Advertisement

Virtual Neuroscopy

  • S. Gottschalk
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Three-dimensional acquisition techniques for magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography enable anatomic structures of the central nervous system to be displayed with high resolution of detail. Recently developed postprocessing algorithms generate virtual endoscopic views of the ventricular system, the basal cisterns, and the posterior cranial fossa. Intracranial vessels can be displayed with a virtual angioscopic view or with an extraluminal view that simulates an outside view onto the vessels from within the basal cisterns. Virtual neuroendos-copy yields vivid three-dimensional displays that can serve as teaching aids in the anatomic training of neurosurgeons and improve the planning of endo-scope-assisted operations. Neuroradiologists will likewise benefit from optimized three-dimensional reconstructions of the intracranial vessels in planning endovascular interventions.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anxionnat R, Bracard S, Macho J, Da Costa E, Vaillant R, Launay L, Trousset Y, Romeas R, Picard L (1998) 3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology. J Neuroradiol 25:251–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Auer LM, Auer DP (1998) Virtual endoscopy for planning and simulation of minimally invasive neurosurgery. Neurosurgery 43:529–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benoudiba F, Iffenecker C, Fuerxer F, Huang J, Hadj-Rabia M, Francke JP, Doyon D (1998) Imaging cranial nerves with inframillimetric T2-weighted MRI. J Radiol 79:21–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blezek DJ, Robb RA (1997) Evaluating virtual endoscopy for clinical use. J Digit Imaging 10:51–55PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boor S, Resch KM, Perneczky A, Stoeter P (1998) Virtual endoscopy (VE) of the basal cisterns: its value in planning the neurosurgical approach. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 41:177–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fellner F, Blank M, Fellner C, Bohm-Jurkovic H, Bautz W, Kalender WA (1998) Virtual cisternoscopy of intracranial vessels: a novel visualization technique using virtual reality. Magn Reson Imaging 16:1013–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fenlon HM, McAneny DB, Nunes DP, Clarke PD, Ferrucci JT (1999) Occlusive colon carcinoma: virtual colonoscopy in the preoperative evaluation of the proximal colon. Radiology 210:423–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fries G, Perneczky A (1998) Endoscope-assisted brain surgery: part 2-analysis of 380 procedures. Neurosurgery 42:226–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gaab MR, Schroeder H WS (1997) Neuroendoscopy and endoscopic neurosurgery. Nervenarzt 68:459–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gangemi M, Maiuri F, Donati P, Sigona L, Iaconetta G, De Divitiis E (1998) Neuroendoscopy. Personal experience, indications and limits. J Neurosurg Sci 42:1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grunert P, Perneczky A, Resch K (1994) Endoscopic procedures through the foramen interventriculare of Monro under stereotactical conditions. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 37:2–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harris LW (1994) Endoscopic techniques in neurosurgery. Microsurgery 15:541–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Held P, Fellner C, Fellner F, Seitz J, Strutz J (1997) MRI of inner ear anatomy using 3D MP-RAGE and 3D CISS sequences. Br J Radiol 70:465–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoff DJ, Wallace MC, terBrugge KG, Gentili F (1994) Rotational angiography assessment of cerebral aneurysms. Am J Neuroradiol 15:1945–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Jansen O, Braks E, Hahnel S, Schramm T, Sartor K (1998) CT angiography to determine the size of intracranial aneurysms before GDC therapy. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 169:175–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kato Y, Sano H, Katada K, Ogura Y, Kanaoka N, Yokoyama T, Kanno T (1996) Clinical usefulness of 3-D CT endoscopic imaging of cerebral aneurysms. Neurol Res 18:98–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Keogh AJ, Vhora S (1998) The usefulness of magnetic resonance angiography in surgery for intracranial aneurysms that have bled. Surg Neurol 50:122–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kuroda S, Kamiyama H, Takahashi A, Houkin K, Abe H, Saitoh H (1993) Clinical application of angioscopy during carotid endarterectomy for patients with internal carotid artery stenosis. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 33:815–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Laub GA (1995) Time-of-flight method of MR angiography. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 3:391–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Magarelli N, Scarabino T, Simeone AL, Florio F, Carriero A, Salvolini U,Bonomo L (1998) Carotid stenosis: a comparison between MR and spiral CT angiography. Neuroradiology 40:367–73Google Scholar
