Mechanism of Onset of Liquefaction
Studies on causative mechanisms of liquefaction were initiated by shaking water-saturated model ground (Maslov, 1957; Florin and Ivanov, 1961; Yoshimi 1967). Although much was found by them, more quantitative study became possible after introducing laboratory shear tests.
Figure 18.1 indicates the volume contraction of loose Toyoura sand undergoing cyclic drained shear. This volume change induced by shear is called negative dilatancy (Sect. 1.6). If sand is saturated, pore water is drained out of sand upon this cyclic volume contraction.
KeywordsEffective Stress Void Ratio Pore Water Pressure Excess Pore Water Pressure Volume Contraction
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