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Ökonomisches Handeln und soziale Struktur: Das Problem der Einbettung

  • Mark Granovetter
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Wie Verhalten und Institutionen von den Sozialbeziehungen beeinflußt werden, ist eine der klassischen Fragen der Gesellschaftstheorie. Solche Zusammenhänge sind immer vorzufinden, so daß sich eine Situation ohne diese Beziehungen lediglich als Gedankenexperiment vorstellen läßt, wie z.B. bei Thomas Hobbes’ „Naturzustand“ oder John Rawls’ „original position“. Ein Großteil der utilitaristischen Tradition — einschließlich der klassischen und neoklassischen Wirtschaftstheorie — setzt voraus, daß rationales und von Eigennutz geprägtes Verhalten nur geringfügig von sozialen Beziehungen beeinflußt wird und beschwört damit einen idealisierten Zustand herauf, der sich kaum von den genannten Gedankenexperimenten unterscheidet. Im Gegensatz dazu befindet sich, was ich das Argument der „Einbettung“ nennen möchte: Danach werden die zu analysierenden Verhaltensweisen und Institutionen so von bestehenden Sozialbeziehungen eingeschränkt, daß sie als unabhängig zu konzipieren eine schweres Mißverständnis wäre.

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© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2000

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  • Mark Granovetter

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