Advertisement

Diagnosis of Temporomandibular Disorders Using DC/TMD Criteria

  • Ambra MichelottiEmail author
  • Stefano Vollaro
  • Roberta Cimino
Chapter

Abstract

It is strongly recommended that the gold standard for the diagnosis of TMD according to the DC/TMD and the differential diagnosis of orofacial pain conditions should be based primarily on information obtained from a comprehensive history together with a clinical examination and, when indicated, TMJ imaging (Schiffman and Ohrbac, JADA 147(6):438–445, 2016). Indeed for the TMJ disorders, the reference standard was established by board-certified radiologists using bilateral TMJ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Together with the physical diagnosis (Axis I), questionnaires for the evaluation of psychosocial factors were identified to assess a reliable and valid Axis II profile [Ohrbach, J Oral Rehabil 37:784–798, 2010). When the clinician uses the Axis I, diagnoses must first exclude odontogenic disease and other pain disorders that can occur in the masticatory system.

Keywords

Temporomandibular disorder Diagnosis Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders Imaging 

References

  1. 1.
    Schiffman E, Ohrbach R. Executive summary of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders for clinical and research applications. JADA. 2016;147(6):438–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    List T, Jensen RH. Temporomandibular disorders: old ideas and new concepts. Cephalalgia. 2017;37(7):692–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ohrbach R, Gonzales Y, List T, Michelotti A, Schiffmann E. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD). Clinical examination protocol. 2014: protocol website in IADR INfORM.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schiffman E, Ohrbach R, Truelove E, Look J, Anderson G, Goulet JP, List T, Svensson P, Gonzalez Y, Lobbezoo F, Michelotti A, Brooks SL, Werner E, Ceusters W, Drangsholt M, Ettlin D, Gaul C, Goldberg LJ, Haythornthwaite JA, Hollender L, Jensen R, John MT, De Laat A, de Leeuw R, Maixner W, van der Meulen M, Murray GM, Nixdorf DR, Palla S, Arne Petersson A, Pionchon P, Smith B, Visscher CM, Zakrzewska J, Dworkin SF. Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications: Recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group. J Orofac Pain. 2014;28(1):6–27.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ohrbach R. Assessment and further development of RDC/TMD axis II biobehavioural instruments: a research programme progress report. J Oral Rehabil. 2010;37:784–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Peck C, Goulet JP, Lobbezoo F, Schiffman EL, Alstergren P, Anderson GC, De Leeuw R, Jensen R, Michelotti A, Orbach R, Petersson A, List T. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Rehabil. 2014;41:2–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Michelotti A, Alstergren P, Goulet JP, Lobbezoo F, Ohrbach R, Peck C, Schiffmann E, List T. Next steps in development of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD): recommendations from the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network workshop. J Oral Rehabil. 2016;43(6):453–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alstergren P, Kopp S, Theodorsson E. Synovial fluid sampling from the temporomandibular joint: sample quality criteria and levels of interleukin-1 beta and serotonin. Acta Odontol Scand. 1999;57(1):16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nitzan DW, Marmary Y. The “anchored disc phenomenon”: a proposed etiology for sudden-onset, severe, and persistent closed lock of the temporomandibular joint. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;55:797–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yura S, Totsuka Y, Yoshikawa T, Inoue N. Can arthrocentesis release intracapsular adhesions? Arthroscopic findings before and after irrigation under sufficient hydraulic pressure. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61:1253–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nitzan DW, Etsion I. Adhesive force: the underlying cause of the disc anchorage to the fossa and/or eminence in the temporomandibular joint—a new concept. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;31:94–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bakke M. Iaw muscle disorder. In: Klineberg I, Eckert S, editors. Functional occlusion in restorative dentistry and prosthodontics. St Louis: Elseiver Mosby; 2015. p. 173–86.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Plotz P, Christopher-Stine L. Adult inflammatory myopathies. Best Pract Res Rheumatol. 2004;18(3):331–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Firestein G. Kelley’s textbook of rheumatology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2008.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gold R, Dalakas MC, Toyka KV. Immunotherapy in autoimmune neuromuscular disorders. Lancet Neurol. 2003;2(1):22–32. Review 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hansen KE, Hildebrand JP, Ferguson EE, Stein JH. Outcomes in 45 patients with statin-associated myopathy. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(22):2671–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Geyer HL, Bressma S. Diagnosis of dystonia. In: Warner T, Bressma S, editors. Clinical diagnosis and management of dystonia. London: Informa Healthcare; 2007. p. 1–14.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thompson P, Obeso J, Delgado G, Gallego J, Marsden C. Focal dystonia of the jaw and differential diagnosis of unilateral jaw and masticatory spasm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986;49:651–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zanchin G, Maggioni F. Cefalee e Nevralgie. In: Angelini C, Battistin L, editors. Neurologia Clinica. Bologna: Società Editrice Esculapio; 2014. p. 542–79.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Glaros A, Urban D, Locke J. Headache and temporomandibular disorders: evidence for diagnostic and behavioural overlap. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:542–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mitrirattanakul S, Merrill L. Headache impact in patients with orofacial pain. J Am Dental Assoc. 2006;137:1267–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stovner L, Hagen K, Jensen R. The global burden of headache: a documentation of headache prevalence and disability worldwide. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gonçalves D, Bigal M, Jales L, Camparis M, Speciali J. Headache and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder: an epidemiological study: research submission. Headache. 2010;50:231–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Caspersen N, Hirsvang J, Kroell L. Is there a relation between tension-type headache, temporomandibular disorders and sleep? Pain Res Treat. 2013;2:845684–6.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Olesen J. ICHD-3 beta. Cephalalgia. 2013;33:629–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jaskolka MS, Eppley BL, van Aalst JA. Mandibular condylar hyperplasia in pediatric patients. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18:849–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Khandavilli SD, Pattni N, Naredla PR, Williams R. First case of bilateral coronoid hyperplasia in monozygotic twin sisters—a new aetiological perspective? Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;20(4):441–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ambra Michelotti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stefano Vollaro
    • 2
  • Roberta Cimino
    • 2
  1. 1.“School of Orthodontics”University of Naples, Federico IINaplesItaly
  2. 2.Division of Orthodontics, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences, Oral SciencesUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations