV, Kohout TA, Gaa ST, Lederer WJ, Rogers TB (1991) Molecular and cellular actions of platelet-activating factor in heart cells. J Clin Invest 88:2106–2121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  501. Masugi F, Ogihara T, Otsuka A, Saeki S, Kumahara Y (1984) Effect of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine inhibitor on the reduction of one-kidney, one clip hypertension after unclipping in the rat. Life Sci 34:197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. Masugi F, Sakaguchi K, Soeki S, Imaoka M, Ogihara T (1989) Dietary salt, blood pressure and circulating levels of 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in patients with essential hypertension. J Lipid Med 1:341–348Google Scholar
  503. Matsumoto K, Taki F, Kondoh Y, Taniguchi H, Takagi K (1992) Platelet-activating factor in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 19:509–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. Matsuzaki M, Ishiguro Y, Tetsumoto T, Tsukada Y, Kayahara H, Tadasa K (1992) PAF acetylhydrolase activities in human systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus-prone mice. Clin Chim Acta 210:139–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. Mazzoni I, Morley J, Page CP, Sanjar S (1985) Induction of airway hyperreactivity by platelet-activating factor in the guinea pig. J Physiol Paris 365:107Google Scholar
  506. McCormack DG, Barnes PJ, Evans TW (1989) Evidence against a role for PAF in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the rat. Clin Sci 77:439–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  507. McGivern DV, Basran GS (1984) Synergism between platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) and prostaglandin E2 in man. Eur J Pharmacol 102:183–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. McGowan HM, Vandongen R, Codde JP, Croft KD (1986) Increased aortic PGI 2 and plasma lyso-PAF in the unclipped one-kidney hypertensive rat. Am J Physiol 251:H1361–H1364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. McIntyre TM, Zimmerman GA, Satoh K, Prescott SM (1985) Cultured endothelial cells synthesize both platelet-activating factor and prostacyclin in response to histamine, bradykinin and adenosine triphosphate. J Clin Invest 76:271–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. McIntyre RC, Banerjee A, Bensard DD, Brew EC, Hahn AR, Fullerton DA (1994) Adenosine Al-receptor mechanisms antagonize β-adrenergic pulmonary vasodilation in hypoxia. Am J Physiol 267:H2179–H2185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  511. McManus LM, Morley CA, Levine SP, Pinckard RN (1979) Platelet activating factor (PAF) induced release of platelet factor 4 (PF 4) in vitro during IgE anaphylaxis in the rabbit. J Immunol 123:2835–2841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  512. McManus LM, Hanahan DJ, Demopoulos CA, Pinckard RN (1980) Pathobiology of the intravenous infusion of acetyl glyceryl etherphosphorylcholine (AGEPC), a synthetic platelet-activating factor (PAF), in the rabbit. J Immunol 124:2919–2924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. McManus LM, Ostrom KK, Lear C, Luce EB, Gander DL, Pinckard RN, Redding SW (1993) Radiation-induced increased platelet-activating factor activity in mixed saliva. Lab Invest 68:118–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. McMurphy IF, Morris KG (1986) Platelet-activating factor causes pulmonary vasodilation in the rat. Am Rev Respir Dis 134:757–762Google Scholar
  515. Meade CJ, Metcalfe S, Sovennsen R, Jamieson N, Watson C, Calne RY, Kleber G, Neild G (1991) Serum PAF acetylhydrolase and chronic cholestasis. Lancet 338:1016–1017Google Scholar
  516. Mehta D, Gupta S, Gaur SN, Gangais V, Agrawal KP (1990) Increased leukocyte phospholipase A2 activity and plasma lysophosphatidylcholine levels in asthma and rhinitis and their relationship to airway sensitivity to histamine. Am Rev Respir Dis 142:157–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. Meizel S (1984) The importance of hydrolytic enzymes to an exocytotic event, the mammalian sperm acrosome reaction. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 59:125–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. Mencia-Huerta JM, Lewis RA, Razin E, Austen KF (1983) Antigen-initiated release of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) from mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells sensitized with monoclonal IgE. J Immunol 131:2958–2964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  519. Mezzano S, Kunick M, Olavarria F, Ardilles L, Montrucchio G, Silvestro L, Biancone L, Camussi G (1993) Detection of platelet-activating factor in plasma of patients with streptococcal nephritis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 7:357–367Google Scholar
  520. Miadonna A, Tedeschi A, Arnoux B, Sala A, Zanussi C, Benveniste J (1989) Evidence of PAF-acether metabolic pathway activation in antigen challenge of upper respiratory airway. Am Rev Respir Dis 140:142–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Michel L, Dubertet L (1992) Leukotriene B4 and platelet-activating factor in human skin. Arch Dermatol Res 284:S12–S17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Michel L, Mencia-Huerta JM, Benveniste J, Dubertet L (1987) Biologic properties of LT B4 and PAF-acether in vivo in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 88:675–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Michel L, Denizot Y, Thomas Y, Benveniste J, Dubertet L (1988a) Release of paf-acether during allergic cutaneous reactions. Lancet 11:404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Michel L, Denizot Y, Thomas J, Jean-Louis F, Pitton C, Benveniste J, Dubertet L (1988b) Biosynthesis of paf-acether by human skin fibroblasts. J Immunol 141:948–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  525. Michel L, Denizot Y, Thomas Y, Jean-Louis F, Heslan M, Benveniste J, Dubertet L (1990) Production of PAF-acether by human epidermal cells. J Invest Dermatol 95:576–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. Milhoun KA, Lane TA, Bloor CM (1992) Hypoxia induces endothelial cells to increase their adherence for neutrophils: role of PAF. Am J Physiol 263:H956–H962Google Scholar
  527. Milligan SR, Finn CA (1990) Failure of platelet-activating factor (paf-acether) to induce decidualization in mice and failure of antagonists of paf to inhibit implantation. J Reprod Fertil 88:105–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. Minhas BS (1993) Platelet-activating factor treatment of human spermatozoa enhances fertilization potential. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168:1314–1317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  529. Minhas BS, Ricker DD (1990) Enhancement of mouse IVF using platelet-activating factor: an examination of shorter gamete coincubation times and removal of cumulus cells. ARTA 2:75–87Google Scholar
  530. Minhas BS, Kumar R, Ricker DD, Roudebush WE, Dodson MG, Fortunato SJ (1989) Effects of platelet activating factor on mouse oocyte fertilization in vitro. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161:1714–1717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  531. Minhas BS, Kumar R, Ricker DD, Robertson JL, Dodson MG (1991) The presence of platelet-activating factor-like activity in human spermatozoa. Fertil Steril 55:372–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. Minor T, Isselhard W, Yamaguchi S (1995) Involvement of platelet activating factor in microcirculatory disturbances after global hepatic ischemia. J Surg Res 58:536–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. Mion F, Cuber JC, Minaire Y, Chayvialle JA (1994) Short term effects of indomethacin on rat small intestinal permeability. Role of eicosanoids and platelet activating factor. Gut 35:490–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. Misso NLA, Gillon RL, Taylor ML, Stewart GA, Thompson PJ (1993) Acetyl-CoA: lyso-platelet-activating factor acetyltransferase activity in neutrophils from asthmatic patients and normal subjects. Clin Sci 85:455–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  535. Miwa M, Miyake T, Yamanaka T, Sugatani J, Suzuki Y, Sakata S, Araki Y, Matsumoto M (1988) Characterization of serum platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase. Correlation between deficiency of PAF acetylhydrolase and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children. J Clin Invest 82:1983–1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Miwa M, Sugatani J, Ikemura T, Okamoto Y, Ino M, Saito K, Suzuki Y, Matsumoto M (1992) Release of newly synthesized platelet-activating factor (PAF) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes under in vivo conditions. Contribution of PAF-releasing factor in serum. J Immunol 148:872–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  537. Miyaura S, Maki N, Byrd W, Johnston JM (1991) The hormonal regulation of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in plasma. Lipids 26:1015–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. Montrucchio G, Camussi G, Tetta C (1986) Intravascular release of platelet-activating factor during atrial pacing. Lancet 2:193–194Google Scholar
  539. Montrucchio G, Alloatti G, Tetta C, de Luca R, Saunders RN, Emanuelli G, Camussi G (1989a) Release of platelet-activating factor from ischemic-reperfused rabbit heart. Am J Physiol 256:H1236–H1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. Montrucchio G, Mariano F, Cavalli PL, Tetta C, Viglino G, Emanuelli G, Camussi G (1989b) Platelet activating factor is produced during infectious peritonitis in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 36:1029–1036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Moqbel R, Walsh GM, Nagakura T, MacDonald AJ, Wardlaw AJ, Iiura Y, Kay AB (1990a) The effect of platelet-activating factor on IgE binding to, and IgE-dependent biological properties of human eosinophils. Immunology 70:251–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  542. Moqbel R, MacDonald AJ, Cromwell O, Kay AB (1990b) Release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) from human eosinophils following adherence to IgE- and IgG-coated schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. Immunology 69:435–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. Mori M, Aihara M, Kume K, Hamanoue M, Kohsaka S, Shimizu T (1996) Predominant expression of platelet-activating factor receptor in the rat brain microglia. J Neurosci 16:3590–3600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. Morita E, Schröder JM, Christophers E (1989) Chemotactic responsiveness of eosinophils isolated from patients with inflammatory skin diseases. J Dermatol 16:348–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. Morita K, Suemitsu T, Uchiyama Y, Miyasako T, Dohi T (1995) Platelet-activating factor mediated potentiation of stimulation-evoked catecholamine release and the rise in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration in adrenal chromaffin cells. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal 11:219–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. Morley J, Page CP, Paul W (1983) Inflammatory actions of platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) in guinea pig skin. Br J Pharmacol 80:503–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. Morooka S, Uchida M, Imanishi N (1992) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) plays an important role in the immediate asthmatic response in guinea-pig by augmenting the response to histamine. Br J Pharmacol 105:756–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. Morteau O, More J, Pons L, Bueno L (1993) Platelet-activating factor and interleukin 1 are involved in colonic dysmotility in experimental colitis in rats. Gastroenterology 104:47–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. Movat HZ, Burrowes CE (1985) The local Shwartzman reaction: endotoxin-mediated inflammatory and thrombo-hemorrhagic lesions. In: Barry LJ (ed) Handbook of endotoxin 3: cellular biology of endotoxin. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 260–302Google Scholar
  550. Mozes T, Heiligers JPC, Tak CJAM, Zijlstra FJ, Ben-Efraims S, Saxena PR, Bonta IL (1991) Platelet activating factor is one of the mediators involved in endotoxic shock in pigs. J Lipid Mediat 4:309–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  551. Mozes T, Ben-Efraim S, Bonta IL (1993) Lethal and non-lethal course of endotoxic shock is determined by interactions between tumor necrosis factor, platelet activating factor and eicosanoids. Pathol Biol (Paris) 40:807–812Google Scholar
  552. Mueller HW, O’Flaherty JT, Wykle RL (1983) Biosynthesis of platelet activating factor in rabbit polymorphonuclear neutrophils. J Biol Chem 258:6213–6218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. Muguruma K, Komatz Y, Ikeda M, Sugimoto T, Saito K (1993) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) in male reproductive organs of guinea pigs and rats. Effect of androgen on PAF in seminal vesicles. Biol Reprod 48:386–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Muirhead E (1986) Renomedullary system of blood pressure control. Hypertension 8[Suppl I]:I38–I46Google Scholar
  555. Mullane KM, Salmon JA, Kraemer R (1987) Leukocyte-derived metabolites of arachi-donic acid in ischemia-induced myocardial injury. Fed Proc 46:2422–2433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  556. Murphy JF, Bordet J-C, Wyler B, Rissoan M-C, Chomarat P, Defrance T, Miossec P, McGregor JL (1994) The vitronectin receptor (α v β 3) is implicated in cooperation with P-selectin and platelet-activating factor, in the adhesion of monocytes to activated-endothelial cells. Biochem J 304:537–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  557. Musemechi CA, Baker JL, Feddersen RM (1995) A model of intestinal ischemia in the neonatal rat utilizing superior mesenteric occlusion and intraluminal platelet-activating factor. J Surg Res 58:724–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. Mustafa SB, Gandhi CR, Harvey SAK, Olson MS (1995) Endothelin stimulates platelet-activating-factor synthesis by cultured rat Kupffer cells. Hepatology 21:545–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  559. Nakamura T, Morita Y, Kuriyama M, Ishihara K, Ito K, Miyamoto T (1987) Platelet-activating factor in late asthmatic response. Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 82:57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. Nakamura M, Honda Z, Waga I, Matsumoto T, Noma M, Shimizu T (1992) Endotoxin transduces Ca2+ signaling via platelet-activating factor receptors. FEBS Lett 314:125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. Nakayama R, Yasuda K, Saito K (1987) Existence of endogenous inhibitors of platelet-activating factor (PAF) with PAF in rat uterus. J Biol Chem 262:13174–13179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Narahara H, Johnston JM (1993) Effects of endotoxins and cytokines on the secretion of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase by human decidual macrophages. Am J Obstet Gynecol 169:531–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. Nathan N, Denizot Y (1995) PAF and human cardiovascular disorders. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal 11:103–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  564. Nieminen MM, Hill M, Irvin GG (1991a) Body temperature modulates the effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on airway responsiveness in the rabbit. Agents Actions 32:173–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  565. Nieminen MM, Moilanen E, Nyholm JE (1991b) Platelet-activating factor impairs tracheobronchial transport and increases plasma leukotriene B4 in man. Eur Respir J 4:561–570Google Scholar
  566. Nieminen MM, Moilanen EK, Kokinen MO, Karvonen JI, Tuomisto L, Metsa-Ketela TJ, Vapaatalo H (1992) Inhaled budesonide fails to inhibit PAF-induced increase in plasma leukotriene B4 in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 33:645–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  567. Nieminen MM, Henson PM, Irvin GG (1994) Bimodal effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on airway responsiveness in the rabbit. Exp Lung Res 20:559–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  568. Ninio E, Joly F, Hieblot C, Besson G, Mencia-Huerta JM, Benveniste J (1987) Biosynthesis of paf-acether IX. Role for a phosphorylation-dependent activation of acetyltransferase in antigen-stimulated mouse mast cells. J Immunol 139:154–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  569. Nishida K, Markey SP (1996) Platelet-activating factor in brain regions after transient ischemia in gerbils. Stroke 27:514–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. Nogami M, Matsunobu S, Termusa M (1990) The effect of platelet-activating factor on (14C) aminopyrine uptake by isolated guinea pig parietal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 168:1047–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. Nolan (1981) Endotoxin, reticuloendothelial function, and liver injury. Hepatology 1:458–465Google Scholar
  572. Noris M, Benigni A, Boccardo P, Gotti E, Benfenati E, Aiello S, Todeschini M (1993) Urinary excretion of platelet-activating factor in patients with immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 43:426–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. Northover AM (1989) The effects of TMB-8 on the shape changes of vascular endothelial cells resulting from exposure to various inflammatory agents. Agents Actions 26:367–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. Nourshagh S, Lerkin SW, Das A, Williams TJ (1995) Interleukin-1-induced leukocyte extravasation across mesenteric microvessels is mediated by platelet-activating factor. Blood 85:2553–2558Google Scholar
  575. Oberpichler H, Sauer D, Roßberg C, Mennel HD, Krieglstein J (1990) PAF antagonist Ginkgolide B reduces postischemic neuronal damage in rat brain hippocampus. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 10:133–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  576. O’Connor BJ, Ridge SM, Chen-Worsdell YM, Uden S, Barnes PJ, Chung KF (1991) Complete inhibition of airway and neutrophil responses to inhaled platelet-activating factor (PAF) by an oral PAF antagonist UK 74505. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:A156Google Scholar
  577. O’Donnell SR, Barnett CJK (1987) Microvascular leakage to platelet activating factor in guinea-pig trachea and bronchi. Eur J Pharmacol 138:385–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. O’Flaherty JT, Wykle RL, Mueller CH, Lewis JC, Waite M, Bass DA, McCall CE, de Chatelet LR (1981) 1-O-Alkyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholines: a novel class of neutrophil stimulants. Am J Pathol 103:70–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  579. Ohar JA, Pyle JA, Hyers TM, Webster RO (1986) AGEPC-induced pulmonary vascular injury. A rabbit model of pulmonary hypertension. Am Rev Respir Dis 133:A159Google Scholar
  580. Ohar JA, Pyle JA, Walter KS, Myers TM, Webster RO, Lagunoff DA (1990) A rabbit model of pulmonary hypertension induced by the synthetic platelet-activating factor acetylglyceryl ether phosphorylcholine. Am Rev Respir Dis 141:104–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  581. Ohar JA, Waller KS, Dahms TE (1993) Platelet-activating factor induces selective pulmonary arterial hyperreactivity in isolated perfused rabbit lungs. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:158–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. Ohlsson K, Björk P, Bergenfeldt M, Hageman R, Thompson RC (1990) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduces mortality from endotoxin shock. Nature 348:550–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Okamoto Y, Yoshida H, Ino M, Nakamura S-I, Okamoto G, Mizoguchi K, Suzuki Y, Sugatani J, Miwa M (1993) PAF-releasing factor in human serum and inflammatory exudate. J Lipid Mediat 8:151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  584. Okusawa S, Gelfand JA, Ikejima T, Connolly RJ, Dinarello CA (1988) Interleukin 1 induces a shock-like state in rabbits. Synergism with tumor necrosis factor and the effect of cyclooxygenase inhibition. J Clin Invest 81:1162–1172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  585. Olaison G, Sjödahl R, Tagesson C (1988) Increased phospholipase A2 activity of ileal mucosa in Crohn’s disease. Digestion 41:136–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  586. Olson NC, Joyce PB, Fleisher LN (1990a) Role of platelet-activating factor and eicosanoids during endotoxin-induced lung injury in pigs. Am J Physiol 258:H1674–H1686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  587. Olson NC, Joyce PB, Fleisher LN (1990b) Mono-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids during porcine endotoxemia: effect of a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist. Lab Invest 63:221–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  588. O’Neill C (1985) Examination of the cause of early pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenia in mice. J Reprod Fertil 73:567–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  589. O’Neill C (1991) A physiological role for PAF in the stimulation of mammalian embryonic development. Trends Pharmacol Sci 12:82–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. O’Neill C (1992) Embryo-derived platelet activating factor. Reprod Fertil Dev 4:283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  591. O’Neill (1995a) Platelet-activating factor-antagonists reduce implantation in mice at low doses only. Reprod Fertil Dev 7:51–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  592. O’Neill C (1995b) Activity of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle, throughout the preimplantation phase of pregnancy, and throughout the luteal phase of pseudopregnancy. Biol Reprod 52:965–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  593. O’Neill C, Collier M, Ammit AJ, Ryan JP, Saunders DM, Pike IL (1989) Supplementation of in-vitro fertilisation culture medium with platelet activating factor. Lancet II:769–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  594. O’Neill C, Wells X, Battye K (1990) Embryo-derived platelet activating factor: Interactions with the arachidonic acid cascade and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Reprod Fertil Dev 2:423–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  595. Oparil S, Chen S-J, Meng QC, Elton TS, Yano M, Chen Y-F (1995) Endothelin-A receptor antagonist prevents acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in the rat. Am J Physiol 268:L95–L100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  596. Orozco C, Perkins T, Clarke FM (1986) Platelet-activating factor induces the expression of early pregnancy factor in female mice. J Reprod Fertil 78:549–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. Ostermann G, Lang A, Holz H, Rühling K, Winkler L, Till U (1988) The degradation of platelet-activating factor in serum and its discriminative value in atherosclerotic patients. Thromb Res 52:529–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  598. Ou MC, Kambayashi J, Kawasaki T, Uemura Y, Shinozaki K, Shiba E, Sakon M, Yukawa M, Mori T (1994) Potential etiologic role of PAF in two major septic complications: disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ failure. Thromb Res 73:227–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. Page CP (1988) The role of platelet-activating factor in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:144–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. Page CP (1990) The role of platelet activating factor in allergic respiratory disease. Br J Clin Pharmacol 30:995–1065Google Scholar
  601. Page C, Abbott A (1989) PAF: new antagonists, new roles in disease and a major role in reproductive biology, Trends Pharmacol Sci 10:255–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  602. Page CP, Paul W, Morley J (1984) Platelets and bronchospasm. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 74:347–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  603. Page CP, Guerreiro D, Sanjar S, Morley J (1985) Platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) may account for late-onset reactions to allergen inhalation. Agents Actions 16:30–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  604. Panetta T, Marcheselli VL, Braquet P, Spinnewyn B, Bazan NG (1987) Effects of platelet activating factor antagonist (BN 52021) on free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, polyphosphoinositides and blood flow in the gerbil brain: inhibition of ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 149:580–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  605. Parente L, Flower RJ (1985) Hydrocortisone and macrocortin inhibit zymosan-induced release of lyso-PAF from rat peritoneal leucocytes. Life Sci 36:1225–1231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  606. Parsons PE, Worthen SG, Moore EE, Tate RM, Henson PM (1989) The association of circulating endotoxin with development of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 140:294–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. Parks JE, Graham JK (1992) Effects of cryopreservation procedures on sperm membranes. Theriogenol 38:210–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  608. Parks JE, Lynch DV (1992) Lipid composition and thermotropic phase behavior of boar, bull, stallion, and rooster sperm membranes. Cryobiology 29:255–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  609. Parks JE, Hough SR (1993) Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in bovine seminal plasma. J Androl 14:335–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  610. Parks JE, Hough S, Elrod C (1990) Platelet activating factor activity in the phospholipids of bovine spermatozoa. Biol Reprod 43:806–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  611. Patterson R, Bernstein PR, Harris KE, Krell RD (1984) Airway responses to sequential challenges with platelet-activating factor and leukotriene D4 to rhesus monkeys. J Lab Clin Med 104:340–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  612. Peplow PV, Mikhailidis DP (1990) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its relation to prostaglandins, leukotrienes and other aspects of arachidonate metabolism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 41:71–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  613. Perico N, Delaini F, Tagliaferri M, Abbate M, Cucchi M, Bertani T, Remuzzi G (1988) Effect of platelet activating factor and its specific receptor antagonist on glomerular permeability to proteins in isolated perfused rat kidney. Lab Invest 58:163–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  614. Perretti F, Manzini S (1992) Activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory fibres modulates PAF-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in anesthetized guinea pigs. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:927–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  615. Persson CGA, Erjefalt I, Sundler F (1987) Airway microvascular and epithelial leakage of plasma induced by PAF-acether (PAF) and capsaicin. Am Rev Respir Dis 135:A401Google Scholar
  616. Petroni A, Salami M, Blasevich M, Galli C (1993) Activation of phospholipid hydrolysis and generation of eicosanoids in cultured rat astroglial cells by PAF, and modulation by n-3 fatty acids. In: Massarelli R, Horrocks LA, Kanfer JN, Löffelholz K (eds) Phospholipids and their signal transmission. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 403–410Google Scholar
  617. Pettipher ER, Higgs GA, Henderson B (1987) PAF-acether in chronic arthritis. Agents Actions 21:98–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  618. Pignol B, Henane S, Mencia-Huerta J-M, Rola-Pleszczynski M, Braquet P (1987a) Effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) and its specific receptor antagonist, BN 52021, on interleukin 1 (IL-1) release and synthesis by rat adherent monocytes. Prostaglandins 33:931–939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. Pignol B, Henane S, Mencia-Huerta JM, Rola-Pleszczynski M, Braquet P (1987b) Inhibition of IL2 production and lymphocyte proliferation by platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) or analogs and reversal by the specific antagonists BN 52020 and BN 52021. Fed Proc 46:2720 (abstr)Google Scholar
  620. Pignol B, Lonchampt MO, Chabrier PE, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P (1990) Platelet-activating factor potentiates interleukin-1/epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor release by guinea-pig keratinocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. J Lipid Mediat 2[Suppl]:S83–S91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  621. Pinckard RN, Halonen M, Palmer JD, Butler C, Shaw JO, Henson PA (1977) Intravascular aggregation and pulmonary sequestration of platelets during IgE-induced systemic anaphylaxis in the rabbit: abrogation of lethal anaphylactic shock by platelet depletion. J Immunol 119:2185–2193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  622. Pinckard RN, Farr RS, Hanahan DJ (1979) Physicochemical and functional identity of rabbit platelet-activating factor (PAF) released in vivo during IgE anaphyalaxis with PAF released in vitro from IgE sensitized basophils. J Immunol 123:1847–1857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  623. Pinckard RN, Kniker WT, Lee L, Hanahan DJ, McManus LM (1980) Vasoactive effects of 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine (AcGEPC) in human skin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65:196Google Scholar
  624. Pinckard RN, Woodard DS, Showell HJ, Conklyn MJ, Novak MJ, McManus LM (1994) Structural and (patho) physiological diversity of PAF? Clin Rev Allergy 12:329–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  625. Pinheiro JMB, Pitt BR, Gillis CN (1989) Roles of platelet-activating factor and thromboxane in group B streptococcus-induced pulmonary hypertension in piglets. Pediatr Res 26:420–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  626. Pinto A, Calignano A, Mascolo N, Autore G, Capasso F (1989) Castor oil increases intestinal formation of platelet-activating factor and acid phosphatase release in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 96:872–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  627. Pinto A, Autore G, Mascolo N, Sorrentino R, Biondi A, Izzo AA, Capasso F (1992) Time course of PAF formation by gastrointestinal tissue in rats after castor oil challenge. J Pharm Pharmacol 44:224–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  628. Pires AL, deSilva PM, Pasquale C, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Bozza PT, Cordeiro RS, Rae GA, Braquet P, Lagente V, Martins MA (1994) Long-lasting inhibitory activity of the hetrazepinic BN 50730 on exudation and cellular alterations evoked by PAF and LPS. Br J Pharmacol 113:994–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  629. Pirotzky E, Page CP, Roubin R, Pfister A, Paul W, Bonnet J, Benveniste J (1984) PAF-acether-induced plasma exudation in rat skin is independent of platelets and neutrophils. Microcirc Endothel Lymphat 1:107–122Google Scholar
  630. Pirotzky E, Page C, Morley J, Bidault J, Benveniste J (1985a) Vascular permeability induced by PAF-acether (platelet-activating factor) in the isolated perfused rat kidney. Agents Actions 16:17–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  631. Pirotzky E, Pfister A, Benveniste J (1985b) A role for PAF-acether (platelet-activating factor) in acute skin inflammation. Br J Dermatol 113[Suppl 28]:91–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  632. Podolski DK (1991) Inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 325:928–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  633. Pons L, Droy-Lefaix MT, Braquet P, Bueno L (1991) Role of ree radicals and platelet-activating factor in the genesis of intestinal motor disturbances induced by Escherichia coli endotoxins in rat. Gastroenterology 100:946–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  634. Pons F, Rossi AG, Norman KE, Williams TJ, Nourshargh S (1993) Role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in platelet accumulation in rabbit skin: effect of the novel long-acting PAF antagonist, UK-74505. Br J Pharmacol 109:234–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  635. Pons L, Droy-Lefaix MT, Bueno L (1994) Role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and prostaglandins in colonic motor and secretory disturbances induced by Escherichia coli endotoxin in conscious rats. Prostaglandins 47:123–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  636. Porres-Reyes BH, Mustone TA (1992) Platelet-activating factor improvement in wound healing by a chemotactic factor. Surgery 111:416–423Google Scholar
  637. Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM (1984) Human endothelial cells in culture produce platelet-activating factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) when stimulated with thrombin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:3534–3538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  638. Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM (1990) Platelet-activating factor. J Biol Chem 265:17381–17384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  639. Prevost MC, Cariven C, Simon MF, Chap H, Douste-Blazy L (1984) Platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) is released into rat pulmonary alveolar fluid as a consequence of hypoxia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 119:58–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  640. Quinn MT, Parthasarathy S, Steinberg S (1988) Lysophosphatidylcholine: a chemotactic factor for human monocytes and its potential role in atherogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:2805–2809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  641. Qvist R, Morii H, Watanabe Y (1995) Interleukin-1β stimulates phospholipase A2 activity in rat C6 glioma cells. Biochem Mol Biol Int 35:363–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  642. Rabier M, Damon M, Chanez P, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P, Michel FB, Godard P (1991) Neutrophil chemotactic activity of PAF, histamine and neuromediators in bronchial asthma. J Lipid Mediat 4:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  643. Rabinovici R, Esser KM, Lysko PG, Yue T-L, Griswold DE, Hillegass LM, Bugelski PJ, Hallenbeck JM, Feuerstein G (1991) Priming by platelet-activating factor of endotoxin-induced lung injury and cardiac vascular shock. Circ Res 69:12–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  644. Rabinovici R, Bugelski PJ, Esser KM, Hillegass LM, Vernick J, Feuerstein G (1993a) ARDS-like lung injury produced by endotoxin in platelet-activating factor-primed rats. J Appl Physiol 74:1791–1802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  645. Rabinovici R, Bugelski PJ, Esser KM, Hillegass LM, Griswold DE, Vernick J, Feuerstein G (1993b) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates endotoxin-induced lung injury in platelet activating factor-primed rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 267:1550–1557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  646. Rainsford KD (1986) Relative roles of leukotrienes and platelet activating factor in experimentally-induced gastric ulceration. Pharmacol Res Commun 18[Suppl]:209–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  647. Ranaut K, Singh M (1993) BN-50739: a PAF antagonist and limitations of myocardial infarct size. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 15:9–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  648. Rao VS, Fonteies MC (1991) Involvement of PAF-acether and eicosanoids in adrenaline-induced pulmonary edema in mice. Braz J Med Biol Res 24:319–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  649. Remuzzi G (1989) Eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor as possible mediators of injury in experimental nephropathies. Adv Exp Med Biol 259:221–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  650. Ricker DD, Minhas BS, Kumar R, Robertson JL, Dodson MG (1989) The effects of PAF on the motility of human spermatozoa. Fertil Steril 52:655–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  651. Roca J, Felez MA, Chung KF, Barbesa JA, Rotger M, Santos C, Rodriguez-Roisin R (1995) Salbutamol inhibits pulmonary effects of platelet activating factor in man. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:1740–1744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  652. Rodriguez-Bartero A, Rodriguez-Lopez AM, Gonzalez-Sarmiento R, Lopez-Novoa JM (1995) Gentamicin activates rat mesangial cells: a role for platelet activating factor. Kidney Int 47:1346–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  653. Rodriguez-Roisin RR, Roca J, Chung KF (1991) Effects of inhaled platelet-activating factor on pulmonary gas exchange in man. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:A771Google Scholar
  654. Rogers DF, Alton EWFW, Aursudkij B, Boschetto P, Dewar A, Barnes PJ (1987) Effect of platelet activating factor on formation and composition of airway fluid in the guinea pig trachae. J Physiol 431:643–658Google Scholar
  655. Rola-Pleszczynski M, Pignol B, Pouliot C, Braquet P (1987) Inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 production by platelet activating factor (PAF-acether): reversal by a specific antagonist, BN 52021. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 142:754–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  656. Rola-Pleszczynski M, Bosse J, Bissonnette E, Dubois C (1988a) PAF-acether enhances the production of tumor necrosis factor by human and rodent lymphocytes and macrophages. Prostaglandins 35:802–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  657. Rola-Pleszczynski M, Pouliot C, Turcotte S, Pignol B, Braquet P, Bouvette L (1988b) Immune regulation of platelet-activating factor I. Induction of suppressor cell activity in human monocytes and CD8+ cells and of helper cell activity in CD4+ T cells. J Immunol 140:3547–3552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  658. Rosam AC, Wallace JL, Whittle BJR (1986) Potent ulcerogenic actions of platelet-activating factor on the stomach. Nature 319:54–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  659. Rossi AG, Norman KE, Donigi-Gale D, Shoupe TS, Edwards R (1992) The role of complement, PAF and leukotriene B4 in a reversed passive Arthus reaction. Br J Pharmacol 107:44–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  660. Roubin RR, Tence M, Mencia-Huerta JM, Arnoux B, Ninio E, Benveniste J (1983) A chemically defined monokine — macrophage-derived platelet-activating factor. Lymphokines 8:249–276Google Scholar
  661. Roudebush WE, Minhas BS, Ricker DD, Palmer TV, Dodson MG (1990) Platelet activating factor enhances in vitro fertilization of rabbit Oozytes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 163:1670–1673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  662. Rubin AH, Smith LJ, Patterson R (1987) The bronchoconstrictor properties of platelet-activating factor in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:1145–1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  663. Ruggiero V, Chiapparino C, Manganello S, Pacello L, Foresta P, Martelli EA (1994) Beneficial effects of a novel platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist, ST 899, on endotoxin-induced shock in mice. Shock 2:275–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  664. Ruiz-Torres P, Gonzalez-Rubio M, Lucio-Cazana FJ, Ruiz-Villaespasa A, Rodriguez-Puyol M, Rodriguez-Puyol D (1994) Reactive oxygen species and platelet activating factor synthesis in age-related glomerulosclerosis. J Lab Clin Med 124:489–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  665. Ryan JP, Spinks NR, O’Neill C, Ammit AJ, Wales RG (1989) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) production by mouse embryos in vitro and its effect on embryonic metabolism. J Cell Biochem 40:387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  666. Sagasch VP, Zhukova AV, Braquet P (1992) Endothelium-dependent effects of platelet-activating factor in the coronary circulation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 20[Suppl 12]:S85–S89Google Scholar
  667. Saito M, Sato R, Hisatome I, Narahashi T (1996) RANTES and platelet-activating factor open Ca2+-activated K+ channels in eosinophils. FASEB J 10:792–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  668. Sakaguchi K, Masugi F, Chen YH, Inoue M, Ogihara T, Yamada K, Yamatsu I (1989) Direct evidence of elevated levels of circulating platelet-activating factor in a patient with disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. J Lipid Mediat 1:171–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  669. Sakai A, Chang S-W, Voelkel NF (1989) Importance of vasoconstriction in lipid-mediator-induced pulmonary oedema. J Appl Physiol 66:2667–2674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  670. Sakurai T, Yamaguchi S, Iwama T, Nagai H (1994) Pharmacological studies of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced augmentation of response to histamine in guinea-pigs. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 51:95–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  671. Salem P, Deryckx S, Dulioust A, Vivier E, Denizot Y, Damais C, Dinarello CA, Thomas Y (1990) Immunoregulatory functions of paf-acether IV. Enhancement of IL-1 production by muramyl dipeptide-stimulated monocytes. J Immunol 144: 1388–1344Google Scholar
  672. Salinas P, Perez MD, Fernandez-Sanpablo R, Fernandez-Gallardo S, Sanchez-Crespo M, Barrigon S (1995) Lack of platelet-activating factor release on acute myocardial ischemia in isolated ventricular septum rabbit heart. Eur J Pharmacol 293:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  673. Samet JM, Noah TL, Devlin RB, Yankaskeas JR, McKinnon K, Dailey LA, Friedman M (1992) Effect of ozone on platelet-activating factor production in phorbol-differentiated HL 60 cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 56), and primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 7:514–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  674. Sanchez-Crespo M, Alonso F, Inarrea P, Alvarez V, Egido J (1982) Vascular actions of synthetic PAF-acether (a synthetic platelet-activating factor) in the rat: evidence for a platelet independent mechanism. Immunopharmacology 4:173–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  675. Santing RE, Hoekstra Y, Pasman Y, Zaagsma J, Meurs H (1994) The importance of eosinophil activation for the development of allergen-induced bronchial hyperactivity in conscious, unrestrained guinea-pigs. Clin Exp Allergy 24:1157–1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  676. Sanwick JM, Talaat RE, Kuzan FB, Geissler FT, Chi EY, Henderson WR (1992) Human spermatozoa produce C16 PAF. Arch Biochem Biophys 295:214–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  677. Sanz MJ, Weg VB, Bolanowski MA, Nourshargh S (1995) IL-1 is a potent inducer of eosinophil accumulation in rat skin. Inhibition of response by a platelet-activating factor antagonist and an anti-human IL-8 antibody. J Immunol 154:1364–1373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  678. Sasaki T, Shimura S, Ikada K, Takishima H (1989) Platelet-activating factor increases platelet-dependent glycoconjugate secretion from tracheal submucosal glands. Am J Physiol 257:L373–L378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  679. Satoh K, Imaizumi T, Kawamura Y, Yoshida H, Takamatsu S, Mizumo S (1988) Activity of platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetyl hydrolase in plasma from patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Prostaglandins 35:685–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  680. Satoh K, Imaizumi TA, Kawamura Y, Yoshida H, Takamatsu S, Takamatsu M (1989) Increased activity of the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in plasma low density lipoprotein from patients with essential hypertension. Prostaglandins 37:673–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  681. Satoh K, Imaizumi T, Yoshida H, Hiramoto M, Takamatsu S (1992a) Increased levels of blood platelet-activating factor (PAF) and PAF-like lipids in patients with ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand 85:122–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  682. Satoh K, Yoshida H, Imaizumi T, Takamatsu S, Mizuno S (1992b) Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in plasma lipoproteins from patients with ischemic stroke. Stroke 23:1090–1092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  683. Sawa Y, Schaper J, Roth M, Nagasawa K, Ballagi G, Bleese N, Schaper W (1994) Platelet-activating factor plays an important role in reperfusion injury in myocardium. Efficacy of platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist (CV-3988) as compared with leukocyte-depleted reperfusion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 108:953–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  684. Schauer U, Koch B, Michl U, Jager R, Rieger CHL (1992) Enhanced production of platelet activating factor by peripheral granulocytes from children with asthma. Allergy 47:143–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  685. Scherf H, Nies AS, Schwertschlag U, Hughes M, Gerber JG (1986) Hemodynamic effects of platelet activating factor in the dog kidney in vivo. Hypertension 8:737–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  686. Schlondorff D, Neuwirth R (1986) Platelet-activating factor and the kidney. Am J Physiol 251:F1–F11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  687. Schlondorff D, Goldwasser P, Neuwirth R, Satriano J, Clay K (1986) Production of platelet-activating factor in glomeruli and cultured glomerular mesangial cells. Am J Physiol 250:F1123–F1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  688. Schmidt J, Lindstaedt R, Szelenyi I (1992) Characterization of platelet-activating factor induced superoxide generation by guinea-pig alveolar macrophages. J Lipid Mediat 5:13–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  689. Schwertschlag U, Scherf H, Gerber JG, Mathias M, Nies AS (1987) Platelet activating factor induces changes on renal vascular resistance, vascular reactivity, and renin release in the isolated perfused rat kidney. Circ Res 60:534–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  690. Seale JP, Nourshargh S, Hellewell PG, Williams TJ (1991) Mechanism of action of platelet activating factor in the pulmonary circulation: an investigation using a novel isotopic system in rabbit isolated lung. Br J Pharmacol 104:251–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  691. Selivonchick DP, Schmid PC, Natarajan V, Schmid HO (1980) Structure and metabolism of phospholipids in bovine epididymal sperm. Biochim Biophys Acta 618:242–254(6)Google Scholar
  692. Sengoku K, Ishikawa M, Tamate K, Shimizu T (1992) Effect of platelet activating factor on mouse sperm function. J Assist Reprod Genet 9:447–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  693. Sengoku K, Tamate K, Takaoka Y, Ishikawa M (1993) Effects of platelet activating factor on human sperm function invitro. Hum Reprod 8:1443–1447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  694. Seow WK, Thong YH, Ferrante A (1987) Macrophage-neutrophil interactions: Contrasting effects of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (cachectin) on human neutrophil adherence. Immunology 62:357–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  695. Seth P, Kumari R, Dikshit M, Srimal RC (1994) Effect of platelet activating factor antagonists in different models of thrombosis. Thromb Res 76:503–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  696. Sharma JN, Mrhsin SS (1990) The role of chemical mediators in the pathogenesis of inflammation with emphasis on the kinin system. Exp Pathol 38:73–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  697. Shasby DM, Shasby SS, Sullivan JM, Peach MJ (1982) Role of endothelial cell cytoskeleton in control of endothelial permeability. Circ Res 51:657–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  698. Shaw JO, Pinckard RN, Ferrigini KS, McManus LM, Hanahan DJ (1981) Activation of human neutrophils with l-O-hexadecyl/octadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine (platelet activating factor). J Immunol 127:1250–1253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  699. Shindo K, Koide K, Hirai Y, Sumitomo M, Fukunura M (1996) Priming effect of platelet activating factor on leukotriene C4 from stimulated eosinophils of asthmatic patients. Thorax 51:155–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  700. Shukla SD, Buxton BD, Olson MS, Hanahan DJ (1983) Acetylglycerol ether phosphocholine. A potent activator of hepatic phosphoinositide metabolism and glycogenolysis. J Biol Chem 258:10212–10214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  701. Silverberg KM, Groff TR, Riehl RM, Harper MJK, Olive DL, Schenker RS (1990) Platelet activating factor does not enhance motility of fresh or cryopreserved human sperm. 37th Annual Meeting Soc Gyn Invest (abstr 258)Google Scholar
  702. Siminiak T, Egdell RM, O’Gorman DJ, Dye JF, Sheridan DJ (1995) Plasma-mediated neutrophil activation during acute myocardial infarction: role of platelet-activating factor. Clin Sci 89:171–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  703. Simon HU, Blaser K (1995) Inhibition of programmed eosinophil death: a key pathogenic event for eosinophilia? Immunol Today 16:53–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  704. Simon HU, Tsao PW, Siminovitch KA, Mills GB, Blaser K (1994a) Functional platelet-activating-factor receptors are expressed by monocytes and granulocytes but not by resting or activated T and B lymphocytes from normal individuals or patients with asthma. J Immunol 153:364–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  705. Simon HU, Grotzer M, Nikolaizik WH, Blaser K, Schoni MH (1994b) High altitude climate therapy reduces peripheral blood T lympocyte activation, eosinophilia, and bronchial obstructions in children with house-dust allergic asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol 17:304–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  706. Sirois MG, Jancar S, Braquet P, Plante GE, Sirois P (1988) PAF increases vascular permeability in selected tissues: effect of BN 52021 and L 655240. Prostaglandins 36:631–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  707. Sirois MG, Tavares de Lima W, de Brun Fernandez AJ, Johnson RJ, Plante GE, Sirois P (1994) Effect on rat lung vascular permeability: role of platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Br J Pharmacol 111:1111–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  708. Sisson JH, Prescott SM, McIntyre TM, Zimmerman GA (1987) Production of platelet-activating factor by stimulated polymorphonuclear human leukocytes. Correlation of synthesis with release, functional events, and leukotriene B4 metabolism. J Immunol 138:3918–3926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  709. Smith H (1992) Asthma, inflammation, eosinophils and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Clin Exp Allergy 22:187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  710. Smith KA, Prewitt RL, Byers LW, Muirhead EE (1981) Analogs of phosphatidylcholine: alpha-adrenergic antagonists from the renal medulla. Hypertension 3:460–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  711. Smith LJ, Rubin AHE, Patterson R (1988) Mechanism of platelet activating factor-induced bronchoconstriction in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 137:1015–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  712. Smith SK, Kelly RW (1988) Effect of platelet-activating factor on the release of PGF-2alpha and PG E2 by separated cells of human endometrium. J Reprod Fertil 82:271–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  713. Snyder F (1990) Platelet-activating factor and related acetylated lipids as potent biologically active cellular mediators. Am J Physiol 259:C697–C708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  714. Sobhani I, Bado A, Denizot Y, Mignon M, Bonfils S, Lewin MJM (1990) Gastric secretion of platelet activating factor in cat. Gastroenterology 98:A128Google Scholar
  715. Sobhani I, Denizot Y, Vatier J, Vissuzaine C, René E, Benveniste J, Bonfils S, Mignon M (1992a) Significance and regulation of gastric secretion of PAF in man. Dig Dis Sci 37:1583–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  716. Sobhani I, Hochlaf S, Denizot Y, Vissuzaine C, René E, Benveniste J, Lewin MJM, Mignon M (1992b) Raised concentrations of platelet-activating factor in colonic mucosa of Crohn’s disease. Gut 33:1220–1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  717. Sobhani I, Bado A, Moizo L, Laigneau J-P, Tarrade T, Braquet P, Lewin MJM (1995) Platelet-activating factor stimulates gastric acid secretion in isolated rabbit gastric glands. Am J Physiol 268:G889–G894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  718. Sobhani I, Denizot Y, Moizo L, Laigneau JP, Bado A, Laboisse C, Benveniste J, Lewin MJM (1996a) Regulation of platelet-activating factor production in gastric epithelial cells. Eur J Clin Invest 26:53–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  719. Sobhani I, Bado A, Cherifi Y, Morizo L, Laigneau JP, Pospai D, Mignon M, Lewin MJ (1996b) Helicobacter pylori stimulates gastric acid secretion via platelet activating factor. J Physiol Pharmacol 47:177–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  720. Söling HD, Fest W (1986) Synthesis of 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor) in exocrine glands and its control by secretagogues. J Biol Chem 261:13916–13922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  721. Söling HD, Eibl H, Fest W (1984) Acetylcholine-like effects of 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (“platelet-activating factor”) and its analogues in exocrine secretory glands. Eur J Biochem 144:65–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  722. Sogos V, Bussolino F, Pilia E, Torelli S, Gremo F (1990) Acetylcholine-induced production of PAF by human fetal brain cells in culture. J Neurosci Res 27:706–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  723. Soifer SJ, Schreiber MD (1988) Arachidonic acid metabolites mediate pulmonary hypertension caused by platelet activating factor in newborn lambs. Ped Res 23:525AGoogle Scholar
