Advertisement

Multiple Sklerose — eine neuroimmunendokrine Erkrankung

  • Norbert Sommer
Chapter
  • 4.2k Downloads

Auszug

Die Multiple Sklerose (MS) ist eine chronische, entzündlich-demyelinisierende Erkrankung des Zentralnervensystems (ZNS), betrifft also Gehirn und Rückenmark, wobei heute eine autoimmune Ätiologie allgemein angenommen wird. Sie ist die häufigste Entmarkungserkrankung des ZNS in Nordeuropa und Nordamerika (Prävalenz 1:1000) und die häufigste chronisch-neurologische Erkrankung, die bei jungen Erwachsenen zu bleibender Behinderung führt.

Literatur

  1. Arredondo LR, Deng C, Ratts RB, Lovett-Racke AE, Holtzmann DM, Racke MK (2001) Role of nerve growth factor in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol31:625–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beatty WW, Aupperle RL (2002) Sex differences in cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Clin Neuropsychol 16:472–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck R (1913) Multiple Sklerose, Schwangerschaft und Geburt. Dtsch. Zeitschr. f. Nervenheilkunde 46:127–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Birk K, Ford C, Smeltzer S, Ryan D, Millar R, Rudick RA (1990) The clinical course of multiple sclerosis during pregnancy and the puerperium. Arch Neurol 47:738–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown RF, Tennant CC, Sharrock M, Hodgkinson S, Dunn SM, Pollard JD (2006) Relationship between stress and relapse in multiple sclerosis: part I. Important features. Multiple Sclerosis 12:453–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brück W, Stadelmann C (2005) The spectrum of multiple sclerosis: new lessons from pathology. Curr Opin Neurol 18:221–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cepok S, Zhou D, Srivastava R, Nessler S, Stei S, Büssow K, Sommer N, Hemmer B (2005) Identification of Epstein-Barr virus proteins as putative targets of the immune response in multiple sclerosis. J Clin Invest 115:1352–1360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Confavreux C, Hutchinson M, Hours MM, Cotinvis-Tourniaire P, Moreau T (1998) Rate of pregnancy-related relapse in multiple sclerosis. Pregnancy in Multiple Sclerosis Group. N Eng J Med 339:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Craig J, Young CA, Ennis M, Baker G, Boggild M (2003) A randomised controlled trial comparing rehabilitation against standard therapy in multiple sclerosis patients receiving intravenous steroid treatment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:1225–1230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DasGupta R, Wiseman OJ, Kanabar G, Fowler CJ (2004) Efficacy of sildenafil in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction due to multiple sclerosis. J Urol 171:1189–1193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elian M, Nightingale S, Dean G (1990) Multiple sclerosis among United Kingdom-born children of immigrants from the Indian subcontinent, Africa and the West Indies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 53:906–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Flachenecker P, Bihler I, Weber F, Gottschalk M, Toyka KV, Rieckmann P (2004) Cytokine mRNA expression in patients with multiple sclerosis and fatigue. Mult Scler 10:165–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Foley FW, LaRocca NG, Sanders AS, Zemon V (2001) Rehabilitation of intimacy and sexual dysfunction in couples with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 7:417–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Grasser A, Möller A, Backmund H, Yassouridis A, Holsboer F (1996) Heterogeneity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system response to a combined dexamethasone-CRH test in multiple sclerosis. Exp Clin Endocrinol 104:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harrison T, Stuifbergen A, Adachi E, Becker H (2004) Marriage, impariment, and acceptance in persons with multiple sclerosis. West J Nurs Res 26:266–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haupts M (2005) Depression. In: Henze, T (Hrsg) Symptomatische Therapie der Multiplen Sklerose. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, S 105–112Google Scholar
  17. Healy B (1991) The Yentl syndrome. N Engl J Med 325:274–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heuser I, Yassouridis A, Holsboer F (1994) The combined dexamethasone/CRH test: a refined laboratory test for psychiatric disorders. J Psychiat Res 28:314–356Google Scholar
