Advertisement

Thorax pp 207-320 | Cite as

Pneumonien

  • Siegfried Tuengerthal
Chapter
  • 87 Downloads
Part of the Handbuch diagnostische Radiologie book series (HDR)

Zusammenfassung

Im vorliegenden Kapitel, das sich in acht übergeordnete Abschnitte untergliedert, wird zunächst Grundlegendes hinsichtlich Ätiologie, Pathophysiologie und radiologischer Symptomatik zum komplexen Krankheitsbild der Pneumonie erläutert und zusammengefasst. Danach wird systematisch die Terminologie radiologischer Befundmuster erläutert, die Rolle radiologischer Verfahren in Primär- und Verlaufsdiagnostik typischer und sog. atypischer Pneumonien wird beschrieben. Anschließend werden für alle Pneumonie-Erregergruppen neben wesentlichen Einzelheiten zu Mikrobiologie, Pathologie, Epidemiologie und klinischen Manifestationen die morphologischen Kriterien der Darstellung in der Projektionsradiographie wie in den verschiedenen Schnittbildverfahren beschrieben. Die sinnvolle Reihenfolge weiterführender Diagnostik bei komplexen und/oder chronifizierenden Verläufen wird besprochen.

Literatur

  1. Aafedt BC, Halvorsen RA Jr, Tylen U, Hertz M (1990) Cytomegalovirus pneumonia: computed tomography finding. Can Assoc Radiol J 41: 276–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbasi S, Cheney PJ (1995) Pulmonary manifestations of cat-scratch disease; a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14: 547–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akbar DH (2001) Bacterial pneumonia: comparison between diabetics and non diabetics. Acta Diabetol 38: 77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alkrinawi S, Reed MH, Pasterkamp H (1995) Pulmonary blastomycosis in children: findings on chest radiographs. AJR Am J Roentgenol 165: 651–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aquino SL, Dunagan DP, Chiles C, Haponik EF (1998) Herpes simplex virus 1 pneumonia: patterns on CT scans an conventional chest radiographs. J Comput Assist Tomogr 22: 795–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arbona GA, Tarver RD, Conces DJ Jr (2000) Angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Semin Respir Infect 15:178–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Argyro E, Voloudaki MD, Diamantis P (2000) Q fever pneumonia: CT findings. Radiology 215: 880–883Google Scholar
  8. Bakshi NA, Volk EE (2001) Pulmonary mucormycosis diagnosed bei fine needle aspiration cytology. A case report. Acta Cytol 45:411–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balloul E, Couderc LJ, Molina JM et al. (1997) Pulmonary cryptococcosis during HIV infection. 15 cases. Rev Mal Respir 14: 365–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron AD, Hollander H (1993) Pseudomonas aeruginiosa bronchopulmonary infection in human immunodeficiency virus disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 148: 992–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartlett JG (1993) Anaerobic bacterial infections of the lung and pleural space. Clin Infect Dis 16: 248–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beasley MB, Franks TJ, Calvin JR et al. (2002) Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:1064–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bielawski B C, Harrington D, Joseph E (2001) A solitary pulmonary nodule with zoonotic implications. Chest 119: 1250–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boiselle PM, Crans CA Jr, Kaplan MA (1999) The changing face of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AI patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 172: 1301–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bresson-Hadni S, Vuitton DA (2001) Echinococcoses. Rev Prat 51:2091–2098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Broderick LS, Conces DF Jr, Tarver RD et al. (1996) Pulmonary aspergillosis: a spectrum of disease. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 37:491–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown MJ, Worthy SA, Flint JD, Muller NL (1998) Invasive aspergillosis in the immunocompromised host: utilit computed tomography and bronchoalveolar lavage. Clin Radiol 53:255–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bryce EA, Smith JA, Tweeddale M, Andruschak BJ, Maxwell MR (1993) Dissemination of Bacillus cereus in an intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 14: 459–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caillot D, Couaillier JF, Bernard A et al. (2001) Increasing volume and changing characteristics of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis on sequential thoracic computed tomography scans in patients with neutropenia. J Clin Oncol 19: 253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cannon JW (2002) Necrotizing clostridial pneumonia: a case report and review of the literature. Mil Med 167: 85–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Carlisle LK (1999) Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Clin Pediatr (Philadelphia) 38: 301–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chang CC, Chung CL, Huang CL, Wang FC (2001 ) Legionnaires’ disease in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 34: 76–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chang CC, Chung CLK, Huang CL et al. (2001) Legionnaires disease in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 34: 76–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chang FY (1998) Multilobar consolidation with abscess formation caused by Legionella pneumophila: an unusual chest radiographic presentation. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 31: 200–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cheon JE, Im JG, Kim MY et al. (1998) Thoracic actinomycosis: CT findings. Radiology 209: 229–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cleri DJ, Vernaleo JR, Lombardi LJ et al. (1997) Plague pneumonia disease caused by Yersinia pestis. Semin Respir Infect 12:12–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Collins DM, Dillard TA, Grathwohl KM et al. (1999) Bronchial mucormycosis with progressive air trapping. Mayo Clin Proc 74: 698–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Corbett EL, Hay M, Churchyard GJ et al. (1999) Mycobacterium kansasii and M. scrofulaceum isolates from HIV-negative South African gold miners: incidence, clinical significance and radiology. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 3: 501–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cortes G, Alvarez D, Saus C, Alberti S (2002) Role of lung epithehal cells in defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Infect Immun 70:1075–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cosentini R, Blasi F, Raccanelli R et al. (1996) Severe community-acquired pneumonia: a possible role for Chlamydia pneumoniae. Respiration 63: 61–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crans CA Jr, Boiselle PM (1999) Imaging features of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 40: 251–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Denning DW (2001) Chronic forms of pulmonary aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 7: 25–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dicpinigaitis PV, Levy DE, Gnass RD et al. (1995) Pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus in a patient with Aids: review of incidence and report of an atypical roentgenographic presentation. South Med J 88: 586–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Diederich S, Roos N, Holst D et al. (1992) Legionnaires’ disease in intensive care patients. Results of film thoracic radiography. Radiologe 32: 530–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dissel van JT, Kullberg BJ, Berg van den PC, Steenbergen van JE (2001) Anthrax due to deliberate infection. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 145: 2364–2365Google Scholar
  36. Dupuis G, Petite J, Peter O et al. (1987) An important outbreak of human Q fever in a Swiss alpine valley. Int J Epidemiol 16: 282–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ebihara T, Sasaki, H (2002) Image in clinical medicine. Bronchiectasis with Mycobacteri avium complex infection. N Engl J Med 346: 1372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ebnother M, Schoenenberger RA, Perruchoud AP et al. (2001) Severe bronchiolitis in acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Virchows Arch 439: 818–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Endo S, Murayama F, Yamaguchi T et al. (2002) Surgical considerations for pulmonary actinomycosis. Ann Thorac Surg 74:185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ernst A, Gordon FD, Hayek J et al. (1998) Lung ab cess complicating Legionella micdadei pneumonia in adult liver transplant recipient: case report and review. Transplantation 65: 130–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ewig S, Paar WD, Pakos E et al. (1998) Nosocomial ventilator-associated pneumonias caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in non-immunosuppressed, non-neutropenic patients. Pneumologie 52:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Falsey AR, Walsh EE, Hayden FG (2002) Rhinovirus and coronavirus infection-associated hospitalization among older adults. J Infect Dis 185:1338–1341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Faul JL, Hoang K, Schmoker J et al. (1999). Constrictive pericarditis due to coccidiomycosis. Ann Thorac Surg 68:1407–1409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ferlintz R (1974) Lungen und Bronchialerkrankungen. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 356Google Scholar