  21. Magnusson M, Lenz R, Danielsson PE (1991) Evaluation of methods for shaded surface display of CT volumes. Comput Med Imaging Graph 15:247–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marro B, Galanaud D, Valery CA, Zouaoui A, Biondi A, Casasco A, Sahel M, Marsault C (1997) Intracranial aneurysm: inner view and neck identification with CT angiography virtual endoscopy. J Comput Assist Tomogr 21:587–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McAdams HP, Goodman PC, Kussin P (1998) Virtual bronchoscopy for directing transbronchial needle aspiration of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes: a pilot study. Am J Roentgenol 170:1361–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ng SH, Wong HF, Ko SF, Lee CM, Yen PS, Wai YY, Wan YL (1997) CT angiography of intracranial aneurysms: advantages and pitfalls. Eur J Radiol 25:14–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ogawa T, Okudera T, Noguchi K, Sasaki N, Inugami A, Uemura K, Yasui N (1996) Cerebral aneurysms: evaluation with three-dimensional CT angiography. Am J Neuroradiol 17:447–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Perneczky A, Fries G (1998) Endoscope-assisted brain surgery: part 1-evolution, basic concept, and current technique. Neurosurgery 42:219–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Puskar G, Ruggieri PM (1995) Intracranial aneurysms. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 3:467–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Resch KD, Perneczky A, Tschabitscher M, Kindel S (1994) Endoscopic anatomy of the ventricles. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 61:57–61Google Scholar
  29. Rogalla P, Nischwitz A, Gottschalk S, Huitema A, Kaschke O, Hamm B (1998) Virtual endoscopy of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Eur Radiol 8:946–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ross JS, Masaryk TJ, Modic MT, Ruggieri PM, Haacke EM, Selman WR (1990) Intracranial aneurysms: evaluation by MR angiography. Am J Neuroradiol 11:449–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rubin GD, Beaulieu CF, Argiro V, Ringl H, Norbash AM, Feller JF, Dake MD, Jeffrey RB, Napel S (1996) Perspective volume rendering of CT and MR images: applications for endoscopic imaging. Radiology 199:321–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Shigematsu Y, Korogi Y, Hirai T, Okuda T, Ikushima I, Sugahara T, Liang L, Ge Y, Takahashi M (1998a) Virtual MRI endoscopy of the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid spaces. Neuroradiology 40:644–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shigematsu Y, Korogi Y, Hirai T, Okuda T, Sugahara T, Liang L, Ge Y, Takahashi M (1998b) New developments: 2. Virtual MR endoscopy in the central nervous system. J Magn Reson Imaging 8:289–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shrier DA, Tanaka H, Numaguchi Y, Konno S, Patel U, Shibata D (1997) CT angiography in the evaluation of acute stroke. Am J Neuroradiol 18:1011–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Stehling MK, Nitz W, Holzknecht N (1995) Fast and ultra-fast magnetic resonance tomography. Basic principles, pulse sequences and special properties. Radiologe 35:879–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Tomandl BF, Eberhardt KEW, Tröscher-Weber R, Huk WJ, Hastreiter P, Ertl T (1997) Virtual endoscopic CT angiography (VECTA) in patients with intracranial aneurysms. Klin Neuroradiol 7:212–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vieco PT, Shuman WP, Alsofrom GF, Gross CE (1995) Detection of circle of Willis aneurysms in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: a comparison of CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography. Am J Roentgenol 165:425–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. White GH (1992) Angioscopy. Surg Clin North Am 72:791–821Google Scholar
  39. Wirtz CR, Bonsanto MM, Knauth M, Tronnier VM, Albert FK, Staubert A, Kunze S (1997) Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging to update interactive navigation in neurosurgery: method and preliminary experience. Comput Aided Surg 2:172–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Yamakawa K, Kondo T, Yoshioka M, Takakura K (1992) Application of superfine fiberscope for endovasculoscopy, ventriculoscopy, and myeloscopy. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 54:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Young N, Dorsch NW, Kingston RJ (1999) Pitfalls in the use of spiral CT for identification of intracranial aneurysms. Neuroradiology 41:93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Gottschalk
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Charité HospitalHumboldt Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Radiologie, NeuroradiologieMedizinische Universität LübeckLübeckGermany

Personalised recommendations