Advertisement

The Economics of HIV/AIDS

Chapter
  • 864 Downloads

Economics is inextricably linked with HIV/AIDS. Economic conditions affect HIV/AIDS and, in turn, HIV/AIDS affects an economy at both the macro and micro levels. Thus, the link works in both directions. In this chapter, we examine the relationships between HIV/AIDS and poverty, inequality and social capital, and consider whether economic differences between countries explain differences in HIV prevalence. As we have noted in Chap. 3, HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects people of working age. In this chapter, we examine the potential economic impact of HIV/AIDS, using a macroeconomic model. This is followed by a review of microeconomic and epidemiological models that try to answer questions about the behavioral response of people who are either at risk of or actually living with HIV/AIDS. Such studies provide a useful mechanism for determining the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies (a topic we explore further in Chap. 9). Economics plays a significant role in the propagation of HIV/AIDS in high incidence countries. The economics of HIV/AIDS also shows us the likely economic returns on different strategies to prevent HIV infections.

Keywords

Social Capital Human Capital Income Inequality Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Total Fertility Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Acemoglu D, Johnson S 2005 Disease and Development: The Effect of Life Expectancy on Economic Growth. Mimeo, MIT, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth M, Over M 1995 AIDS and African Development. World Bank Research Observer 9:203-241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bearman PS, Brckner H 2001 Promising the Future: Virginity Pledges and First Intercourse. American Journal of Sociology 106:859-912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell C, Devarajan S, Gersbach H 2004 Thinking About the Long-Run Economic Costs of AIDS. In: Haacker M (ed) The Macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS. IMF, Washington Google Scholar
  5. Bils M, Klenow P 2000 Does Schooling Cause Growth? American Economic Review 90:1160-1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biswalo PM, Lie GT 1995 Hospital-Based Counselling of HIV-Infected People and AIDS Patients. In: Klepp KI, Biswalo PM, Talle A (eds) Young People at Risk: Fighting AIDS in Northern Tanzania. Scandinavian University Press, Oslo.Google Scholar
  7. Bleakley H 2003 Disease and Development: Evidence from the American South. Journal of European Economic Association 1:376-386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bleakley H, Lange F 2005 Chronic Disease Burden and the Interaction of Education, Fertility and Growth. UCSD Mimeo.Google Scholar
  9. Bloom D, Mahal A 1997 Does the AIDS Epidemic Threaten Economic Growth. Journal of Econometrics 77:105-124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bloom D, Mahal A 2001 HIV/AIDS and the Private Sector: A Literature Review. River Path Associates, American Foundation for AIDS, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  11. Boldrin M, Jones LE 2002 Mortality, Fertility, and Saving in a Malthusian Economy. Review of Economic Dynamics 5:775-814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonnel R 2000 HIV/AIDS: Does it Increase or Decrease Growth in Africa? Mimeo, World Bank, Washington.Google Scholar
  13. Botswana Sentinel Survey(2001) Botswana Government Publication, Gaborone, BotswanaGoogle Scholar
  14. Bryce J, Black RE, Walker N, Bhutta ZA, Lawn JE, Steketee RW 2005 Can the world afford to save the lives of 6 million children each year? Lancet 365:2193-2200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chakraborty S 2004 Endogenous Lifetime and Economic Growth. Journal of Eco-nomic Theory 116:34-67.Google Scholar
  16. Chin 1994 A Beginner’s Guide to EPIMODEL, Version 2.1, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  17. Clark G (2005) The Long March of History: Farm Laborers Wages in England 1208-1840. Working Paper, University of California-Davis.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen B 1998 The Emerging Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development 26:1431-1461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen D 2002 Human Capital and the HIV Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank, Washington.Google Scholar
  20. Congressional Budget Office (2006) A Potential Influenza Pandemic: Possible Macroeconomic Effects and Policy Issues. Congressional Budget Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. Corrigan P, Glomm G, Mendez F 2005 AIDS Crisis and Growth. Journal of Development Economics 77(1):107-124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Darby P (2003) The Economic Impact of SARS. The Conference Board of Canada.Google Scholar
  23. David A (2007) Social Capital, HIV/AIDS, Economic Development. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4263.Google Scholar
  24. Doepke M 2005 Child Mortality and Fertility Decline: Does the Barro-Becker Model Fit the Facts? Journal of Population Economics 18:337-366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ehrlich I, Lui FT 1991 Intergenerational Trade, Longevity, Intrafamily Transfers and Economic Growth. Journal of Political Economy 99:1029-1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gray R 2005 Lessons from Africa. Presentation at the International AIDS Society Conference, Rio de Janeiro Google Scholar
  27. Green G 1994 The reproductive careers of a cohort of men and women following an HIV positive diagnosis. Journal of Biosocial Science 26:409-415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guinness L, Kumaranayake L, Hanson K 2007 A Cost Function for HIV Prevention Services: Is There a ‘U’ Shape? Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation 5:51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haacker M 2002 The Economic Consequences of HIV/AIDS in South Africa. IMF Working Paper, IMF, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  30. Halperin D (2007) AIDS Prevention: What Works? Washington Post 22 October 2007 A23.Google Scholar
  31. Hellinger F 1998 Cost and Financing of Care for Persons with HIV Disease. Health Care Financing Review 19:5-18.Google Scholar