  19. Kantarci OH, Barcellos LF, Atkinson EJ, Ramsay PR, Lincoln R, Achenbach SJ, De Andrade M, Hauser SL, Weinshenker BG (2006) Men transmit MS more often to their children vs women. The Carter effect. Neurology 67:305–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kerschensteiner M, Stadelmann C, Dechant G, Wekerle H, Hohlfeld R (2003) Neurotrophic cross-talk between the nervous and immune systems: Implications for neurological diseases. Ann Neurol 53:292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kulig K (1956) Gestationsprozesse und Multiple Sklerose. Dtsch Zeitschrf Nervenheilkunde 174:460–468Google Scholar
  22. Lassmann H (2003) Axonal injury in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 74:695–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Levin N, Mor M, Ben-Hur T (2003) Patterns of misdiagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Isr Med Assoc J 5:489–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu C, Playford ED, Thompson AJ (2003) Does neurorehabilitation have a role in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis? J Neurol 250:1214–1218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McCarthy M (2000) The »gender gap« in autoimmune disease. Lancet 356:1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moalem G, Leibowitz-Amit R, Yoles E, Mor F, Cohen IR, Schwartz M (1999) Autoimmune T cells protect neurons from secondary degeneration after central nervous system axotomy. Nature Med 5:49–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mohr DC, Hart SL, Julian L, Cox D, Pelletier D (2004) Association between stressful life events and exacerbation in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. BMJ 328:731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mosmann TR, Coffman RL (1989) TH1 and TH2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different function properties. Annu Rev Immunol 7:145–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nisipeanu P, Korczyn AD (1993) Psychological stress as risk factor for exacerbations in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 43:1311–1312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Polman CH, Reingold SC, Edan G, et al. (2005) Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2005 revisions to the »McDonald Criteria«. Ann Neurol 58:840–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Poser S, Wikstrom J, Bauer HJ (1979) Clinical data and the identification of spezial forms of multiple sclerosis in 1271 cases studied with standardized documentation system. J Neurol Sci 40:159–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Raghupathy R (1997) Th1-type immunity is incompatible with successful pregnancy. Immunol today 18:478–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Runmaker B, Andersen O (1995) Pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of onset and a better prognosis in multiple sclerosis. Brain 118:253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Savettieri G, Messina D, Andreoli V, Bonavita S, Caltagirone C, Cittadella R, et al. (2004) Gender-related effect of clinical and genetic variables on the cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 251:1208–1214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schäfer U, Poser S (2002) Multiple Sklerose. Ein Leitfaden für Betroffene, 7. Aufl. Blackwell, Berlin, S 87fGoogle Scholar
  36. Schumann EM, Kümpfel T, Then Bergh F, Trenkwalder C, Holsboer F, Auer DP (2002) Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in multiple sclerosis: correlations with Gadolinium-enhancing lesions and ventricular volume. Ann Neurol 51:763–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sicotte NL, Liva SM, Klutch R et al. (2002) Treatment of multiple sclerosis with the pregnancy hormone estriol. Ann Neurol 52:421–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Siegert RJ, Abernethy DA (2005) Depression in multiple sclerosis-4 review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:469–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sommer N, Zipp F, Rösener M, Dichgans J, Martin R (1996) Der Einfluß genetischer Faktoren auf die multiple Sklerose. Nervenarzt 67:457–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Stenager EN, Stenager E, Koch-Henriksen N, et al. (1992) Suicide and multiple sclerosis: an epidemiological investigation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55:542–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Zarei M (2006) Clinical characteristics of cortical multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 245;53–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zorzon M, Zivadinov R, Monti Bragadin L, Moretti R, De Masi R, Nasuelli D, Cazzato G (2001) Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a 2-year follow-up study. J Neurol Sci 187:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norbert Sommer
    • 1
  1. 1.Klinikum für NeurologieUniversitätsklinikum Marburg und GiessenMarburg

Personalised recommendations