  724. Soloviev AI, Braquet P (1992) Platelet-activating factor — a potent endogenous mediator responsible for coronary vasospasm. News Physiol Sci 7:166–172Google Scholar
  725. Spence DPS, Johnston SL, Calverley PM, Dhillon P, Higgins C, Winning A, Winter J, Holgate ST (1994) The effect of orally active platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2086 in the treatment of asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:1142–1148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  726. Spencer DA (1992) An update on PAF. Clin Exp Allergy 22:521–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  727. Spencer DA, Green SE, Evans JM, Piper PJ, Costello JF (1990) Platelet-activating factor does not cause a reproducible increase in bronchial responsiveness in normal man. Clin Exp Allergy 20:525–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  728. Spencer DA, Evans JM, Green SE, Piper PJ, Costello JF (1991) Participation of the cysteinyl-leukotrienes in the acute bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled PAF in man. Thorax 46:441–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  729. Spina D, McKenniff MG, Coyle AJ, Seeds EAM, Tramontana M, Perretti F, Manzini S, Page CP (1991) Effect of capsaicin on PAF-induced bronchial hyper responsiveness and pulmonary cell accumulation in rabbit. Br J Pharmacol 103:1268–1274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  730. Spinks NR, Ryan JP, O’Neill C (1990) Antagonists of embryo-derived platelet-activating factor act by inhibiting the ability of the mouse embryo to implant. J Reprod Fertil 88:241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  731. Spinnewyn B, Blavet N, Clostre F, Bazan N, Braquet P (1987) Involvement of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cerebral post-ischemic phase in mongolian gerbils. Prostaglandins 34:337–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  732. Spry CF (1988) Eosinophils. A comprehensive review, and guide to the scientific and medical literature. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  733. Squinto SP, Block AL, Braquet P, Bazan NG (1989) Platelet-activating factor stimulates a fos/jun/AP-1 transcriptional signaling system in human neuroblastoma cells. J Neurosci Res 24:558–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  734. Stafforini DM, Satoh K, Atkinson DL, Tjoelker LW, Eberhardt C, Yoshida H, Imaizumi T, Takamatsu S, Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM (1996) Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase deficiency. A missense mutation near the active site of an anti-inflammatory phospholipase. J Clin Invest 97:2784–2791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  735. Stahl G, Lefer DJ, Lefer AM (1987) PAF-acether induced cardiac dysfunction in the isolated perfused guinea pig heart. Arch Pharmacol 336:459–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  736. Stahl GL, Craft DV, Lento PH, Lefer AM (1988a) Detection of platelet-activating factor during traumatic shock. Circ Shock 26:237–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  737. Stahl GL, Bitterman H, Terashita Z, Lefer AM (1988b) Salutary consequences of blockade of platelet activating factor in hemorrhagic shock. Eur J Pharmacol 149:233–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  738. Stahl GL, Terashita Z, Lefer AM (1988c) Role of platelet activating factor in propagation of cardiac damage during myocardial ischemia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 244:898–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  739. Stahl GL, Bitterman H, Lefer AM (1989) Protective effects of a specific platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist, WEB 2086, in traumatic shock. Thromb Res 53:327–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  740. Steer ML, Meldolesi J (1987) The cell biology of experimental pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 316:144–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  741. Stein BA, O’Neill C (1991) Reduced vascularity in the mouse fallopian tube in early pregnancy. Austral New Zeal Microcircul Society, Proc 6th Symposium (abstr 15)Google Scholar
  742. Stenton SC, Ward C, Duddridge M, Harris A, Palmer JB, Hendrick DJ, Walters EH (1990a) The actions of GR 32191 B, a thromboxane receptor antagonist, on the effects of inhaled PAF on human airways. Clin Exp Allergy 20:311–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  743. Stenton SC, Court EN, Kingston WP, Goadby P, Kelly CA, Duddridge M, Ward C, Hendrick DJ, Walters EH (1990b) Platelet-activating factor in bronchoalveolar fluid from asthmatic subjects. Eur Respir J 3:408–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  744. Steward IG, Piper PG (1986) Platelet-activating factor induced vasoconstriction in rat isolated perfused hearts: contribution of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase arachi-donic acid metabolites. Pharmacol Res Commun 18:163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  745. Stimler NP, Bloor CM, Hugh TE, Wykle RL, McGall CE, O’Flaherty JT (1981) Anaphylactic actions of platelet activating factor. Am J Pathol 105:64–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  746. Strahan ME, Graham RM, Eccleston DS, Sturm MJ, Taylor RR (1995) Neutrophil platelet-activating-factor production and acetyltransferase activity in clinical acute myocardial infarction. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 22:102–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  747. Stufler M, Methner A, von Bruchhausen F (1992) Auranofin (AN) but not aurothioglucose (ATG) or aurothiosulfate (ATS) inhibits PAF production of human neutrophils. Arch Pharmacol 346:R42Google Scholar
  748. Suematsu M, Kurose I, Asako H, Miura S, Tsuchiya M (1989) In vivo visualization of oxyradical-dependent photoemission during endothelium-granulocyte interaction in microvascular beds treated with platelet-activating factor. J Biochem 106:355–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  749. Sueoka K, Dharmarajan AM, Miyazaki T, Atlas SJ, Wallach EE (1988) Platelet-activating factor-induced early pregnancy factor activity from the perfused rabbit ovary and oviduct. Am J Obstet Gynecol 159:1580–1584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  750. Sugatani J, Fujimura K, Miwa M, Mizuno T, Sameshima Y, Saito K (1989) Occurence of platelet activating factor (PAF) in normal rat stomach and alteration of PAF level by water immersion stress. FASEB J 3:65–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  751. Sugatani J, Fujimura K, Mizuno T, Sameshima Y, Saito K (1991a) Review: the role of PAF in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 44:135–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  752. Sugatani J, Hughes KT, Miwa M (1991b) Determination of PAF in biological samples by scintillation proximity radioimmuno assay. PAF Symposium on Allergic, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases, Tokyo, pp 49–50Google Scholar
  753. Sugatani J, Fujimura K, Miwa M, Satouchi K, Saito K (1991c) Molecular heterogeneity of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in normal rat glandular stomach determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: alteration in molecular species of PAF by water-immersion stress. Lipids 26:1347–1353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  754. Sugatani J, Miwa M, Komiyama Y, Murakami T (1993) Quantitative analysis of platelet-activating factor in human plasma. Application to patients with liver cirrhosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. J Immunol Methods 166:251–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  755. Summers JB, Albert DH (1995) Platelet activating factor antagonists. Adv Pharmacol 32:67–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  756. Sun J, Hsueh W (1988) Bowel necrosis induced by tumor necrosis factor in rats is mediated by platelet-activating factor. J Clin Invest 81:1328–1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  757. Sun XM, MacKendrick W, Tien J, Huang W, Caplan MS, Hsueh W (1995) Endogenous bacterial toxins are required for the injurious action of platelet-activating factor in rat. Gastroenterology 109:83–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  758. Suzuki M, Inauen W, Kvietys PR, Grisham MB, Meininger C, Schelling ME, Granger HJ, Granger DN (1989) Superoxide mediates reperfusion-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. Am J Physiol 257:H1740–H1745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  759. Szabo C, Wu C-C, Mitchell JA, Gross SS, Thiemermann C, Vane JR (1993) Platelet-activating factor contributes to the induction of nitric oxide synthase by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Circ Res 73:991–999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  760. Tabor BL, Lewis JF, Ikegami M, Jobe AH (1992) Platelet-activating factor antagonists decrease lung protein leak in preterm ventilated rabbits. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:810–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  761. Tagesson C, Lindahl M, Otamiri T (1988) BN52021 ameliorates mucosal damage associated with small intestinal ischaemia in rats. In: Braquet P (ed) Ginkgolides Chemistry, biology, clinical science. Prous, Barcelona, pp 553–561Google Scholar
  762. Takada Y, Boudjema K, Jaeck D, Bel-Haouri M, Doghmi M, Chenard MP, Wolff P, Cinqualbrie J (1995) Effects of platelet-activating factor antagonist on preservation reperfusion injury of the graft in porcine orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplantation 59:10–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  763. Talstad I, Rootwelt K, Gjone E (1973) Thrombocytosis in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 8:135–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  764. Tarn FWK, Claque J, Dixon CM, Shuttle AW, Henderson BL, Peters AM, Lavender JR, Ind PW (1992) Inhaled platelet-activating factor causes pulmonary neutrophil sequestration in normal humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 146:1003–1008Google Scholar