  32. Holtgrave DR, Crosby RA 2003 Social Capital, Poverty, and Income Inequality as Predictors of Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chlamydia and AIDS Case Rates in the United States. Sexually Transmitted Infections 79:62-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Human Rights Watch (2005) The Less They Know, the Better: Abstinence-Only HIV/ AIDS Programs in Uganda. March 17:4(A).Google Scholar
  34. Husain IZ, Badcock-Walters P. Economics of HIV/AIDS mitigation: responding to problems of systemic dysfunction and sectoral capacity. In: Forsythe S, ed. State of the art: AIDS and economics. Washington, DC, Policy Project, 2002:84-95.Google Scholar
  35. Juhn C, Kalemli-Ozcan S, Turan B (2007) HIV and Fertility in Africa: First Evidence from Population Based Surveys. Working Paper, December.Google Scholar
  36. Kalemli-Ozcan S (2006) AIDS, Reversal of the Demographic Transition and Economic Development: Evidence from Africa. Working Paper 12181, National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  37. Kasyate S (2005) The Less They Know the Better: Abstinence Only HIV/AIDS Program in Uganda, Human Rights Watch, March 2005 Vol. 17, No. 4 (A).Google Scholar
  38. Klitsch M 1992 Rural Ugandan Women’s HIV Infection Rates Seem Related to Truck Routes. International Family Planning Perspectives 18:79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kyomuhendo S, Ssempa M, Lamulatu L, Langa S, Kiwanuka J, Green EC 2004 Uganda National Abstinence and Being Faithful Policy And Strategy On Prevention Of Transmission of HIV/AIDS. Uganda AIDS Commission, Kampala.Google Scholar
  40. Lee JW, McKibbin W (2003) Globalization and Disease: The Case of SARS. Working Paper No. 2003/16, Australian National University.Google Scholar
  41. Lipsitz A Bishop PD Robinson C (2003) Virginity Pledges: Who takes them and how well do they work? Poster presented at: 15th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society May 31Atlanta, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  42. Lorentzen P,McMillan J, Wacziarg R 2004 Death and Development. Mimeo, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  43. Luke N, Munshi K 2004 New Roles for Marriage in Urban Africa: Sexual Activity and Labor Market Outcomes in Kisumu. Mimeo, Brown University.Google Scholar
  44. McNeill W 1976 Plagues and People. Doubleday Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  45. McPherson MF (2007) Can a Developing Country Support the Welfare Needs of Chil-dren Affected by AIDS? Paper submitted to the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS.Google Scholar
  46. Meltzer D 1992 Mortality Decline, the Demographic Transition and Economic Growth. PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  47. Moore M, Viscusi K 1988 Doubling the Estimated Value of Life: Results using New Occupational Facility Data. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 7:476-490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mosley H 2005 The ABC’s of AIDS Prevention: What’s the Controversy? Johns Hop-kins University, CCIH Conference.Google Scholar
  49. Muntaner C, Lynch J (2002) Social Capital, Class Gender and Race Conflict, and Population Health: An Essay Review of Bowling Alone’s Implications for Social Epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology 31:261-267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Okware S 2007 Opportunities and Challenges in HIVAIDS Prevention and Control. International Workshop on Strengthening Capacity for HIV/AIDS Treat-ment and Care in West and East Africa, Kampala.Google Scholar
  51. Oster E (2005) Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual Behavior, and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Quarterly Journal of Economics 120:467-514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Oster E (2006) Measuring the Magnitude of HIV in Africa,” Working Paper, University of Chicago, November, 2006.Google Scholar
  53. Oster E (2007a) HIV and Sexual Behavior Change: Why not Africa? Working Paper, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  54. Oster E 2007b Routes of Infection: Exports and HIV Incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Working Paper, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  55. Over M (1992) The Macroeconomic Impact of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Working Paper.Google Scholar
  56. Papageorgiou C, Stoytcheva P (2004) What Do We Know About the Impact of AIDS on Cross-Country Income So Far? Mimeo, LSU.Google Scholar
  57. Peterson A (2003) Testimony of Dr. Anne Peterson, USAID Assistant Administrator for Global Health before the Subcommittee on African Affairs, Committee on Foreign Rela-ations, http://www.usaid.gov/press/speeches/2003/ty030519.html. May 19, 2003.
  58. Poulin MA, Muula S 2007 Male Circumcision and HIV Infection: The Case of Malawi. Working Paper, Princeton University.Google Scholar
  59. Putnam RD 2000 Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. Touchstone, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Steinbrook R (2007) HIV In India - A Complex Epidemic. New England Journal of Medicine 356:1089-1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stover J et al. 2006 The Global Impact of Scaling-Up HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries 2006 Mar 10, 311:1474-1476.Google Scholar
  62. US Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname104_con g_bills&docidf:h3734enr.txt. pdf. Accessed 30 December 2007.
  63. USAID (2002) The “ABCs” of HIV Prevention: Report of a USAID Technical Meeting On Behavior Change Approaches To Primary Prevention of HIV/AIDS US Agency for “ABC” Experts Technical Meeting, International Development, Washington.Google Scholar
  64. Werker E, Ahuja A, Wendell B 2006 Male Circumcision and the Economic Impact of AIDS in Africa. Mimeo, Harvard Business School Google Scholar
  65. WHO (2005) Estimating the Cost of Scaling-up Maternal and Newborn Health Interven-tions to Reach Universal Coverage: Methodology and Assumptions. Technical Working Paper.Google Scholar
  66. World Bank (2006) Second National HIV/AIDS Control Project for India.Google Scholar
  67. Young A 2005 The Gift of the Dying: The Tragedy of AIDS and the Welfare of Future African Generations. Quarterly Journal of Economics 120:423-466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Young A (2006) In Sorrow to Bring Forth Children: Fertility Amidst the Plague of HIV. Mimeo, University of Chicago.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Personalised recommendations