Congestion Aware and Adaptive Routing Protocols for MANETs: A Survey

  • Nousheen Akhtar
  • Muazzam A. Khan KhattakEmail author
  • Ata Ullah
  • Muhammad Younus Javed
Part of the EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing book series (EAISICC)


MANETs contain mobile nodes that can join or leave the network during the operations intended by the network. During massive communication scenarios, congestion causes increase in transmission delay and packet loss which ultimately leads to waste of resources upon recovery. The current available routing algorithms are not congestion adaptive. Existing surveys on routing include the congestion occurrence and then its control-based techniques in a reactive manner. In this paper, we have focused to further include the congestion avoidance schemes where congestion aware and congestion adaptive protocols for MANETs are discussed. Congestion avoidance-based schemes are further subcategorized under cross-layer and rate control-based protocols. We have also categorically evaluated the existing schemes and presented in a tabular form to highlight the role of end-to-end delay, packet drop ratio, throughput, energy efficiency, data rate, and related metrics. It provides a comprehensive collection of related schemes to overview the contributions in this area and pinpoint the weaknesses for mitigating the unresolved issues.


MANET Congestion aware Congestion adaptive 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nousheen Akhtar
    • 1
  • Muazzam A. Khan Khattak
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ata Ullah
    • 2
  • Muhammad Younus Javed
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer EngineeringCollege of EME, NUSTRawalpindiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceNational University of Modern Languages, NUMLIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringHITEC UniversityTaxilaPakistan

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