  45. Fishman JE, Batt HD (1996) Cytomegalovirus pneumonia manifesting as a focal mass in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. South Med J 89:1121–1122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Flickinger FW, Sathyanarayana, White JE et al. (1993) Cryptococcal pneumonia occurring as an infiltrative mass simulating carcinoma in an immunocompetent host: plain film CT, and MRI findings. M South Med J 86: 450–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Foucault C, Barrau K, Brouqui P, Raoult D (2002) Bartonella quintana bacteremia among homeless people. Clin Infect Dis 35: 684–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Franquet T, Muller NL, Gimenez A et al. (2001) Spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis: histologic, clinical, and radiologic findings. Radiographics 21: 825–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Franquet T, Serrano F, Gimenez A et al. (2002) Necrotizing aspergillosis of large airways: CT findings in eight patients. J Comput Assist Tomogr 26: 342–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Funari M, Kavakama J, Shikanai-Yasuda MA et al. (1999) Chronic pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (South America blastomycosis): high-resolution CT findings in 41 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 173: 59–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Garcia-Garai N, Gutierrez-Macias A, Tirapu-Puyal JM, Martinez-C JM (1999) Out of hospital pneumonia by Morganella morganii. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 17: 251–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Garcia-Montero M, Rodriguez-Garcia JL, Calvo P et al. (1995) Pneumonia caused by Listeria monocytogenes. Respiration 62:107–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Germaud P, Caillet S, Caillon J et al. (1999) Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus in non-HIV infected adult patients. Rev Pneumol Clin 55: 83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Giron J, Poey C, Fajadet P et al. (1998) CT-guided percutaneous treatment of inoperable pulmonary aspergillomas: a study of 40 cases. Eur J Radiol 28: 235–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Giuigay J, Cuguilliere A, Miltgen J et al. (1998) American pulmonary histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. Rev Pneumol Clin 54: 311–320Google Scholar
  56. Gottstein B, Reichen J (2002) Hydatid lung disease (echinococcosis/hydatidosis). Clin Chest Med 23: 397–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gotway MB, Dawn SK, Caoili EM et al. (2002) The radiologic spectrum of pulmonary Aspergillus infections. J Comput Assist Tomogr 26: 159–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Govind Mukundan, Fishman EK (2000) Pulmonary and hepatic actinomycosis: atypical radiologic findings of an uncommon infection. Clinic Imaging 24: 78–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Greenberg SB (2002) Respiratory viral infections in adults. Curr Opin Pulm Med 8: 201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Greene JN, Herndon P, Nadler JP, Sandin RL (1993) Case report: Yersinia enterocolitica necrotizing pneumonia in immunocompromised patient. Am J Med Sci 305: 171–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gris P, Vincke G, Delmez JP, Dierckx JP (1989) Neisseria sicca pneumonia and bronchiectasis. Eur Respir J 2: 685–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hauggaard A, Ellis M, Ekelund L (2002) Early chest radiography and CT in the diagnosis, management and outcome of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Acta Radiol 43: 292–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hodina M, Hanquinet S, Cotting J et al. (2002) Imaging of cavitary necrosis in complicated childhood pneumonia. Eur Radiol 12: 391–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Huang L, Stansell J, Osmond D et al. (1999) Performance of an algorithm to detect Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in symptomatic HIV-infected persons. Pulmonar complications of HIV infection study group. Chest 115:1025–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ichikado K, Suga M, Muller NL et al. (2002) Acute interstitial pneumonia: comparison of high-resolution computed tomography findings between survivors and nonsurvivors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165: 1465–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Inglesby TV, Dennis DT, Henderson DA et al. (2000) Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. JAMA 283: 2281–2290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ison MG, Hayden FG (2002) Viral infections in immunocom-promised patients: what’s new with respiratory viruses? Curr Opin Infect Dis 15: 355–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Iwahara T, Ichiyama S, Nada T et al. (1994) Clinical and epidemiologic investigations of nosocomial pulmonary infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chest 