The often cited words of James, “The pursuance of future ends and the choice of means for their attainment are the mark and criterion of the presence of mentality in a phenomenon”, (JAMES 1890, p. 8 cited after AUSTIN & VANCOUVER 1996, p. 8) mark the starting point for research which makes use of the goal concept and a goal-directed or purposive view of behavior. Although research activity in the area of motivation and goal-directed behavior declined significantly after the first half of this century a recent surge in the number of research programs employing the goal concept in the last two decades can be observed (PERVIN 1989a, p. 8). Theoretical perspectives in which the goal concept is thereby employed display a great diversity ranging from information processing theory to action theory (see e.g. the collection of articles in PERVIN 1989; FRESE & SABINI 1985; KUHL & BECKMANN 1985; HIGGINS & SORRENTINO 1990).
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- 9.the existence of spirituality as a third new motivational type was not confirmed by the data (SCHWARTZ 1992, p. 38).Google Scholar