Advertisement

Keywords

Multiple Sclerosis Myelin Basic Protein Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis Chronic Relapse Experimental Allergic Neuritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abramsky O (1979) Immunological studies of isolated oligodendrocytes in relation to multiple sclerosis. In: Rose FC (ed) Clinical Neuroimmunology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 344–353Google Scholar
  2. Ackermann HP, Ulrich J, Heitz PV(1981) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: exsudate and cellular infiltrates in the spinal cord of Lewis rats. Acta Neuropathol 54: 149–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams CWM (1975) The onset and progression of the lesion in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 25: 165–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams CWM (1977) Pathology of multiple sclerosis: progression of the lesion. Br Med Bull 33: 15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Adams RD, Kubik CS (1952) The morbid anatomy of the demyelating diseases. Am J Med 12: 510–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Adams RD, Cammermeyer J, Denny-Brown D (1948) Acute necrotising haemorrhagic encephalopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 8: 1–29Google Scholar
  7. Agrawal HC, Hartman BK, Shearer WT, Kalmback S, Margolis FG (1977) Purification and immunohistochemical localization of rat brain proteolpid protein. J Neurochem 28: 495–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aita JF, Bennet DR, Anderson RE, Ziter F (1978) Cranial CT appearance of acute multiple sclerosis. Neurology 28: 251–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen IV, Mc Keown SR (1979), A histological, histochemical and biochemical study of the macroscopically normal white matter in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 41: 81–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Allen IV, Glover G, McKeown SR, McCormick D (1979), The cellular origin of lysosomal enzymes in the plaque in multiple sclerosis. II. A histochemical study with combined demonstration of myelin and acid phosphatase. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 5: 197–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Allen IV, Glover G, Anderson R (1981), Abnormalities in the macroscopically normal white matter in cases of mild or spinal multiple sclerosis (MS). Acta Neuropathol [Suppl] VII: 176–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alvord EC (1970) Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and “allergic” neuroencephalopathies. In: Vinken PI, Bruyn GW(eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol. 9. Elsevier, New York, pp 500–571Google Scholar
  13. Alvord EC Jr (1980) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis induced in monkeys with myelin basic protein. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 39: 338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Alvord EC Jr, Shaw CM, Hruby S, Kies M.W. (1979) Has myelin basic protein received a fair trial in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 6: 461–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Andrews JM (1972), The ultrastructural neuropathology of multiple sclerosis. In: Wolfgram F, Ellison GW, Stevens JG (eds) Multiple sclerosis. Immunology, virology and ultrastructure. Academic, New York, pp 23–52Google Scholar
  16. Anton G, Wohlwill Jr (1912) Multiple nicht eitrige Enzephalomyelitis und multiple Sklerose. Z gesamt Neurol Psychiatr 12: 31–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Appel SH, Bornstein MB (1964) The application of tissue culture to the study of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. II. Serum factors, responsible for demyelination. J exp Med 119: 303–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Arnason BGW, Winkler GF, Hadler NM (1969) Cell mediated demyelination of peripheral nerve in culture. Lab Invest 21: 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Arnon R, Crisp E, Kelley R, Ellison GW, Myers LM, Tourtelotte WW (1980) Antiganglioside antibodies in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 46: 179–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Aström KE, Waksman BH (1962) The passive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and neuritis with living lymph node cells. J Pathol Bacteriol 83: 89–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Auff E, Budka H (1980) Immunohistologische Methoden in der Neuropathologie. In: Jellinger K, Gross H (eds) Current topics in neuropathology, vol 6. Facultas, Wien, pp 21–30Google Scholar
  22. Baker AB (1943) Guillain-Barré’s disease (encephalo-myelo-radiculitis). A review of 33 cases. Lancet 63: 384–398Google Scholar
  23. Baló J (1928) Encephalitis periaxialis concentrica. Arch Neurol 19: 242–264Google Scholar
  24. Becker NH, Hirano A Zimmermann HM (1968) Observations of the distribution of exogenous peroxidase in the rat cerebrum. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 27: 439–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bernard CCA (1976) Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice: genetic control of susceptibility. J Immunogenet 3: 263–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bernard CCA, Carnegie PR (1975) Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice: immunologic response to mouse spinal cord and myelin basic proteins. J Immunol 114: 1537–1540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Blakemore WF (1973) Remyelination in the superior cerebellar peduncle in the mouse following demyelination induced by feeding cuprizone. J Neurol Sci 20: 73–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Blakemore WF (1975) Remyelination by Schwann cells of axons demyelinated by intraspinal injection of 6-aminonicotinamide in the rat. J Neurocytol 4: 745–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Blakemore WF (1976) Invasion of Schwann cells into the spinal cord following local injection of lysolecithin. Neuropathol appl Neurobiol 2: 21–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Blakemore WF, Paterson RC (1975) Observations on the interactions of Schwann cells and astrocytes following X-irradiation of neonatal rat spinal cord. J Neurocytol 4: 573–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bornstein MB, Appel SH (1961) The application of tissue culture to the study of experimental “allergic” encephalomyelitis. I. Patterns of demyelination. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 20: 141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bornstein MB, Appel SH (1965) Tissue culture studies of demyelination. Ann NY Acad Sci 122: 280–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bornstein MB, Raine CS (1970) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: antiserum inhibition of myeli-nation in vitro. Lab Invest 23: 536–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bornstein MB, Iwanami H (1971) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: demyelinating activity of serum and sensitised lymphe node cells on cultured nerve tissue. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 30: 240–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brett M, Weller RO (1978) Intracellular serum proteins in cerebral gliomas and metastatic tumors: an immunoperoxidase study. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 4: 263–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brightman MW (1965) The distribution within the brain of ferritin injected into the cerebrospinal fluid compartments. Part 2 (Parenchymal distribution). Am J Anat 117: 193–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Brightman MW (1977) The morphology of blood brain interfaces. Exp Eye Res [Suppl] 1-25Google Scholar
  38. Brightman MW, Klatzo I, Olsson Y, Reese TS (1970) The blood brain barrier to proteins under normal and pathological conditions. J Neurol Sci 10: 215–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Broman T (1964) Blood brain barrier damage in multiple sclerosis. Supra-vital test observations. Acta Neurol Scand [Suppl] 10: 21–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Brosnan CF, Stoner GL, Bloom BR, Wisniewski HM (1977) Studies on demylination by activated lymphocytes in the rabbit eye. II. Antibody dependent cell mediated demyelination. J Immunol 118: 2103–2110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Brostoff SW, Powers JM (1975) Allergic encephalomyelitis: modification of the response by synthetic membrane structures containing bovine myeline basic protein and cerebroside. Brain Res 93: 175–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Brown AM, McFarlin DE, Raine CS (1981) Chronic relapsing EAE in the mouse. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 40: 320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bubis JJ, Luse SA (1964) An electron microscopic study of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the rat. Am J Pathol 44: 299–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Bunge MB, Bunge RP, Ris H (1961) Ultrastructural study of remyelination in an experimental lesion in adult cat spinal cord. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 10: 67–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Burks JS, Devald-MacMillan B, Jankovsky L, Gerdes J (1979) Characterization of coronarviruses isolated using multiple sclerosis autopsy brain material. Neurology 29: 547Google Scholar