  765. Tan ND, Davidson D (1995) Comparative differences and combined effects of interleukin-8, leukotriene B-4, and platelet-activating factor on neutrophil Chemotaxis of the newborn. Pediatr Res 38:11–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  766. Tang HM, Teshima DY, Lum BKB (1993) Effects of the PAF antagonists bepafant and L-659989 in endotoxic and septic shock. Drug Dev Res 29:216–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  767. Taniguchi H, Iwasaka T, Takayama Y, Sugiura T, Inada M (1992) Role of platelet-activating factor in pulmonary edema after coronary ligation in dogs. Chest 102:1245–1250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  768. Tence M, Polansky J, Le Couedic JP, Benveniste J (1980) Release, purification and characterization of platelet activating factor (PAF). Biochimie 62:251–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  769. Teng CM, Lin CH, Kuo HP, Ko FN, Ishii H, Ishikawa T, Chen IS (1995) Effect of CIS 19, a novel PAF receptor antagonist, on PAF-induced eosinophil recruitment and enhancement of superoxide anion generation in guinea pigs. Arch Pharmacol 351:529–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  770. Terashita Z, Imura Y, Nishikawa K, Sumida S (1985) Is platelet activating factor (PAF) a mediator of endotoxin shock? Eur J Pharmacol 109:257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  771. Terashita Z, Stahl GL, Lefer AM (1988) Protective effects of platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist and its combined treatment with prostaglandin (PG) E1 in traumatic shock. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 12:505–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  772. Terashita Z, Shibouta Y, Imura Y, Iwasaki K, Nishikawa K (1989) Endothelin-induced sudden death and the possible involvement of platelet activating factor (PAF). Life Sci 45:1911–1918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  773. Tessner TG, O’Flaherty JT, Wykle RL (1989) Stimulation of platelet-activating factor synthesis by a nonmetabolizable bioactive analog of platelet-activating factor and influence of arachidonic acid metabolites. J Biol Chem 264:4794–4799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  774. Tetta C, Bussolino F, Modena V, Montrucchio G, Segolini G, Pescarmona G, Camussi G (1990) Release of platelet-activating factor in systemic lupus erythematosus. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 91:244–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  775. Thompson PJ, Hanson JM, Bilani H, Turner-Warwick M, Morley J (1984) Platelets, platelet-activating factor, and asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 129:3Google Scholar
  776. Thyssen E, Turk J, Bohrer A, Stenton WF (1996) Quantification of distinct molecular species of platelet activating factor in ulcerative colitis. Lipids 31[Suppl]:S255–S259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  777. Tiberghien C, Laurent L, Junier MP, Dray F (1991) A competitive receptor binding for platelet-activating factor (PAF): Quantification of PAF in rat brain. J Lipid Mediat 3:249–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  778. Tjoelker LW, Wilder C, Eberhardt C, Stafforini DM, Dietsch G, Schimpf B, Hooper S, Trong HL, Cousens LS, Zimmerman GA, Yamada Y, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Gray PW (1995) Anti-inflammatory properties of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. Nature 374:549–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  779. Tokumura A, Kamiyasu K, Takauchi K, Tsukatani H (1987) Evidence for existence of various homologues and analogues of platelet activating factor in a lipid extract of bovine brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 145:415–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  780. Tokumura A, Yotsumoto T, Hoshikawa T, Tanaka T, Tsukatani H (1992) Quantitative analysis of platelet-activating factor in rat brain. Life Sci 51:303–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  781. Tokuyama K, Lotvall J, Barnes PJ, Chung KF (1991) Airway narrowing after inhalation of platelet-activating factor in guinea-pig: Contribution of airway microvascular leakage and edema. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:1345–1349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  782. Tolins JP, Vercelotti GM, Wilkowske M, Ha B, Jacob HS, Raij L (1989) Role of platelet activating factor in endotoxemic acute renal failure in the male rat. J Lab Clin Med 113:316–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  783. Torneo AC, Egan RW, Duran WN (1991) Priming interactions between platelet activating factor and histamine in the in vivo microcirculation. FASEB J 5:2850–2855Google Scholar
  784. Torley LW, Pickett WC, Carrol MI, Kohler CA, Schaub RE, Wissner A, de Joy SQ, Oronsky AL, Kerwar SS (1992) Studies on the effect of a platelet activating factor antagonist, CL 184605, in animal models of gram-negative bacterial sepsis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36:1971–1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  785. Townsend GC, Scheid WM (1994) Platelet-activating factor augments meningeal inflammation elicited by Haemophilus influenzae lipooligosaccharide in an animal model of meningitis. Infect Immun 62:3739–3744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  786. Travis SPL, Jewell DP (1992) Regional differences in the response to platelet-activating factor in rabbit colon. Clin Sci 82:673–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  787. Travis SPL, Crotty B, Jewell DP (1995) Site of action of platelet-activating factor within the mucosa of rabbit distal colon. Clin Sci 88:51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  788. Tsukioka K, Matsuzaki M, Nakamata M, Kayahara H (1993) Increased plasma levels of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and low serum PAF acethydrolase (PAFAH) activity in adult patients with bronchial asthma. Arerugi 42:167–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  789. Uhlig S, Wollin L, Wendel A (1994) Contributions of thromboxane and leukotrienes to PAF-induced impairments of lung function in the rat. J Appl Physiol 77:262–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  790. Ukena D, Dent G, Birke BW, Robaut C, Sybrecht GW, Barnes PJ (1988) Radioligand binding of antagonists of platelet activating factor to intact human platelets. FEBS Lett 228:285–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  791. Ukena D, Krögel C, Dent G, Yulawa T, Sybrecht G, Barnes PJ (1989) PAF receptors on eosinophils: identification with a novel ligand, (3H) WEB 2086. Biochem Pharmacol 38:1702–1705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  792. Urbaschek R, Urbaschek B (1987) Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 as mediators of endotoxin-induced beneficial effects. Rev Infect Dis 9:S607–S615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  793. Vadas P, Pruzanski W (1986) Biology of disease: role of secretory phospholipase A 2 in the pathology of disease. Lab Invest 55:391–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  794. Valone F, Skalit M, Atkins P, Goetzl E, Zweiman B (1987) Platelet activating factor release in allergic skin sites in humans. J Allergy Clin Immunol 79:248Google Scholar
  795. Valone FH, Epstein LB (1988) Biphasic platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis by human monocytes stimulated with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or gamma interferon (IFN). FASEB J 2:A878Google Scholar
  796. van Dijk APM, Wilson JHP, Zijlstra FJ (1993) The effect of malotilate, a derivative of malotilate and a Flavonoid on eicosanoid production in inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Mediat Inflamm 2:67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  797. Vandongen R (1991) Platelet activating factor and the circulation. J Hypertens 9:771–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  798. Vanhoutte PM, Rubanyi GM, Miller VM, Houston DS (1986) Modulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction by the endothelium. Annu Rev Physiol 48:307–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  799. van Oosterhout AJ, Nijkamp FP (1993) Role of cytokines in bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Pulm Pharmacol 6:225–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  800. Vargaftig BB (1995) PAF. A mediator in search of a disease. Clin Rev Allergy 12:419–421Google Scholar
  801. Vargaftig BB, Braquet P (1987) PAF-acether today: relevance for acute experimental anaphylaxis. Br Med Bull 43:312–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  802. Vargaftig BB, Lefort J, Chignard M, Benveniste J (1980) Platelet-activating factor induces a platelet-dependent bronchoconstriction unrelated to the formation of prostaglandin derivatives. Eur J Pharmacol 65:185–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  803. Vassalli P (1992) The pathophysiology of tumor necrosis factors. Am Rev Immunol 10:411–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  804. Vela L, Garcia-Merino A, Fernandez-Gallardo S, Sanchez-Crespo M, Lopez-Lozano JJ, Saus C (1991) PAF antagonists do not protect against the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 33:81–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  805. Velasquez LA, Aguilera JG, Croxatto HB (1995) Possible role of platelet-activating factor in embryonic signaling during oviductal transport in the hamster. Biol Reprod 52:1302–1306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  806. Verbey NL, van Delft JL, van Haeringen NJ, Braquet P (1989) Platelet-activating factor and laser trauma of the iris. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 30:1101–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  807. Vincent JE, Bonta IL, Zijlstra FJ (1978) Accumulation of blood platelets in carragee-nin rat paw edema. Possible role in the inflammatory process. Agents Actions 8:291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  808. Voelkel NF, Worthen S, Reeves JT, Henson PM, Murphy RC (1982) Non-immunological production of leukotrienes induced by platelet-activating factor. Science 218:286–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  809. Voelkel NF, Chang SW, Pfeffer KD, Worthen SG, McMurthy IF, Henson PM (1986) PAF antagonists: different effects on platelets, neutrophils, guinea pig ileum and PAF induced vasodilation in isolated rat lungs. Prostaglandins 32:359–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  810. von Bruchhausen F (1991) Lyso-PAF transacetylase and PAF-acethydrolase in C6-glioma cells. Arch Pharmacol 344:R104Google Scholar
  811. von Bruchhausen F, Rochel M (1990) Bismuth(III) salts and carbenoxolone are potent inhibitors of lyso-PAF transacetylase in vitro. Arch Pharmacol 341:R70Google Scholar
  812. Waga I, Nakamura M, Honda Z, Terby I, Toyoshima S, Ishiguro S, Shimizu T (1993) Two distinct signal transduction pathways for the activation of guinea-pig macrophages and neutrophils by endotoxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 197:465–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  813. Wainwright CC, Parratt JR, Bigaud M (1989) The effects of PAF antagonists on arrhythmias and platelets during acute myocardial ishaemia and reperfusion. Eur Heart J 10:235–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  814. Walker C, Virchow JC, Bruijnzeel PL, Blaser K (1991) T cell subsets and their soluble products regulate eosinophilia in allergic and nonallergic asthma. J Immunol 146:1829–1835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  815. Wallace JL (1990) Lipid mediators of inflammation in gastric ulcer. Am J Physiol 258:G1–G11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  816. Wallace JL, MacNaughton WK (1988) Gastrointestinal damage induced by platelet-activating factor: role of leukotrienes. Eur J Pharmacol 151:43–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  817. Wallace JL, Whittle (1986a) Picomole doses of platelet-activating factor predispose the gastric mucosa to damage by topical irritants. Prostaglandins 31:989–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  818. Wallace JL, Whittle BJR (1986b) Profile of gasrointestinal damage induced by platelet-activating factor. Prostaglandins 32:137–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  819. Wallace JL, Whittle BJR (1986c) Prevention of endotoxin-induced gastrointestinal damage by CV-3988, an antagonist of platelet-activating factor. Eur J Pharmacol 124:209–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  820. Wallace JL, Steel G, Whittle BJR, Lagente V, Vargaftig B (1987a) Evidence for platelet-activating factor as a mediator of endotoxin-induced gastrointestinal damage in the rat. Gastroenterology 93:765–773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  821. Wallace JL, Steel G, Whittle BJR (1987b) Gastrointestinal plasma leakage in endot-oxic shock. Inhibition by prostaglandin E2 and by platelet-activating factor antagonist. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 65:1428–1432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  822. Wallace IL, MacNaughton WK, Guarner F, Rodriguez R, Malagelada JR (1988) Role of leukotrienes as mediators of gastric damage and hemoconcentration induced by platelet activating factor. Gastroenterology 94:A485Google Scholar
  823. Wallace JL, Cirino G, DeNucci G, McKnight W, MacNaughton WK (1989) Endothelin has potent ulcerogenic and vascular constrictor actions in the stomach. Am J Physiol 256:G661–G666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  824. Wallace JL, Hogaboam GM, McKnight GW (1990a) Platelet-activating factor mediates gastric damage induced by hemorrhagic shock. Am J Physiol 259:G140–G146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  825. Wallace JL, Keenan CM, Granger DN (1990b) Gastric ulceration induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a neutrophil-dependent process. Am J Physiol 259:G462–G467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  826. Wang HY, Yue TL, Feuerstein G, Friedman E (1994) Platelet-activating factor: diminished acetylcholine release from rat brain slices is mediated by a G(i) protein. J Neurochem 63:1720–1725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  827. Wang J, Dunn MT (1987) Platelet-activating factor mediates endotoxin-induced acute renal insufficiency in rats. Am J Physiol 253:F1283–F1289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  828. Wang JM, Rambaldi A, Biondi A, Chen ZG, Sanderson CJ, Mantovani A (1989) Recombinant human interleukin 5 a selective eosinophil attractant. Eur J Immunol 19:701–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  829. Wang R, Sikla SC, Veeraragavan K, Bell M, Hellström WJ (1993) Platelet activating factor and pentoxifylline as human sperm cryoprotectants. Fertil Steril 60:711–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  830. Ward PA, Warren JS, Varani J, Johnson KJ (1991) PAF, cytokines, toxic oxygen products and cell injury. Mol Aspects Med 12:169–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  831. Wardlaw AJ, Moqbel R, Cromwell O, Kay AB (1986) Platelet activating factor. A potent chemotactic and chemokinetic factor for human eosinophils. J Clin Invest 78:1701–1706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  832. Wardle TD, Hall L, Turnberg LA (1996) Platelet activating factor: release from colonic mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis and its effect on colonic secretion. Gut 38:355–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  833. Warren JS, Mandel DM, Johnson KJ, Ward PA (1989) Evidence for the role of platelet-activating factor in immune complex vasculitis in the rat. J Clin Invest 83:669–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  834. Watanabe K, Yano S, Kojima T (1988) Formation of gastric mucosal lesions by platelet activating factor (PAF): comparison of the effects of drugs on gastric lesions induced by hypovolumic shock and by PAF. In: Ogura Y, Kisara K (eds) Trends Pharmacol res on platelet activating factor (PAF) in Japan. Ishiyaku, Tokio, pp 170–181Google Scholar
  835. Watanabe M, Sugidachi A, Omata M, Hirasawa N, Mue S, Tsurufuji S, Ohuchi K (1990) Possible role for platelet-activating factor in neutrophil infiltration in allergic inflammation in rats. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 92:396–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  836. Watanabe M, Yagi M, Omata M, Hirasawa N, Mue S, Tsurufugi S, Ohuchi K (1991) Stimulation of neutrophil adherence to vascular endothelia cells by histamine and thrombin and its inhibition by PAF antagonists and dexamethasone. Br J Pharmacol 102:239–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  837. Weissman D, Poli G, Bousseau A, Fauci AS (1993) A platelet-activating factor antagonist, RP 55778, inhibits cytokine-dependent induction of human immunodeficiency virus expression in chronically infected promonocytic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:2537–2541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  838. Weisman SM, Felsen D, Vaughan ED (1985) Platelet-activating factor is a potent stimulus for renal prostaglandin synthesis: possible significance in unilateral ureteral obstruction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 235:10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  839. Wells X-E, O’Neill C (1994) Detection and preliminary characterization of two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in mouse Oozytes, zygotes and preimplantation embryos: dithiothreitol-insensitive cytidinediphosphocholine: 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol choline phosphotransferase and acetyl-coenzyme A: 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase. J Reprod Fertil 101:385–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  840. Whatley RE, Nelson P, Zimmerman GA, Stevens DL, Parker CJ, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM (1989) The regulation of platelet-activating factor production in endothelial cells. The role of calcium and protein kinase C. J Biol Chem 264:6325–6333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  841. Whittle BJR, Morishita T, Ohya Y, Leung FW, Guth PH (1986) Microvascular actions of platelet-activating factor on rat mucosa and submucosa. Am J Physiol 251:G772–G778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  842. Whittle BJR, Boughton-Smith NK, Hutcheson IR, Esplugues V, Wallace JL (1987a) Increased intestinal formation of PAF in endotoxin-induced damage in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 92:3–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  843. Whittle BJR, Kauffman GL, Wallace JL (1987b) Gastric vascular and mucosal damaging actions of platelet activating factor in the canine stomach. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res 17:285–292Google Scholar
  844. Whittle BJR, Lopez-Belmonte J, Moncada S (1990) Regulation of gastric mucosal integrity by endogenous nitric oxide: interactions with prostanoids and sensory neuropeptides in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 99:607–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  845. Wilkens H, Wilkens JH, Bosse S (1991) Effects of inhaled PAF-antagonist (WEB 2086 BS) on allergen-induced early and late asthmatic responses and increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:A812Google Scholar
  846. Williams TJ, Helewell PG, Jose PJ (1986) Inflammatory mechanisms in the Arthus reaction. Agents Actions 19:66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  847. Wisner J, Green D, Ferrell L, Renner I (1988) Evidence for a role of oxygen free radicals on the pathogenesis of cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Gut 29:1516–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  848. Wong CW, Seow WK, O’Callaghan JW, Thong YH (1992) Comparative effects of tetrandrine and berbamine on subcutaneous air pouch inflammation induced by interleukin-1, tumour necrosis factor and platelet-activating factor. Agents Actions 36:112–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  849. Woodard DS, Ostrom KK, McManus LM (1995) Lipid inhibitors of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in normal human plasma. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal 12:11–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  850. Woodward DF, Nieves AL, Spada CS, Williams LS, Tuckett RP (1995) Characterization of a behavioral model for peripherically evoked itch suggests platelet-activating factor as a potent pruritogen. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 272:758–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  851. Yaacob HB, Gong NH, Shahimi MM, Piper PJ (1995) The release of leukotrienes and the vascular changes mediated by platelet activating factor and cardiac anaphylaxis. Asia Pac J Pharmacol 10:25–32Google Scholar
  852. Yamamoto H, Nagata M, Tabe K, Kimura I, Kiuchi H, Sakamoto Y, Yamamoto K, Dohi Y (1993) The evidence of platelet activation in bronchial asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91:79–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  853. Yang Y-Q, Kudolo GB, Harper MJK (1992) Binding of PAF to oviduct membranes during early pregnancy in the rabbit. J Lipid Mediat 5:77–96PubMed