105: 826–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kadivar MR, Kajbaf TZ, Karimi A, Alborzi A (2000) Childhood visceral leishmaniasis complicated by bacterial infections. East Mediterr Health J 6: 879–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kaiser L, Couchb RB, Galassoc GJ (1999) First international symposium on influenza and other respiratory viruses. Antiviral Res 42:149–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kang EY, Pätz EF Jr, Muller NL (1996) Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings. J Comput Assist Tomog 20: 295–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kato T, Usami I, Morita H et al. (2002) Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis in pneumoconi clinical and radiologic findings in 10 patients. Chest 121:118–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kauffman CA, Hedderwick S (1997) Opportunistic fungal infections: filamentous fungi and cryptococcosis. Geriatrics 52:40–42,47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Keane J, Gochuico B, Kasznica JM, Kornfeld H (1998) Usual interstitial pneumonitis responsive to corticosteroids following varicella pneumonia. Chest 113: 249–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ketai LH, Kelsey CA, Jordan K et al. (1998) Distinguishing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome from acute respiratory distress syndrome by chest rediography: are the different radiographic manifestations of increased alveolar permeability? J Thorac Imaging 13: 172–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kilani T, El Hammami S (2002) Pulmonary hydatid and other lung parasitic infections. Curr Opin Pulm Med 8: 218–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kim CK, Chung CY, Kim JS et al. (2000) Late abnormal findings on high-resolution computed tomography after Mycoplasma pneumonia. Pediatrics 105: 372–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kim HY, Song KS, Goo JM et al (2001) Thoracic sequelae and complications of tuberculosis. Radiographics 21: 839–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kim JS, Ryu CW, Lee SI et al. (1999) High-resolution CT findings of varicella-zoster pneumonia. AJR Am J Roentgenol 172:113–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kim MJ, Lee KS, Kim J et al. (2001) Crescent sign in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: frequency related CT and clinical factors. J Comput Assist Tomogr 25: 305–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Klotz F, Hovette P, Mbaye PS et al. (1998) Pulmonary manifestations of schistosomiasis. Rev Pneumol Clin 54: 353–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ko JP, Kim DH, Shepard JA (2002) Pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. J Thorac Imaging 17: 70–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. L’Her P, Vaylet F, Hovette P (1998) Pulmonary parasitoses. General aspects. Rev Pneumol Clin 54: 321–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lambertucci JR (2002) Pulmonary nodules on CT scan of the Lungs in acute schistosomiasis. Br J Radiol 75:491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Laumen F (1970) Coccidioidomycosis or pulmonary tuberculosis. Prax Pneumol 24: 374–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lerolle N, Zahar JR, Duboc V et al. (2002) Pneumonia involving Legionella pneumophlla and Listeria monocytogenes in an immunocompromised patient: An Unu coinfection. Respiration 69:359–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lesobre V, Azarian R, Gagnadoux F et al. (1999) Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumopathy. 10 cases. Presse Med 28: 59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Liu PY, Lau YJ, Hu BS et al. (1994) Use of PCR to study epidemiology of Serratio marcescens isolates in nosocomial infection. J Clin Microbiol 32:1935–1938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lodenkämper R, Sagebiehl D, Meyer C et al. (2000) Die Tuberkulosesituatation in Deutschland 1998. Pneumologie 54: 324–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Maeno Y, Sando Y, Ubukata M et al. (2000) Pulmonary nocardiosis during immunosuppressive therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Respirology 5: 393–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Manfredi R, Nanetti A, Ferri M, Chiodo F (2000) Clinical and microbiological survey of Serratio marcescens infection during HIV disease. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 19: 248–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Manfredi R, Nanetti A, Valentini R, Chiodo F (2000) Moraxella catarrhalis pneumonia during HIV disease. J Chemother 12:406–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mardus P, LeGrand JL, Chardon H, Garrigues B (1998) Enterobacter aerogenes pneumopathy treated by a cefepime sulbactam-gentamicin combination. Presse Med 27: 804–805Google Scholar
  94. Marrie J (1995) Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever) pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 21 (Suppl): S253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Marrie TJ (1992) Bacteriemic pneumococcal pneumonia: a continuously evolving disease. J Infect 24: 247–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Martino R, Gomez L, Pericas R et al. (2000) Bacteraemia caused by non-glucose-fermenting gramnegative bacilli and aeromonas species in patients with haematologic malignancies and solid tumours. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 19: 320–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Masood A, Bensadoun ES (2002) A 62-years-old man with multiple pulmonary nodular opacities. Radiology 121:982–984Google Scholar
  98. Matar LD, McAdams HP, Palmer SM et al. (1999) Respiratory viral infections in lung transplant recipients: radiologic findings with clinical correlation. Radiology 213: 735–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Maycher B, O’Connor R, Long R (2000) Computed tomographic abnormalities in Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease include the mosaic pattern of reduced attenuation. Can Assoc Radiol J 51: 93–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Mbaye PS, Koffi N, Camara P et al. (1998) Pleuropulmonary manifestations of amebiasis. Rev Pneumol Clin 54: 346–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. McGuinnes G, Scholes JV, Garay SM et al. (1994) Cytomegalovirus pneumonitis: spectrum of parenchymal CT findings with pathologic correlation in 21 Aids patients. Radiology 192:451–459Google Scholar
  102. Mina B, Dym JP, Kuepper F et al. (2002) Fatal inhalational anthrax with unknown source of exposure 61-year-old woman in New York City. JAMA 287: 858–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Murata H, Yoshimoto H, Masuo M et al. (2001) Fulminant pneumonia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in a man with chronic renal failure and liver cirrhosis. Intern Med 40: 118–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nenoff P, Kellermann S, Borte G et al. (2000) Pulmonary nocardiosis with cutaneous involvement mimicking metastasizing lung carcinoma in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukaemia. Eur J Dermatol 10: 47–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Neurath M, Benzing A, Knolle P et al. (1993) Acute respiratory failure in tropical malaria during pregnancy. Successful treatment using extracorporeal CO2 elimination. Dtsch Med Wschr 118:1060–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Odev K, Caliskan U, Emlik D et al. (2002) Pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium due to intracavitary aspergilloma: an unusual complication of fungal pneumonia. Pediatr Radiol 32: 143–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Oikonomou A, Hansell DM (2002) Organizing pneumonia: the many morphological faces. Eur Radiol 12: 1486–1496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Oudiz R, Mahaisavariya P, Peng SK et al. (1995) Disseminated coccidioidomycosis with rapid progression to effusive-constrictive pericarditis. J Am So Echocardiogr 8: 947–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pampiglione S, Rivasi F, Angeli G et al. (2001) Dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens in Italy, an emergent zoonosis: report of 60 new cases. Histopathology 38: 344–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Panwalker AP, Trager GM (1983) Necrotizing pneumonia and empyema caused by Bacillus cereus and Clostridium bifermentans. Am Rev Respir Dis 128: 333–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Paytubi C, Negredo E, Ferrer S et al. (2001) Varicella pneumonia in the adult. Study of 9 cases. Ann Med Interna 18: 312–316Google Scholar
  112. Penn CC, Klotz SA (1997) Anthrax pneumonia. Semin Respir Infect 12: 28–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Pieron R, Lesobre B, Mafart Y et al. (1976) Pulmonary, pleural and pericardial manifestations of rickettsiosis. Poumon Coeur 32:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Pijl JW van der, Binkhuysen FH, Alberts C (1993) Mediastinal lymphadenopathy and Mycoplasma pneumonia atypical presentation? AJR Am J Roentgenolog 160: 893–894Google Scholar
  115. Pin I, Grenet D, Scsheid P et al. (2000) Specific aspects and care of lung involvement in adults with cystic fibrosis. Rev Mal Respir 17: 758–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Polverosi R, Zanellato E, Zanlungo P (1997) Slow-resolution pneumonia: radiologic and tomodensitomet features. Radiol Med (Torino) 93: 520–526Google Scholar
  117. Prosanne O, Chalaoui J, Sylvestre J, Lefebvre R (1984) Small nodular pattern in the lungs due to opportunistic toxoplasmosis. J Can Assoc Radiol 35:186–188Google Scholar