  46. Cammer W, Bloom BR, Norton WT, Gordon S (1978) Degradation of basic protein in myelin by neutral proteases secreted by stimulated macrophages: a possible mechanism of inflammatory demyelination. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 1554–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Carp R, Licursi PC, Merz PA, Merz GS (1972) Decreased percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in mouse peripheral blood after inoculation of material from multiple sclerosis patients. J Exp Med 136: 618–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Caspary EA (1977) Humoral factors involved in immune processes in multiple sclerosis and allergic encephalomyelitis. Br Med Bull 33: 50–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Charcot JM (1868) Histologie de la sclerose en plaque. Gaz Hôpital (Paris) 41: 554–566Google Scholar
  50. Colover J (1980) A new pattern of spinal-cord demyelination in guinea pigs with acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mimicking multiple sclerosis. Br J Exp Pathol 61: 390–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cook RD, Wisniewski HM (1973) The role of oligodendroglia and astroglia in Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve. Brain Res 61: 191–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cook SD, Dowling PC (1981) The role of autoantibodies and immune complexes in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol [Suppl] 9: 70–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Courville CB (1970) Concentric sclerosis. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 9. Elsevier, New York, pp 437–451Google Scholar
  54. Cutler RWP, Devel RK, Barlow CF (1967) Albumin exchange between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Arch Neurol 17: 261–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cuzner ML, Davison AN (1979) The scientific basis of multiple sclerosis. In: Baum H, Gergely J (eds) Molecular aspects of medicine, vol 2. Pergamon, New York, p 147Google Scholar
  56. Dal Canto MC, Rabinowitz SG (1982) Experimental models of virus-induced demyelination in the central nervous system. Ann Neurol 11: 109–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dal Canto MC, Wisniewski HM, Johnson AB, Brostoff SW, Raine CS (1975) Vesicular disruption of myelin in autoimmune demyelination. J Neurol Sci 24: 313–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dal Canto MC, Rabinowitz SG, Johnson AB (1979) Virus induced demyelination. Production by viral temperature-sensitive mutant. J. Neurol. Sci 42: 155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Daniel PM, Lam DKC, Pratt OE (1981) Changes in the effectiveness of the blood brain and blood spinal cord barriers in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Possible relevance to multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 52: 211–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dawson JW (1916) The histology of disseminated sclerosis. Trans R Soc 50: 517–740Google Scholar
  61. De Preux J, Mair WGP (1974) Ultrastructure of optic nerve in Schilder’s disease, Devic’s disease and disseminated sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol 30: 225–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dévie C (1894) Myélite subaigue compliquée de névrite optique. Bull Med 8: 1033Google Scholar
  63. Dinkier (1904) Zur Kasuistik der multiplen Herdsklerose des Gehirns und Rückenmarks. Dtsch Z Ner-venheilk 26: 233–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dowling PC, Kim SU, Murray MR, Cook SD (1968) Serum 19 S and 7 S demyelinating antibodies in multiple sclerosis. J Immunol 101: 1101–1104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Dubois-Dalq M, Niedieck B, Buyse M (1970) Action of anticerebroside sera on myelinated nervous tissue cultures. Pathologica 5: 331–347Google Scholar
  66. Dubois-Dalq M Schumacher G, Worthington EK (1975), Immunoperoxidase studies on multiple sclerosis brain. Neurology 25: 496Google Scholar
  67. Edvinson L, McKenzie ET (1977) Amine mechanisms in the cerebral circulation. Pharmacol Rev 28: 275–348Google Scholar
  68. Ehrlich P (1885) Das Sauerstoff-Bedürfnis des Organismus. Eine farbenanalytische Studie. Hirschwald, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  69. Eickhoff K, Wikström J, Poser S, Bauer H (1977) Protein profile of cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis with special reference to the function of the blood brain barrier. J Neurol 214: 207–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Esiri MM (1977) Immunoglobulin containing cells in multiple sclerosis plaques. Lancet 2: 478–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Feasby TE, Hahn AF, Gilbert JJ (1980) Passive transfer of demyelinating activity in Guillain-Barré poly-neuropathy. Neurology 30: 363Google Scholar
  72. Feigin I, Popoff N (1966) Regeneration of myelin in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 16: 364–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Felgenhauer K (1974) Protein size and cerebrospinal fluid composition. Klin Wochenschr 52: 1158–1164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ferraro A, Cazzullo CL (1948) Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in monkeys. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 7: 235–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Field EJ (1967) The significance of astroglial hypertrophy in scrapie, Kuru, multiple sclerosis and old age, together with a note on the possible nature of the scrapie agent. Dtsch Z Nervenklinik 192: 265–274Google Scholar
  76. Field EJ (1979) Multiple sclerosis: recent advances in aethiopathogenesis. In: Smith WT, Cavanagh JB (eds) Recent advances in neuropathology I. Churchill, Livingstone, London, pp 277–298Google Scholar
  77. Field EJ, Raine CS (1964) Examination of multiple sclerosis biopsy specimens. 3rd European regional conference on electron microscopy. Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, p 289Google Scholar
  78. Field EJ, Raine CS (1969) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: an electron microscopic study. Am J Path 49: 537–553Google Scholar
  79. Field EJ, Miller H, Russel DS (1962) Observations on glial inclusion bodies in a case of acute disseminated sclerosis. J Clin Pathol 15: 278–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Field EJ, Cowshall S, Narang HK, Bell TM (1972) Viruses in multiple sclerosis. Lancet II: 280–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Finkelnburg (1901), Über Myeloencephalitis disseminata und Sclerosis multiplex acuta mit anatomischem Befund. Dtsch Z Nervenheilk 20: 408–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Fog T (1950) Topographic distribution of plaques in the spinal cord in multiple sclerosis Arch Neurol 63: 382–414Google Scholar
  83. Fontana A, Glieder A, Arrenbrecht St, Grob P (1980a) In vitro stimulation of glia cells by a lymphocyte produced factor. J Neurol Sci 46: 55–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Fontana A, Glieder A, Jost R, Balsiger S, Grob PJ (1980b) Glia stimulating factor: Further analysis of secretion mechanisms. Allergol Immunopathol 8: 454Google Scholar
  85. Fraenkel M, Jakob A (1913) Zur Pathologie der multiplen Sklerose mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der akuten Formen Z. Neurol. 14: 565–603Google Scholar
  86. Freund J, Lipton MM, Morrison LR (1950) Demyelination in the guinea pig in chronic allergic encepha-lomyelitis. Produced by injecting guinea pig brain in oil emulsion containing a variant of mycobacte-rium butyricum. Arch Pathol 50: 108–121Google Scholar
  87. Frick E (1969) Zur Pathogenese entzündlicher Nervenkrankheiten: Über die Bedeutung immunokom-petenter Zellen. Fortschr Med 87: 1191–1194Google Scholar
  88. Frick E (1979) Immunologie des Demyelinisierungsprozesses. In: Schmidt RM (ed) Multiple Sklerose, Epidemiologie, Immunologie, Ultrastruktur. VEB Fischer, Jena, pp 167–259Google Scholar
  89. Frick E, Scheid-Seydel L (1958) Untersuchungen mit J131-markiertem Albumin über Austauschvorgänge zwischen Plasma und Liquor cerebrospinalis. Klin Wochenschr 36: 66–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Friede RL (1961) Enzyme histochemical studies in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 5: 103–113Google Scholar
  91. Friedemann U, Elkeles A (1934) The blood brain barrier in infectious diseases: its permeability to toxins in relation to their electrical charges. Lancet 226: 719–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ghatak NR, Hirano A, Doron Y, Zimmmerman HH (1973) Remyelination in multiple sclerosis with peripheral type myelin. Arch Neurol 29: 262–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gledhill RF, McDonald WI (1977) Morphological characteristics of central demyelination and remyelination; a single fiber study. Ann Neurol 1: 552–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gledhill RF, Harrison BM, McDonald WI (1973) Demyelination and remyelination after acute spinal cord compression. Exp Neurol 38: 472–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Goldmann EE (1913) Vitalfärbung am Zentralnervensystem. Beitrag zur Physiopathologie des Plexus chorioideus und der Hirnhäute. In: Abhandlungen der Königlichen Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse, vol 1. Berlin, pp 1-60Google Scholar
  96. Gonatas NK (1970) Ultrastructural observations in a case of multiple sclerosis. J. Neuropathol Exp Neurol 19: 149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Gonsette R, André-Balisaux G (1965) La permeabilité de vaisseaux cérébraux. Partie 4 (Etude des lésions de la barriére hémato-encéphalique dans la sclérose en plaques). Acta Neurol Psychiat Belg 65: 19–34Google Scholar
  98. Greenfield S, Brostoff S, Eylar EH, Morell P (1973) Protein comparison of myelin of the peripheral nervous system. J Neurochem 20: 1207–1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Gross PM, Teasdale GM, Angerson WJ, Harper AM, (1981) H2-receptors mediate increases of permeability of the blood-brain barrier during arterial histamine infusion. Brain Res 210: 396–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Grundke-Iqbal I, Bornstein MB (1980) Multiple sclerosis: serum gamma globulin and demyelination in culture. Neurology 30: 749–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Grundke-Iqbal I, Lassmann H, Wisniewski HM (1980) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Immunohistochemical studies. Arch Neurol 37: 651–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Grundke-Iqbal I, Raine CS, Johnson AB, Brosnan CF, Bornstein MB (1981) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Characterisation of serum factors causing demyelination and swelling of myelin. J Neurol Sci 50: 63–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gudnadóttir M, Helgadóttir H, Bjarnason O, Jónsdóttir K (1964) Virus isolated from the brain of a patient with multiple sclerosis. Exp Neurol 9: 85–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Guseo A, Jellinger K (1975) The significance of perivascular infiltrations in multiple sclerosis. Neurol 211: 51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gyldensted C (1976) Computer tomography of the cerebrum in multiple sclerosis. Neuroradiology 12: 33–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hallervorden J (1940) Die zentralen Entmarkungserkrankungen. Dtsch Z Nervenheilk 150: 201–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hallpike JF, Adams CWM (1969) Proteolysis and myelin breakdown; a review of recent histochemical and biochemical studies. Histochem J 1: 559–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hallpike JF, Adams CWM, Bayliss OB (1970) Histochemistry of myelin. Proteolysis of normal myelin and release of lipid by extracts of degenerating nerve. Histochem J 2: 315–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hashim GA, Wood DA, Moscarello MA (1980) Myelin lipophilin-induced experimental allergic ence-phalomyelitis in guinea pigs. Progress in clinical and biological research. Neurochem Clin Neurol 39: 21–39Google Scholar
  110. Hasson J, Terry RD, Zimmerman HM (1958) Peripheral neuropathy in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 8: 503–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hauw JJ, Escourolle R (1977) Filaments and multilammellated cytoplasmic inclusions in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Acta Neuropathol 37: 263–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Haymaker W, Kernohan JW(1949) The Laundry-Guillain-Barré syndrome, a clinico-pathological report of fifty fatal cases and a critique of the literature. Medicine 28: 59–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Henschen SE (1896) Akute disseminierte Rückenmarkssklerose mit Neuritis nach Diphtherie bei einem Kinde. Fortschr Med 14: 529–550Google Scholar
  114. Herndon RM, Griffin DE, McCormick U, Weiner LP (1975) Mouse hepatitis virus induced recurrent de-myelination: a preliminary report. Arch Neurol 32: 32–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hirano A, Levine S, Zimmerman HM (1968) Remyelination in the central nervous system after cyanide intoxication. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 27: 234–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hirano A, Dembitzer HM, Becker NH, Levine S, Zimmerman HM (1970) Fine structural alterations of the blood brain barrier in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 29: 432–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hochwald GM (1970) Influx of serum proteins and their concentration in the spinal fluid along the neuraxis. J Neurol Sci 10: 269–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Hughes D, Field EJ (1967) Myelinotoxicity of serum and spinal fluid in multiple sclerosis: a critical assessment. Clin Exp Immunol 2: 295–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hurst EW (1941) Acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis. A previously undefined entity. Med J Aust 2: 1–6Google Scholar
  120. Ibrahim MZM, Adams CWM (1963) The relationship between enzyme activity and neuroglia in plaques of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 26: 101–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ibrahim MZM, Adams CWM (1965) The relations between enzyme activity and neuroglia in early plaques of multiple sclerosis. J Pathol Bacteriol 90: 239–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Itoyama Y, Sternberger NH, Webster H de F, Quarles RH, Cohen SR, Richardson EP (1980) Immuno-cytochemical observations on the distribution of myelin-associated glycoprotein and myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis lesions. Ann Neurol 7: 167–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jacob H (1948) Zur hirnpathologischen Diagnose des akuten und chronisch rezidivierenden Hirnödems. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 179: 158–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jankovic B, Draskoci M, Janjic M (1965) Passive transfer of “allergic” encephalomyelitis with anti brain serum, injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain. Nature 207: 428–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jellinger K (1969) Einige morphologische Aspekte der Multiplen Sklerose. Wien Z Nervenheilk [Suppl] II: 12–37Google Scholar
  126. Jellinger K, Seitelberger F (1958) Akute tödliche Entmarkungsenzephalitis nach wiederholten Hirntrok-kenzellinjektionen. Klin Wochenschr 36: 437–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jervis GA, Koprowski H (1948) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 7: 309–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Jochwed B (1925) Ein Fall einer Erkrankung des Nervensystems im Verlaufe der Schutzimpfungen gegen Wut. Z Gesamt Neurol Psychiatr 41: 583Google Scholar
  129. Karcher D, Lassmann H, Lowenthal A, Kitz K, Wisniewski HM (1982) Antibodies-restricted heterogeneity in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 2: 93–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Karpiak SE, Graf L, Rapport MM (1976) Antiserum to brain gangliosides produces recurrent epilepti-form activity. Science 194: 735–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Keith AB, McDermott JR (1980) Optimum conditions for inducing chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs. J Neurol Sci 46: 353–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ketelaer CJ, Lervitte A, Perier O (1966) Histopathologie de la moette lumbo-sacrée et de la queue de cheval dans une série de cas vérifiés de sclerose. Acta Neurol Scand 42: 33–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kies MW, Murphy JB, Alvord EC (1960) Fractionation of guinea pig brain proteins with encephalitoge-nic activity. Fed Proc 19: 207Google Scholar
  134. Kim SU, Murray MR, Tourtellotte WW(1970) Demonstration in tissue culture of myelino-toxicity in cerebrospinal fluid and brain extracts from multiple sclerosis patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 29: 420–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kirk J (1979) The fine structure of the CNS in multiple sclerosis. II. Vesicular demyelination in an acute case. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 5: 289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kitz K, Lassmann H, Wisniewski HM (1981) Isolated leptomeninges of the spinal cord: an ideal tool to study inflammatory reaction in EAE. Acta Neuropathol [Suppl] 7: 179–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Klatzo I, Miquel J, Ferris PJ, Prokop JD, Smith DE (1964) Observations on the passage of fluorescein labelled serum proteins (FLSP) from the cerebrospinal fluid. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 23: 18–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Koestner A, McCullough B, Krakowka GS, Long JF, Olsen RG (1974) Canine distemper, a virus induced demyelinating encephalitis. In: Zeman W, Lenette EH (eds) Slow virus diseases. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 86–101Google Scholar
  139. Kosunen TU, Waksman BH, Samuelsson K(1963) Radioautographic study of cellular mechanisms in delayed hypersensitivity. II. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the rat. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 22: 367–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Krakowka S, McCullough B, Koestner A, Olsen R (1973) Myelin specific autoantibodies associated with central nervous system demyelination in canine distemper virus infection. Infect Immun 8: 819–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Kristensson K, Wisniewski HM (1977) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Studies in vascular permeability changes. Acta Neuropathol 39: 189–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kristensson K, Wisniewski HM, Bornstein MB (1976) About demyelinating properties of humoral antibodies in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol 36: 307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Krücke W (1973) On the histopathology of acute hemorrhagic leucoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalitis and concentric sclerosis. International symposium on aetiology and pathogenesis of the demyelinating diseases, Kyoto, pp 11-27Google Scholar
  144. Lamoureux G, Borduas AG (1966) Immune studies in multiple sclerosis. Clin Exp Immunol 1: 363–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lampert PW (1965) Demyelination and remyelination in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 24: 371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Lampert PW(1967) Electron microscopic studies on ordinary and hyperacute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol 9: 99–126Google Scholar
  147. Lampert PW (1969) Mechanism of demyelination in experimental allergic neuritis. Electron microscopic studies. Lab Invest 20: 127–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Lampert PW, Carpenter S (1965) Electron microscopic studies on the vascular permeability and the mechanisms of demyelination in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 24: 11–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lampert PW, Cressman M (1966) Fine structural changes of myelin sheaths after axonal degeneration. Am J Pathol 49: 1139–1153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Lampert PW, Kies MW (1967) Mechanism of demyelination in allergic encephalomyelitis of guinea pigs. An electron microscopic study. Exp Neurol 18: 210–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Lassmann G (1969) Beitrag zur Enzymhistochemie der Läsionen bei der multiplen Sklerose des Menschen. Wien Z Nervenheilk [Suppl] II: 53–56Google Scholar
  152. Lassmann H, Wisniewski HM (1978) Chronic relapsing EAE. Time course of neurological symptoms and pathology. Acta Neuropathol 43: 35–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Lassmann H, Wisniewski HM (1979a) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Clini-copathological comparison with multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 36: 490–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Lassmann H, Wisniewski HM (1979b) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Effect of age at the time of sensitization on clinical course and pathology. Acta Neuropathol 47: 111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Lassmann H, Wisniewski HM (1979c) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelits: Morphological sequence of myelin degradation. Brain Res 169: 357–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Lassmann H, Ammerer HP, Kulnig W (1978a) Ultrastructural sequence of myelin degradation. I. Walle-rian degeneration of the rat optic nerve. Acta Neuropathol 44: 91–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Lassmann H, Ammerer HP, Jurecka W, Kulnig W (1978b) Ultrastructural sequence of myelin degradation. II. Wallerian degeneration of the rat femoral nerve. Acta Neuropathol 44: 103–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Lassmann H, Kitz K, Wisniewski HM (1980a) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats and guinea pigs — a comparison. In: Boese A (ed) Search for the cause of MS and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 96–104Google Scholar
  159. Lassmann H, Kitz K, Wisniewski HM (1980b) Structural variability of demyelinating lesions in different models of subacute and chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol 51: 191–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Lassmann H, Kitz K, Wisniewski HM (1981a) The development of periventricular lesions in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 7: 1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Lassmann H, Kitz K, Wisniewski HM (1981b) Histogenesis of demyelinated lesions in the spinal cord of guinea pigs with chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neurol Sci 50: 109–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Lassmann H, Kitz K, Wisniewski HM (1981c) In vivo effect of sera from animals with chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis on central and peripheral myelin. Acta Neuropathol 55: 297–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Lassmann H, Budka H, Schnaberth G (1981d) Inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculitis in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 38: 99–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Lassmann H, Schwerer B, Kitz K, Egghart M, Bernheimer H (1981e) Pathogenetic aspects of demyelinating lesions in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: Possible interaction of cellular and humoral immune mechanisms. Progr Brain Res (in press)Google Scholar
  165. Lassmann H, Kitz K, Wisniewski HM (1981f) Ultrastructural variability of demyelinating lesions in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol [Suppl] VII: 173–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Lassmann H, Stemberger H, Kitz K, Wisniewski HM (1983) In vivo demyelinating activity of sera from animals with chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Antibody nature of the demyelinating factor and the role of complement. J Neurol Sci 59: 123–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Lebar R, Boutry JM, Vincent C, Robinaux R, Voisin GA (1976) Studies on autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig. II. An in vitro investigation of the nature, properties and specificity of the serum demylinating factor. J Immunol 116: 1439–1446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Lebar R, Vincent C, Fischer LeBoubennec E (1979), Studies on autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig. III. A comparative study with two autoantigens of central nervous system myelin. J Neurochem 32/1451–1460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Lee JC (1971) Evolution in the concept of the blood brain barrier. In: Zimmerman HM (ed) Progress Neuropathol, vol I. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 84–145Google Scholar
  170. Lesniowski S (1931) Inflammation de la substance grise du tronc cérébral (polioencephalitis superior et inferior) après vaccination antirabique. J Neurol Psychiatr 31: 427–440Google Scholar
  171. Levine S (1970) Presidential address: allergic encephalomyelits: cellular transformation and vascular blockade. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 29: 6–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Levine S (1971) Relationship of experimental allergie encephalomyelitis to human disease. In: Rowland LP (ed) Immunological disorders of the nervous system. Research publications of the association for research in nervous and mental disease, vol XLIX. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 33–50Google Scholar
  173. Levine S (1974) Hyperacute neutrophilic and localized forms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: a review. Acta Neuropathol 28: 179–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Levine S, Wenk EJ (1965) A hyperacute form of allergic encephalomyelitis. Am J Pathol 47: 61–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Levine S, Sowinski R(1973) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in inbread and outbred mice. J Immunol 110: 139–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Levine S, Sowinski R(1974) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in congenic strains of mice. Immunogenetics 1: 352–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Levine S, Sowinski P (1976) Necrotic myelopathy (myelomalacia) in rats with allergic encephalomyelitis treated with tilorone. Am J Pathol 82: 381–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Levine S, Hirano A, Zimmerman HM (1965) Hyperacute allergic encephalomyelitis. Electron microscopic observations. Am J Pathol 47: 209–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Levine S, Hoenig EM, Wenk EJ (1967) Altered distribution of lesions after repeated passive transfers of allergic encephalomyelitis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 126: 454–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Levine S, Sowinski R, Shaw CM, Alvord EC Jr (1975) Do neurological signs occur in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the absence of inflammatory lesions of the central nervous system? J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 34: 501–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Leyden E (1880) Beiträge zur akuten und chronischen Myelitis. Z klin Med 1: 1–26Google Scholar
  182. Link H, Tibbling G (1977) Principles of albumin and IgG analyses in neurological disorders. III. Evolution of IgG. Synthesis within the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 37: 397–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Lipton HL, Dal Canto MC, Friedman A (1980) Recent developments in the biology of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis viruses. In: Boese E (ed) Search for the cause of MS and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 214–221Google Scholar
  184. Lipton MM, Freund J (1953) The transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the rat by means of parabiosis. J Immunol 71: 380–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Lisak RP (1980) Multiple Sclerosis: evidence for immunopathogenesis. Neurology 30: 99–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. London Y (1971) Ox peripheral nerve myelin membrane: Purification and partial characterisation of two basic proteins. Biochem Biophys Acta 249: 188–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Ludwin SK (1978) Central nervous system demyelination and remyelination in the mouse. An ultra-structural study of cuprizone toxicity. Lab Invest 39: 597–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Ludwin SK(1980) Chronic demyelination inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system. An analysis of contributing factors. Lab Invest 43: 382–387Google Scholar
  189. Lumsden CE (1970) The neuropathology of multiple sclerosis. In: Vinken PI, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 9. Elsevier, New York, pp 217–309Google Scholar
  190. Lumsden CE (1971) The immunogenesis of the multiple sclerosis plaque. Brain Res 28: 365–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Madrid RE, Wisniewski HM (1978) Peripheral nervous system pathology in relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neurocytol 7: 265–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Madrid RE, Wisniewski HM (1979) Oligodendroglial membrane abnormalities in relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 38: 331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Madrid RE, Wisniewski HM, Iqbal K, Pullakart RK, Lassmann H (1981a) Relapsing experimental allergic encephalomylitis induced with isolated myelin and with myelin basic protein plus myelin lipids. J Neurol Sci 50: 399–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Madrid RE, Goncerzewicz A, Clausen JT, Wisniewski HM (1981b) Genetic resistence to EAE induction in strain magnum guinea pigs. Morphology and immunology. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 40: 337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Marburg O (1906) Die sogenannte “akute Multiple Sklerose”. Jahrb Psychiatrie 27: 211–312Google Scholar
  196. Marburg O (1936) Multiple Sklerose. In: v Bumke O, Foerster O (eds) Handbuch der Neurologie, vol 13/2. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  197. McAlpine D, Compston ND, Lumsden CE (1955) Multiple sclerosis. Livingston, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  198. McDermott JR, Iqbal K, Wisniewski HM (1977) The encephalitogenic activity and myelin basic protein content of isolated oligodendroglia. J Neurochem 28: 1081–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. McFarlin DE, Blank SE, Kibler RF (1974) Recurrent experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat. J Immunol 113: 712–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. McKeown SR, Allen IV(1978) The cellular origin of lysosomal enzymes in the plaque in multiple sclerosis: a combined histological and histochemical study. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 4: 471–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. McKeown SR, Allen IV (1979) The fragility of cerebral lysosomes in multiple sclerosis. Neuropathol. Appl Neurobiol 5: 405–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Mehta PD, Lassmann H, Wisniewski HM (1980) Immunoglobulin studies in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (R-EAE). In: Boese A (ed) Search for the Cause of MS and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 105–112Google Scholar
  203. Mehta PD, Lassmann H, Wisniewski HM (1981) Immunologic studies of chronic relapsing EAE in guinea pigs: similarities to multiple sclerosis. J Immunol 127: 334–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Mitchell DN, Goswami KKA, Taylor P, Salsbury AJ, Porterfield JS, Micheletti R, Lange LS, Jacobs JP, Hockely DJ, Taylor-Robinson DA, Huddleston JR, Sipe J, Braheny S, Jensen FC, Mc Millan R, Lampert P, Oldstone MBA (1979) Failure to isolate a transmissible agent from the bone-marrow of patients with multiple sclerosis. Lancet II: 415–416Google Scholar
  205. Morgan IM (1946) Allergic encephalomyelitis in monkeys in response to injection of normal monkey cord. J Bacteriol 51: 614–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Mori S, Leblond CP (1970) Electron microscopic identification of three classes of oligodendrocytes and a preliminary study of their proliferative activity in the corpus callosum of young rats. J Comp Neurol 139: 1–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Müller E (1904) Die Multiple Sklerose des Gehirns und Rückenmarks. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  208. Mussini JM, Hauw JJ, Escourolle R (1977) Immunofluorescence studies of intracytoplasmic immunoglobulin binding lymphoid cells (CILC) in the central nervous system: report of 32 cases including 19 of multiple sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol 40: 227–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Nagai Y, Momoi T, Saito M, Mitsuzawa E, Ohtani S (1976) Ganglioside syndrome, a new autoimmune neurological disorder, experimentally induced with brain gangliosides. Neurosci Lett 2: 107–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Nagai Y, Sakakibara K, Uchida T (1980) Immunomodulatory roles of gangliosides in EAE and EAN. In: Boese, A (ed) Search for the cause of multiple sclerosis and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 127–138Google Scholar
  211. Niedieck B (1975) On a glycolipid hapten of myelin. Progr Allergy 18: 353–422Google Scholar
  212. Niedieck B, Lohmann U (1981) Effector-target cell interaction of lymph node cells from galactocerebro-side-sensitised rats with oligodendrocytes of brain cell cultures. J Neuroimmunol 1: 191–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Ninfo V, Rizzutto N, Terzian H (1967) Assoziazione anatomo-clinical di nevrite ipertrofica e sclerosi a placche. Acta Neurol 22: 228–237Google Scholar
  214. Oehmichen M (1978) Mononuclear phagocytes in the central nervous system. Neurology Series, vol 21. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  215. Oehmichen M, Grüninger H, Saebisch R, Narita Y (1973) Mikroglia und Perizyten als Transformationsformen der Blut-Monozyten mit erhaltener Proliferationsfähigkeit. Experimentelle autoradiographische und enzymhistochemische Untersuchungen am normalen und geschädigten Kaninchen-und Rattengehirn. Acta Neuropathol 23: 200–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Ogata J, Feigin I (1975) Schwann cells and regenerated peripheral myelin in multiple sclerosis: an ultra-structural study. Neurology 25: 713–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Oldstone MBA, Dixon FJ (1968) Immunohistochemical study of allergic encephalomyelitis. Am J Pathol 52: 251–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Oppenheim H (1914) Der Formenreichtum der multiplen Sklerose. Dtsch Z Nervenheilk 52: 169–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Oppenheimer DR (1976) Demyelinating diseases. In: Blackwood W, Corsellis JAN (eds) Greenfield’s neuropathology. Arnold, London, pp 470–499Google Scholar
  220. Oppenheimer DR (1978) The cervical cord in multiple sclerosis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 4: 151–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Ortiz-Ortiz L, Weigle WO (1976) Cellular events in the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats. J Exp Med 144: 604–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Palade GE, Simionescu M, Simionescu N (1979) Structural aspects of the permeability of the microvas-cular endothelium. Acta Physiol Scand [Suppl] 463: 11–32Google Scholar
  223. Panitch H Ciccone C (1981) Induction of recurrent experimental allergic encephalomyelitis with myelin basic protein. Ann Neurol 9: 433–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Paterson PY (1960) Transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis in rats by means of lymph node cells. J Exp Med 111: 119–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Paterson PY (1971) The demyelinating diseases: clinical and experimental correlates. In: Samter M (ed) Immunological diseases. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 1269–1298Google Scholar
  226. Paterson PY(1976) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: role of fibrin deposition in immunopathogenesis of inflammation in rats. Fed Proc 35: 2428–2434Google Scholar
  227. Paterson PY, Jacobs AF, Coia EM (1965) Complement-fixing antibrain antibodies and allergic encephalomyelitis. II. Further studies concerning their protective role. Ann. NY Acad Sci 124: 292–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Perier O, Gregoire A (1965) Electron microscopic features of multiple sclerosis lesions. Brain 88: 937–952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Perlmann H, Perlmann P, Schreiber RD, Müller-Eberhard HJ (1981) Interaction of target cell bound C 3 bi and C 3 d with human lymphocyte receptors. Enhancement of antibody mediated cellular cytotoxi-city. J Exp Med 153: 1592–1603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Pertschuk LP, Cook AW, Gupta J (1976) Measles antigen in multiple sclerosis: identification in the jejunum by immunofluoresecence. Life Sci 19: 1603–1608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Peters A (1968) The morphology of axons of the central nervous system. In: Bourne GH (ed) The structure and function of the nervous system, vol I. Academic, New York, pp 142–186Google Scholar
  232. Peters G (1935) Zur Frage der Beziehungen zwischen der disseminierten, nicht eitrigen Enzephalomyelitis und der multiplen Sklerose. Z gesamt Neurol Psychiatr 153: 356–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Peters G (1958) Multiple Sklerose. In: Lubarsch O, Henke F, Rössle R (eds) Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, vol 13/2. Springer, Berlin Göttingen Heidelberg, pp 525–602Google Scholar
  234. Peters G (1970) Klinische Neuropathologie. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  235. Pette E, Mannweiler K, Palacios O, Mütze B (1965) Phenomena of cell membrane and their possible significance for the pathogenesis of so-called autoimmune disease of the nervous system. Ann NY Acad Sci 122: 417–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Pette H (1928) Über die Pathogenese der multiplen Sklerose. Dtsch Z Nervenheilk 105: 76–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Polan CG, Baker AB (1942) Encephalomyeloradiculitis. J Nerv Ment Dis 96: 508–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Pollard JD, King RHM, Thomas PK(1975) Recurrent experimental allergic neuritis. An electron microscopy study. J Neurol Sci 24: 365–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Pollock M, Calder C, Allpress S (1977) Peripheral nerve abnormality in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2: 41–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Prineas JW (1975) Pathology of the early lesions in multiple sclerosis. Hum Pathol 6: 531–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Prineas JW (1979) Multiple sclerosis: presence of lymphatic capillaries and lymphoid tissue in the brain and spinal cord. Science 203: 1123–1125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Prineas JW, Raine CS (1976) Electron microscopy and immunoperoxidase studies in early multiple sclerosis lesions. Neurology 26: 29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Prineas JW, Connell F (1978) The fine structure of chronically active multiple sclerosis plaques. Neurology 28: 68–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Prineas JW, Wright RG (1978) Macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells in the perivascular compartment in chronic multiple sclerosis. Lab Invest 38: 409–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Prineas JW, Connell F (1979) Remyelination in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 5: 22–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Prineas JW, Raine CS, Wisniewski HM (1969) An ultrastructural study of experimental demyelination and remyelination. III. Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the central nervous system. Lab Invest 21: 472–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Putnam TJ (1935) Studies in multiple sclerosis. IV. Encephalitis and sclerotic plaques produced by venular obstruction. Arch Neurol 33: 929–940Google Scholar
  248. Raine CS, Bornstein MB (1970a) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: an ultrastructural study of experimental demyelination in vitro. J Neuropahtol Exp Neurol 29: 177–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Raine CS, Bornstein MB (1970b) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: a light and electron microscopic study of remyelination and sclerosis in vitro. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 29: 552–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Raine CS, Wisniewski HM, Prineas J (1969) An ultrastructural study of experimental demyelination and remyelination. II. Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the peripheral nervous system. Lab Invest 21: 316–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Raine CS, Snyder DH, Valsamis MD, Stone SH (1974) Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in inbred guinea pigs — an ultrastructural study. Lab Invest 31: 369–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Raine CS, Wisniewski HM, Iqbal K, Grundke-Iqbal I, Norton WT (1977) Studies on the encephalitogenic effects of purified preparations of human and bovine oligodendrocytes. Brain Res 120: 269–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Raine CS, Traugott U, Stone SH (1978a) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: CNS plaque development in unsuppressed and suppressed animals. Acta Neuropathol 43: 43–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Raine CS, Traugott U, Stone SH (1978b) Glial bridges and Schwann cell migration during chronic de-myelination in the CNS. J Neurocytol 7: 541–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Raine CS, Diaz M, Pakingan M, Bornstein MB (1978c) Antiserum induced dissociation of myelinogene-sis in vitro. An ultrastructural study. Lab Invest 38: 397–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Raine CS, Barnett LB, Brown A, Behar T, McFarlin DE, (1980) Neuropathology of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in inbred strains of mice. Lab Invest 43: 150–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Raine CS, Traugott U, Scheinberg LC, Waltz JM (1981a) Morphologic evidence for the secondary involvement of oligodendrocytes in active multiple sclerosis lesions. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 40: 318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Raine CS, Scheinberg L, Waltz JM (1981b) Multiple sclerosis: oligodendroglia survival and proliferation in an active established lesion. Lab Invest 45: 534: 546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Rapoport SI (1976) Blood brain barrier in physiology and medicine. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  260. Ravinka L, Rogova V, Lazarenko L (1978) Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rhesus monkeys and its modification by treatment. J Neurol Sci 38: 281–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Reese TS, Karnovsky MJ (1967) Fine structural localisation of a blood brain barrier to exogenous peroxi-dase. J Cell Biol 34: 207–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Reichardt M (1957) Das Hirnödem. In: Lubarsch O, Henke F, Rössle R (eds) Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, vol 13/1. Springer, Berlin Göttingen Heidelberg, pp 1229–1252Google Scholar
  263. Ridley A (1963) Localisation of gamma-globulin in experimental encephalomyelitis by the fluorescent antibody technique. Z Immun Allergieforsch 125: 173–190Google Scholar
  264. Rindfleisch E (1863) Histologisches Detail zur grauen Degeneration von Gehirn und Rückenmark. Arch Pathol Anat Physiol Klin Med (Virchow) 26: 474–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Rinne UK, Riekkinen PJ, Arstilla AV (1972) Biochemical and electron microscopic alterations in the white matter outside demyelinated plaques in multiple sclerosis. In: Leibowitz U (ed) Progress in multiple sclerosis. Academic, New York, pp 76–98Google Scholar
  266. Rivers IM, Schwendtker FF (1935) Encephalomyelitis accompanied by myelin destruction experimentally produced in monkeys. J Exp Med 61: 689–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Rivers TM, Sprunt DH, Berry GP (1933) Observations on attempts to produce acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in monkeys. J Exp Med 58: 39–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Roboz-Einstein E, Robertson DM, Di Caprio JM, Moore W (1962) The isolation from bovine spinal cord of a homogenous protein with encephalitogenic activity. J Neurochem 9: 353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Roizin L (1949) Histopathologic and histometabolic correlations in some demyelinating diseases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 8: 381–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Rorke LB, Iwasaki Y, Koprowski H, Wroblewska Z, Gilden DH, Waren KG, Lief FS, Hoffman S, Cummins LB, Rodriguez AR, Kalter SS (1979) Acute demyelinating disease in a chimpanzee three years after inoculation of brain cells from a patient with MS. Ann Neurol 5: 89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Rossolimo GJ (1904) Multiple Sclerose. In: Flatau E, Jacobsohn L, Minor L (eds) Handbuch der Pathologischen Anatomie des Nervensystems. Karger, Berlin, pp 691–698Google Scholar
  272. Saida T, Abramsky O, Silberberg DH, Pleasure D, Lisak RP, Manning M (1977) Antioligodendrocyte serum demyelinates cultured CNS tissue. Soc Neurosci Abst 7: 527Google Scholar
  273. Saida T, Saida K, Dorfman S, Brown NJ, Lisak RP, Manning M, Silberberg DH (1978a) Experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) induced by sensitization with galactocerebroside. J Neuropathol Exp Neurology 37: 685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Saida K, Saida T, Brown MJ, Silberberg DH, Asbury AK (1978b) Antiserum mediated demyelination in vivo. A sequential study using intraneural injectin of experimental allergic neuritis serum. Lab Invest 39: 449–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Saida K, Saida T, Brown MJ, Silberberg DH (1979a) In vivo demyelination induced by intraneural injection of anti-galactocerebroside serum. A morphologic study. Am J Pathol 95: 99–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Saida T, Saida K, Dorfman SH, Silberberg DH, Sumner AJ, Manning MC, Lisak RP, Brown MJ (1979b) Experimental allergic neuritis induced by sensitization with galactocerebroside. Science 204: 1103–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Saida T, Saida K, Brown MJ, Silberberg DM (1979c) Peripheral nerve demyelination induced by intraneural injection of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis serum. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 38: 498–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Schilder P (1912) Zur Kenntnis der sogenannten diffusen Sklerose (über Encephalitis periaxialis diffusa). Z Gesamt Neurol Psychiatr 10: 1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Schob F (1923) Über Wurzelfibromatose bei multipler Sklerose. Z Gesamt Neurol Psychiatr 83: 481–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Schoene WC, Carpenter S, Behan PO, Geschwind N (1977) Onion bulb formation in the central and peripheral nervous system in association with multiple sclerosis and hypertrophic polyneuropathy. Brain 100: 755–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Schwerer B, Lassmann H, Kitz K, Bernheimer H, Wisniewski HM (1981a) Fractionation of spinal cord tissue affects its activity to induce chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol [Suppl] 7: 165–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Schwerer B, Lassmann H, Bernheimer H (1981b) Serum antibodies against CNS antigens in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. 8th Int Congress Neurochem, Nottingham, p 266 (abstract)Google Scholar
  283. Seil FJ, Agrawal HC (1980), Myelin proteolipid protein does not induce demyelinating or myelination inhibiting antibodies. Brain Res 194: 273–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Seil FJ, Falk GA, Kies MW, Alvord EC (1968) In vitro demyelinating activity of serum of guinea pigs sensitized with whole CNS tissue and with purified encephalitogen. Exp Neurol 22: 545–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Seil FJ, Rauch HC, Einstein ER, Hamilton AE (1973) Myelination inhibition factor: its absence in sera from subhuman primates sensitized with myelin basic protein. J Immunol 111: 96–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Seil FJ, Smith ME, Leiman AL, Kelly JM (1975) Myelination inhibiting neuroelectric blocking factors in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Science 187: 951–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Seil FJ, Quarles RH, Johnson D, Brady RO (1981) Immunisation with purified myelin associated glyco-protein does not evoke myelination inhibiting or demyelinating antibodies. Brain Res 209: 470–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Seitelberger F (1960) Histochemistry of demyelinating diseases proper including allergic encephalomyelitis and Pelizaues-Merzbacher’s disease. In: Cumings JN (ed) Modern scientific aspects of neurology. Arnold, London, pp 146–185Google Scholar
  289. Seitelberger F (1967) Autoimmunologische Aspekte der Entmarkungsenzephalitiden. Nervenarzt 38: 525–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Seitelberger F (1973) Pathology of multiple sclerosis. Ann Clin Res 5: 337–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Seitelberger F, Jellinger K, Tschabitscher H (1958) Zur Genese der akuten Entmarkungsenzephalitis. Wien Klin Wochenschr 70: 453–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Server AC, Lefkowith J, Braine H, McKhann GM (1979) Treatment of chronic relapsing inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy by plasma exchange. Ann Neurol 6: 258–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Sever JL, Madden DL (1980) Viruses that do not cause multiple sclerosis. In: Boese A (ed) Search for the cause of multiple sclerosis and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 414–424Google Scholar
  294. Shiraki H (1968) The comparative study of rabies postvaccinial encephalomyelitis and demyelinating en-cephalomyelitides of unknown origin with special reference to Japanese cases. In: Bailey OT, Smith DE (eds) The central nervous system: some experimental models of neurological diseases. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 87–123Google Scholar
  295. Shiraki H, Otani S (1959) Clinical and pathological features of rabies post vaccinial encephalomyelitis. In: Kies MW, Alvord EC (eds) Allergic encephalomyelitis. Thomas, Springfield, pp 58–129Google Scholar
  296. Siemerling E, Raecke E (1914) Beitrag zur Klinik und Pathologie der multiplen Sklerose mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Pathogenese. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 53: 385–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Silberberg DH, Saida T, Abramsky O, Saida K, Lisak RP, Pleasure D (1980) Approaches to understanding the role of antibody in multiple sclerosis: In: Bauer HJ, Poser S, Ritter G (eds) Progress in multiple sclerosis research. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 216–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Simionescu N, Simionescu M, Palade GE (1978) Open junctions in the endothelium of the postcapillary venoles of the diaphragm. J Cell Biol 79: 27–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Simon J, Anzil AP (1974) Immunhistological evidence of perivascular localisation of basic protein in early development of experimental allergic encephalomyelits. Acta Neuropathol 27: 33–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Simon J, Simon O (1975) Effect of passive transfer of anti brain antibodies to a normal recipient. Exp Neurol 47: 523–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Simpson JF, Tourtellotte WW, Kokmen E, Parker JA, Itabashi HH (1969) Fluorescent proteins tracing in multiple sclerosis brain tissue. Arch Neurol 20: 373–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Sluga E (1969) Beitrag zur Feinstruktur der Läsionen bei der multiplen Sklerose des Menschen. Wien Z Nervenheilk [Suppl] 11: 59–69Google Scholar
  303. Sluga E (1979) Ultrastruktur der multiplen Sklerose. In: Schmidt RM (ed) Multiple Sklerose, Epidemiologie, Immunologie, Ultrastruktur. Fischer, Jena, pp 261–297Google Scholar
  304. Smith ME (1977) The role of proteolytic enzymes in demyelination in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Neurochem Res 2: 233–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Smith ME (1980) Proteinase inhibitors and the suppression of EAE. In: Davison AN, Cuzner ML (eds) The suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Academic, New York, pp 211–226Google Scholar
  306. Smith SB, Waksman BH (1969) Passive transfer and labelling studies on the cell infiltrate in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Pathol 99: 237–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Snyder DH, Valsamis VD, Stone SH, Raine CS (1975a) Progressive demyelination and reparative phenomena in chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 34: 209–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Snyder DH, Hirano A, Raine CS (1975b) Fenestrated CNS blood vessels in chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Brain Res 100: 645–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Spielmeyer W (1922) Histopathologie des Nervensystems. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  310. Steck AJ, Tschannen R, Schaefer R (1981) Induction of anti-myelin and anti-oligodendrocyte antibodies by vaccinia virus: experimental studies in the mouse. J Neuroimmunol 1: 117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Steiner G (1931) Regionale Verteilung der Entmarkungsherde in ihrer Bedeutung für die Pathogenese der multiplen Sklerose. In: Krankheitserreger und Gewebsbefund bei multipler Sklerose. Springer, Berlin, pp 108–120Google Scholar
  312. Stochdorph O, Meessen H (1957) Die arteriosklerotische und hypertonische Hirnerkrankung. In: Lubarsch O, Henke F, Rössle R (eds) Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, vol xIII/1. Springer, Berlin Göttingen Heidelberg, pp 1465–1510Google Scholar
  313. Stone SH, Lerner EM (1965) Chronic disseminated allergic encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs. Ann NY Acad Sci 122: 227–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Stone SH, Lerner EM, Goode JH (1968) Adoptive autoimmune encephalomyelitis in inbred guinea pigs: Immunological and histological aspects. Science 159: 995–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Stone SH, Lerner EM, Goode JH (1969) Acute and chronic autoimmune encephalomyelitis: age, strain and sex dependency. The importance of the source of antigen. Proc Soc, Biol Med 132: 341–344Google Scholar
  316. Strähuber A (1903) Über Degenerations-und Proliferationsvorgänge bei multipler Sklerose des Nervensystems, nebst Bemerkungen zur Aetiologie und Pathogenese der Erkrankung. Zieglers Beitrag Path Anat Allg Pathol 33: 409–480Google Scholar
  317. Suzuki K, Andrews JM, Waltz JM, Terry RD (1969) Ultrastructural studies of multiple sclerosis. Lab Invest 20: 444–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Tabira T, Webster HF, Wray SH (1976) Multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid produces myelin lesions in tadpole optic nerves. N Engl J Med 295: 644–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Tabira T, Itoyama I, Kuroiwa Y (1982) Continous antigenic Stimulation in chronic relapsing EAE. Abstr IX int congr neuropath, Vienna, p 134Google Scholar
  320. Tandon DS, Griffin JW, Drachman DB, Price DL, Coyle PI (1980) Studies on the humoral mechanisms of inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies. Neurology 30: 362Google Scholar
  321. Tavolato B (1975) Immunoglobulin G distribution in multiple sclerosis brain. An immunofluorescence study. J Neurol Sci 24: 1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Ter Meulen V, Koprowski H, Iwasaki Y, Kräckell YM, Müller D (1972) Fusion of cultured multiple-sclerosis brain cells with indicator cells: presence of nucleocapsids and virions and isolation of parainfluenza-type virus. Lancet II: 1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Thomas PK, Sheldon H (1964) Tubular arrays derived from myelin breakdown during Wallerian degeneration of peripheral nerves. J Cell Biol 22: 715–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Tourtellotte WW(1970) On cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin-G (IgG) quotients in multiple sclerosis and other diseases. J Neurol Sci 10: 279–304Google Scholar
