This chapter discusses neonatal infection, the different causes of shock, hypoglycemia, acid-base balance, and resuscitation. The etiology, signs, investigations, and treatment of these items are addressed. A large number of Tables are added for clinical use to list signs, normal values and treatment guides. Resuscitation is subdivided into clinical assessment of neonates, clinical assessement of children and infants, airway management, ventilation, circulatory resuscitation, and defibrillation. Advices of Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) are the basis of the guide lines for resuscitation in this chapter. Next to ventilatory support without equipment, various types of mechanical ventilation with advantages and disadvantages listed. A large number of figures and drawings visualise the techniques for airway management, ventilation and cardiac compression so that the clinical application of described techniques becomes clear with one glance.