  118. Pu FS (1989) X-ray manifestations of trichinosis on chest radiograph (analysis of 15 cases). Zhonghua Fan She Xue Za Zhi 23:21–22Google Scholar
  119. Ramos G, Orduna A, Garcia-Yuste M (2001) Hydatid cyst of the lung: diagnosis and treatment. World J Surg 25:46–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Reittner P, Muller NL, Heyneman L et al. (2000) Myoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: radiographic and high resolution CT features in 28 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174: 37–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Rice RP, Loda F (1966) A roentgenographic analysis of respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in infants. Radiology 87: 1021–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Rodriguez B, Marenco S, Orihel TC (2002) Human pulmonary dirofilariasis in El Salvador. Parasite 9:195–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ruiz M, Ewig S, Marcos MA et al. (1999) Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia: impact of age, comorbidity, and severity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160: 397–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sanford JP (1983) Landmark perspective: tularemia. JAMA 250;3225–3226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sarosi GA, Parker JD, Doto IL, Tosh FE (1970) Chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. N Eng J Med 283: 325–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sazon DA, Hoo GW, Santiago S (1998) Hemoptysis as the sole presentation of Pasteurella multocida infection. South Med J 91:484–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Schaller KF, Fischer H, Krauss F, Rieth H (1970) Coccidiomycosis in German. Differential diagnosis of histoplasmosis and tuberculosis. Mykosen 13:215–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Schreiner GE (1996) Hanta ist coming. Artif Organs 20: 451–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Schwartz E, Rozenman J, Perelman M (2000) Pulmonary manifestations of early schistosome infection nonimmune travelers. Am J Med 109: 718–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Schwarz E (2002) Pulmonary schistosomiasis. Clin Chest Med 23:433–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Shah RM, Wechsler R, Salazar AM, Spirn PW (2002) Spectrum of CT findings in nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. J Thorac Imaging 17: 53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Simsir A, Oldach D, Forest G, Henry M (2001) Rhodococcus equi and cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant patient: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 24: 129–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Simsir A, Oldach D, Forest G, Henry M Rhodococcus equi and cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant patient: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagnost Cytopathol 24: 129–131Google Scholar
  134. Gueteau N, Darras A, Croxo C, Mulliez P (1991) Bilateral Torulopsis glabrata pneumonia. Rev Pneumol Clin 47: 137–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sliman R, Rehm S, Shlaes DM (1987) Serious infections caused by Bacillus species. Medicine (Baltimore) 66: 218–223Google Scholar
  136. Snydman DR, Jacobus NV; McDermott LA et al. (2002) National survey on the susceptibility of Bacteroides Fragilis group: report and analysis of trends for 1997–2000. Clin Infect Dis 35:126–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Srinath L, Ahkee S, Huang A et al. (1994) Acute millary blastomycosis in an Aids patient. J Ky Med Assoc 92:450–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Starr, JC, Che H, Montgomery J (1995) Cryptococcal pneumonia simulating chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. South Med J 88:845–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Strauss, R, Mueller A, Wehler M et al. (2001) Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis due to Bacillus cereus. Clin Infect Dis 33: E39–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Subhash HS, Christopher DJ, Roy A, Cherian AM (2001) Pulmonary nocardiosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection: a tuberculosis mimic. J Postgrad Med 47: 30–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sundar K, Rosado-Santos H, Reimer L et al. (2001) Unusual presentation of thoracic Pneumocystis carinii infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 32:498–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Szyper-Kravitz M, Lang R, Manor Y, Lahav M (2001) Early invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a leukemia patient linked to aspergillus contaminated marijuana smoking. Leuk Lymphoma 14:1433–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tanaka H, Koba H, Honma S et al. (1996) Relationships between radiological pattern and cell-mediate immune response in Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Eur Respir J 9:669–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tastepe AI, Ulasan NG, Liman ST et al. (1998) Thoracic actinomycosis. Eur J Cardiothorac Sur 14: 578–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Thomas CF Jr, Limper AH (1998) Pneumocystis pneumonia: clinical presentation and diagnosis patients with and wit out acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Sem Respir Infect 13: 289–295Google Scholar
