Advertisement

Technical Background

  • J. Terwisscha van Scheltinga
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

In recent years the computerized postprocessing of image data from cross-sectional imaging modalities has received progressively increasing recognition in the field of medicine. This development has various reasons. Firstly, the technical developments of examination modalities such as CT and MRI, as well as SPECT, PET, and ultrasound, have swiftly improved along with continuously increasing spatial resolution, which means not only a growing memory capacity for the computer, but also that additional image information is included in each slice. For any given volume, more slices can be produced in an ever-decreasing amount of time. Secondly, rapidly growing computer performance has created the opportunity to display complex relations, be it anatomical structures or functional information, in a simplified and comprehensible manner.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blinn JF (1977) Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesized Pictures. SIGGRAPH 77, pp 192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bosma MK, Smit J, Lob regt S (1998) Iso-surface Volume Rendering. Proceedings of SPIE Medical Imaging ‘98, vol 3335:10–19Google Scholar
  3. Cline HE, Lorensen WE, Ludke S, et al. (1988) Two Algorithms for the Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Tomograms. Medical Physics, 15(3), pp 320–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Drebin RA, Carpenter L, Hanrahan P (1988) Volume Rendering. Computer Graphics, 22(4), pp 65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Foley JD, van Dam A, Feiner SK, et al. (1990) Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, 2nd edn, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  6. Gordon D, Reynolds RA (1985) Image Space Shading of 3-dimen-sional Objects. Computer Vision Graphics Image Processing 29:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Herman GT, Liu HK (1979) Three-dimensional Display of Human Organs from Computed Tomograms. Computer Graphics and Image Processing, 9, pp 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Herman GT, Udupa JK (1981) Display of Three Dimensional Discrete Surfaces. Proceedings of the SPIE, 283, pp 90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Höhne KH, Bernstein R (1986) Shading 3D Images from CT Using Grey-Level Gradients. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 5(l):45–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hong L, Liang Z, Viswambharan A, et al. (1997) Reconstruction and Visualization of 3D Models of Colonic Surface. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 44(3):1297–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Levoy M (1988) Display of Surfaces from Volume Data. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 8(3):29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Levoy M (1990) Efficient Ray Tracing of Volume Data. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 9(3):245–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lorensen WE, Cline HE (1987) Marching Cubes: A High Resolution 3D Surface Construction Algorithm. Computer Graphics, 21(4):163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Paik DS, Beaulieu CF, Jeffrey RB, et al. (1998) Automated Flight Path Planning for Virtual Endoscopy. Med. Phys. 25(5):629–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Parker S, Shirley P, Livnat Y, et al. (1998) Interactive Ray Tracing for Isosurface Rendering. In: (eds) IEEE Visualization ‘98, pp 233–238Google Scholar
  16. Phong BT (1975) Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures. Communications of the ACM, 18(6):311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schlick C (1994) A Fast Alternative to Phong’s Specular Model. In: Heckbert P (ed) Graphics Gems IV. Academic Press, Boston, pp 385–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schroeder WJ, Zarge JA, Lorensen WE (1992) Decimation of Triangle Meshes. Computer Graphics 26(2):65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shirley P, Tuchman A (1990) A Polygonal Approximation to Direct Scalar Volume Rendering. Computer Graphics 24(5):63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Terwisscha van Scheltinga JAS, Bosma MK, Smit J, et al. (1996) Image Quality Improvements in Volume Rendering. In: Höhne KH, Kikinis R (eds) Visualization in Biomedical Computing. Springer, Berlin, pp 87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tuy HK, Tuy LT (1984) Direct2-D Display of 3-D Objects. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 4(10), pp 29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Westover L (1990) Footprint Evaluation for Volume Rendering. Computer Graphics SIGGRAPH ‘90,24(4):367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Woo M, Neider J, Davis T (1997) Open GL Programming Guide, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley Developers Press, ReadingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Terwisscha van Scheltinga
    • 1
  1. 1.Philips Medical SystemsEasy Vision ModulesBestThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations