Virtual Endoscopy of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses

  • P. Rogalla
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The origins of endoscopic paranasal sinus surgery can be traced back to Hirschmann, who constructed an endoscope to inspect the nose and paranasal sinuses as early as 1903. Endoscopic paranasal sinus surgery was, however, abandoned at the beginning of the twentieth century, primarily due to severe complications (Grevers et al. 1999; Hajek 1904; Halle 1906; Mosher 1912). One of the main reasons for complications was inadequate anatomic orientation in the surgical region, which led to damage of vital structures (Gunkel et al. 1997). The fundamental principles of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), today a technique applied worldwide, were established in the early 1970s by Professor Walter Messerklinger in Graz, Austria (Messerklinger 1966), and thereafter exported from the German-speaking nations to the rest of the world by Heinz Stammberger (Stammberger 1985, 1989) and David Kennedy (Kennedy 1985; Kennedy and Kennedy 1985).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Rogalla
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Charité HospitalHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany

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