  325. Tourtellotte WW, Ma BI (1978) Multiple sclerosis: the blood brain barrier and the measurement of de novo central nervous system IgG synthesis. Neurology 28: 76–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Tourtellotte WW, Potvin AR, Potvin JH, Ma BI, Baumhefner RW, Syndulko K(1980) Multiple sclerosis de novo central nervous system IgG synthesis: measurement, antibody profile, significance, eradication and problems. In: Bauer HJ, Poser S, Ritter G (eds) Progress in multiple sclerosis research. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 106–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Traugott U, Stone SH, Raine CS (1978) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: migration of early T cells from the circulation to the CNS. J Neurol Sci 36: 55–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Traugott U, Stone SH, Raine CS (1979) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: correlation of circulating lymphocyte fluctuation with disease activity in suppressed and unsuppressed animals. J Neurol Sci 41: 17–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Traugott U, Raine CS, Stone SH, Chiba J, Shevach E (1981) Experimental allergie encephalomyelitis: demonstration of T-cells within the CNS using monoclonal antibodies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 40: 320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Traugott U, Shevach E, Chiba J, Stone SH, Raine CS (1982a) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: Identification and dynamics of T and B cells within the central nervous system. Cell Immunol 68: 261–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Traugott U, Raine CS (1982b) Localisation of T and B cells in multiple sclerosis plaques. Abstr IX, Int Congr Neuropath, Vienna, p 103Google Scholar
  332. Turnbull HM, Mc Intosh J (1926–27) Encephalomyelitis following vaccination. Br J Exp Path 7: 181–222Google Scholar
  333. Uchimura I, Shiraki H (1957) A contribution to the classification and the pathogenesis of demyelinating encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 16: 139–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Van Deus B (1977) Vesicular transport of horseradish peroxidase from the brain to blood in segments of the cerebral microvasculature in adult mice. Brain Res 124: 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Van Deurs B, Amtorp O (1978) Blood brain barrier in rats to the hemepeptide microperoxidase. Neuroscience 3: 737–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Vandvik B, Reske-Nielsen E (1972) Immunochemical and immunohistochemical studies of brain tissue in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand [Suppl] 51: 413–416Google Scholar
  337. Van Gehuchten P (1966) Lesions de ganglions spineaux dans la sclerose en plaques. Acta Neurol Belg 66: 331–340Google Scholar
  338. Vaughn JE, Hinds PL, Skoff RP (1970) Electron microscopic studies of Wallerian degeneration in rat optic nerves. I. The multipotential glia. J Comp Neurol 140: 175–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Vorbrodt AW, Lassmann H, Wisniewski HM Lossinsky AS (1981) Ultracytochemical studies of the blood-meningeal barrier (BMB) in rat spinal cord. Acta Neuropathol 55: 113–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Wagner HJ, Pilgrim C, Brandi J (1974) Penetration and removal of horseraddish peroxidase injected into the cerebrospinal fluid: role of cerebral perivascular spaces, endothelium and microglia. Acta Neuropathol. 27: 299–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Waksman BH (1959) Activity of proteolipid containing fraction of nervous tissue in producing experimental “allergic” encephalomyelitis. In: Kies MW, Alvord EC Jr (eds) Allergic encephalomyelitis. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  342. Waksman BH (1960a) Experimental study of diphtheric polyneuritis in the rabbit and guinea pig. III. The blood nerve barrier in the rabbit. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 20: 35–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Waksman BH (1960b) The distribution of experimental autoallergic lesions. Its relation to the distribution of small veins. Am J Pathol 37: 673–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Waksman BH (1980) Introduction to session V. In: Boese A (ed) Search for the cause of multiple sclerosis and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 371–373Google Scholar
  345. Waksman BH, Adams RD (1962) A histologic study of the early lesions in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig and rabbit. Am J Pathol 41: 135–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Waksman BH, Morrison LR (1951) Tuberkulin type sensitivity to spinal cord antigen in rabbits with isoallergic encephalomyelitis. J Immunol 66: 421–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Watanabe R, Wege H, Ter Meulen V (1982) Corona virus-host relationship in demyelinating encephalomyelitis of rats: analysis of CMI reactions to myelin and viral antigens. Abstr IX Int Congr Neuropath, Vienna, p 99Google Scholar
  348. Westergaard E (1975) Enhanced vesicular transport of exogenous peroxidase across cerebral vessels induced by serotonin. Acta Neuropathol 32: 27–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Westergaard E, Brightman MW (1973) Transport of proteins across normal cerebral arterioles. J Comp Neurol 152: 17–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Williams RM, Krakowka S, Koestner A (1980) In vivo demyelination by anti-myelin antibodies. Acta Neuropathol 50: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Wisniewski HM, Raine CS (1971) An ultrastructural study of experimental demyelination and remyelination. V. Central and peripheral nervous system lesions caused by diphtheria toxin. Lab Invest 25: 73–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Wisniewski HM, Bloom BR (1975) Primary demyelination as a nonspecific consequence of a cell mediated immune reaction. J Exp Med 141: 346–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Wisniewski HM, Keith AB (1977) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis — an experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1: 144–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Wisniewski HM, Prineas J, Raine CS, (1969) An ultrastructural study of experimental demyelination and remyelination in the peripheral and central nervous system. I. Acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Lab Invest 21: 105–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Wisniewski HM, Raine CS, Kay WJ (1972) Observations on viral demyelinating encephalomyelitis canine distemper. Lab Invest 26: 589–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Wisniewski HM, Madrid RE, Lassmann H, Deshmukh DS, Iqbal K (1980a) Search for antigen(s) and immunological mechanisms responsible for extensive demylination and relapses in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. In: Boese A (ed) Search for the cause of multiple sclerosis and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 89–95Google Scholar
  357. Wisniewski HM, Brosnan CF, Bloom BR (1980b) Bystander and antibody dependent cell-mediated demyelination. In: Davison AN, Cuzner MC (eds) The suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Academic, London, pp 45–58Google Scholar
  358. Wisniewski HM, Lassmann H, Brosnan CF, Mehta PD, Lidsky AA, Madrid RE (1982) Multiple sclerosis: immunological and experimental aspects. In: Matthews WB, Glaser GH (eds) Recent advances in clinical neurology, vol 3. Churchill-Livingstone, London, pp 95–124Google Scholar
  359. Wolf A, Kabat EA, Bezer AE (1947) The pathology of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis produced experimentally in the rhesus monkey and its resemblance to human demyelinating disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 6: 333–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Wolfgram F (1979) What if multiple sclerosis isn’t an immunological or a viral disease? The case for circulating toxin. Neurochem. Res 4: 1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Wüthrich R (1980) CT-scan in the diagnosis and assessment of the course of MS. In: Bauer HJ, Poser S, Ritter G (eds) Progress in multiple sclerosis research. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 596–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Yasuda T, Tsumita T, Nagai Y (1975) Enhancement of encephalitogenic activity by the formation of myelin basic protein acidic protein complex. Jpn J Exp Med 45: 415–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Yokoyama M, Trams EG, Brady RO (1962) Sphingolipid antibodies in sera of animals and patients with central nervous system lesions. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111: 350–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Yonezawa T, Ishihara Y, Matsuyama H (1968) Studies on experimental allergic peripheral neuritis. I. Demyelinating patterns in vitro. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 27: 453–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Yonezawa T, Arizono N, Hasegawa M, Yamamura Y, Miyaji H (1980) In vitro demyelination by lymphocytes and lymphokines from patients and experimental animals. In: Bauer HJ, Poser S, Ritter G (eds) Progress in multiple sclerosis research. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, pp 67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Lassmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurologisches InstitutUniversität WienWien IXÖsterreich

Personalised recommendations