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Structure of the Colima Volcanic Complex: Origin and Behaviour of Active Fault Systems in the Edifice

  • Gianluca NoriniEmail author
  • Federico Agliardi
  • Giovanni Crosta
  • Gianluca Groppelli
  • Maria Clara Zuluaga
Chapter
Part of the Active Volcanoes of the World book series (AVOLCAN)

Abstract

The Colima Volcanic Complex (CVC) is one of the most prominent volcanic edifices within the Tran-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Its evolution has been characterized by complex interactions among regional tectonics, basement geometry and rheology, and successive volcanic edifices formed in several stages. In the first part of this review chapter, the state-of-the-art in the CVC structural and geological knowledge is summarized and discussed. Such knowledge is based on published structural, geological, geophysical, geodetic and petrological data and models, which allow identification of three main fault systems and definition of the general geometrical properties of the volcano plumbing system. The significance and supporting evidence for the Colima Rift faults, Tamazula Fault and volcano spreading structures, as well as their interactions with the CVC, are presented. In the second part of the paper, numerical models are performed to integrate previous knowledge and test the effects of different structural scenarios and different mechanical assumptions on the onset of gravitational spreading of the volcanic complex. Also, the state of activity of the three fault systems and their control on the magmatism and flank instability are discussed. Finally, the main findings on the CVC structural arrangement are summarized, and the most important requirements for improvement of our understanding of the interaction between regional tectonics, volcanic edifices and basement rheology are suggested. Future investigations are critical, as eruptions and sector failures represent potential high risks for more than 500,000 people.

Keywords

Volcano-basement-tectonics interplay Gravitational spreading Active faults Numerical modelling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge Abel Cortés, Lucia Capra, Juan Carlos Gavilanes and Nick Varley for useful discussions on the geological and structural evolution of the CVC. This work was financed by a CONACyT grant to Gianluca Norini (CB-2009-132265). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Italy and SRE of Mexico provided travel assistance to Gianluca Groppelli and Gianluca Norini. Marina Manea and Vlad Manea kindly provided the GeoWall 3D Visualization tool at the CGEO-UNAM. We thank Sonia Calvari, Victor Hugo Garduño-Monroy and Charles Connor for their helpful reviews that improved the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianluca Norini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Federico Agliardi
    • 2
  • Giovanni Crosta
    • 2
  • Gianluca Groppelli
    • 1
  • Maria Clara Zuluaga
    • 3
  1. 1.Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi AmbientaliConsiglio Nazionale delle RicercheRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly
  3. 3.Dirección de Recursos MineralesServicio Geológico ColombianoBogotáColombia

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