  146. Tutor JD, Schoumacher RA, Chesney PJ (2000) Chylothorax associated with histoplasmosis in a child. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:262–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Umans U, Golding RP, Duraku S, Manoliu RA (2001) Herpes simplex virus 1 pneumonia: conventional chest radiograph pattern. Eur Radiol 11: 990–994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Vestweber JG, Klemm RD, Leipold HW et al. (1990) Clinical and pathologic studies of experimentally induces Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in calves. Am J Vet Res 51: 1792–1798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Vikerfors T, Grandien M, Olcen P (1987) Respiratory syncytial virus infections in adults. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 561–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Viterbo V, Midiri M, Stellacci G et al. (2000) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi infection. Role of computerized tomography. Radiol Med (Torino) 99: 443–448Google Scholar
  151. Voloudaki AE, Kofteridis DP, Tritou IN et al. (2000) Q fever pneumonia: CT findings, z 215: 880–883Google Scholar
  152. Waldman AD, Day JH, Shaw P, Bryceson AD (2001) Subacute pulmonary granulomatous schistosomiasis: high resolution CT appearances — another cause of the halo sign. Br J Radiol 74:1052–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Walker DH, Crawford CG, Cain BG (1980) Rickettsial infection of the pulmonary microcirculation: the basis für interstitial pneumonitis in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Hum Pathol 11:263–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wanahita A, Goldsmith EA, Musher DM (2002) Conditions associated with leukocytosis in a tertiary care hospital, with particular attention to the role of infection caused by Clostridium difficile. Clin Infect Dis 34: 1585–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wiesman IM, Podbielski FJ, Hernan MJ et al. (1999) Thoracic blastomycosis and empyema. JSLS 3: 75–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Wiesman IM, Podbielski FJ, Hernan MJ et al. (1999) Thoracic blastomycosis and empyema 3: 75–78Google Scholar
  157. Winer-Muram HAT, Jennings SG, Wunderink RG et al. (1995) Ventilator-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia: radiographic findings. Radiology 195: 247–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Wittram C, Weisbrod GL (2002) Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in immunocompetent patients: radiography-CT correlation. Br J Radiol 75: 340–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Won HJ, Lee KS, Cheon JE et al. (1998) Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: prediction at thin-section in patients with neutropenia — a prospective study. Radiology 208: 777–782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Won HJ, Lee KS, Cheon JE et al. (1998) Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: prediction at thin-section in patients with neutropenia — a prospective study 208: 777–782Google Scholar
  161. Yabuuchi H, Murayama S, Murakami J et al. (2002) Correlation of immunologic status with high-resolution CT a distributions of pulmonary tuberculosis. Acta Radiol 43:44–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Weiterführende Literatur

  1. American Thoracic Society (1995) Hospital-acquired pneumonia in adults: Diagnosis, assessment of severity, initial antimicrobial therapy, and preventative strategies. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153:1711–1725Google Scholar
  2. American Thoracic Society (2001) Guidelines for the management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163:1730–1754Google Scholar
  3. Austin, JH, Müller N, Friedmann PJ et al. (1996) Glossary of terms for CT of the lungs. Recommendations of the nomenclature committee of the Fleischner Society. Radiology 200:327–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Austrian R, Gold J (1994) Pneumococcal bacteriemia with empirical reference to bacteriemic pneumococcal pneumonia. Ann Intern Med 60: 765Google Scholar
  5. Bartlett JG, Dowell SF, Mandel LA et al. (2000) Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Guidelines from the Infectious Disease Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 31: 347–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biehl F, Cerny A (2002) Bakterielle Pneumonien. Internist 43: 375–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaha H (1976) Die Lungentuberkulose im Röntgenbild. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown PD, Stephen AL (1998) Community acquired pneumonia. Lancet 352: 1295–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eitzen E, Pavlin J, Cieslak T et al. (1998) Medical management of biological casualties handbook, 3rd edn. US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Dertrick. pp 15–21, 40–51Google Scholar
  10. Estes RJ, Meduri GU (1995) The pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Mechanism of bacterial transcolonization and airway inoculation. Intensive Care Med 21: 365–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fein AM (1999) Pneumonia in the elderly: Overview of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Clin Infect Dis 28: 726–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM et al. (1997) A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med 336: 243–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fine MJ, Smith MA, Carson CA et al. (1996) Prognosis and outcome of patients with community acquired pneumonia. JAMA 275:13–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Tuddenham WJ (1984) Glossary of terms for thoracic radiology: recommendations of the nomenclature committee of the Fleischner Society. Amer J Radiol 143: 509–517Google Scholar
  15. Francioli P, Chastre J, Langer M et al. (1997) Ventilator-associated pneumonia — understanding epidemiology and pathogenesis to guide prevention and empiric therapy. Clin Microb Infect 3 (Suppl): 61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fraser RS, Muller NL, Colman N, Pare PD (1999) Fraser and Pare’s diagnosis of diseases of the chest. 4th edn. Vol II partV pp 695–1066Google Scholar
  17. Henderson DA (1999) The looming threat of bioterrorism. Science 283:1279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Infection Study Group (1993) Pulmonary Complication of HIV design of a prospective study of the pulmonary complications of human immunodefiency virus infection. J Clin Epidemiol 46:497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Konietzko N, Loddenkemper R (1999) Tuberkulose. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Lange S (1996) Radiologische Diagnostik der Lungenerkrankungen. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  21. Leeper KV (1996) Severe community-acquired pneumonia. Sem Resp Inf 11:96–108Google Scholar
  22. Loddenkemper R et al. (1998) Die Tuberkulosesituation in Deutschland. Pneumologie 54: 324–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lode H, Erbes R, Geerde-Fenge H et al. (2000) Nosokomiale Pneumonie. Epidemiologie, Pathogenese und Diagnostik. Internist 41: 1170–1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mandell D, Bennett SM (2000) Principles and practice of infectious diseases, 5th edn. Churchill LivingstoneGoogle Scholar
  25. Marrie TJ (1990) Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly. Semin Respir Infect 5: 260–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mayhall CG (1997) Nosocomial pneumonia: diagnosis and prevention. Infect Dis Clin North Am 11:427–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morgenroth K, Herzog H, Opferkuch W (1983) Pneumonie. Pharmazeutische Verlagsgesellschaft PVGGoogle Scholar
  28. Ravago TS, Mosniam J, Alem F (2000) Evaluation of community acquired pneumonia guidelines. J Medical Systems 24: 289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rello J. Quinta E, Ausina V et al. (1993) A three-year study of severe community-acquired pneumonia with emphasis on outcome. Chest 103: 232–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schinz (1988) Radiologische Diagnostik in Klinik und Praxis; Bd 1, Teil 2: Lunge, Pleura, Thoraxwand. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Schneller W (2000) Die Stellung der primären tuberkulösen Nekrose (Tendeloo) im Vermehrungszyklus des Mycobakterium tuberculosis. Pneumologie 54: 333–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Stout JE, Yu VL (1997) Legionellosis. N Engl J Med 337: 682–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vincent JL, Bihari DJ, Suter PM et al. (1995) The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe. Results of the European Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) Study. EPIC International Advisory Committee. JAMA 247: 639–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Woodhead M (1998) Community-acquired pneumonia guidelines — an international comparation. View from Europe. Chest 113:183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siegfried Tuengerthal
    • 1
  1. 1.Chefarzt der RöntgenabteilungKrankenhaus RohrbachHeidelberg

Personalised recommendations