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Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy: A Powerful Tool for Investigating the Surface Structure and Chemistry of Solid Lubricants

  • Filippo Mangolini
  • J. Brandon McClimon
Chapter
Part of the Microtechnology and MEMS book series (MEMS)

Abstract

Synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques have been critical tools for developing a better understanding of the structure and properties of materials and material surfaces as well as their evolution in response to energetics inputs, such as mechanical strains present in tribological contacts. Among these techniques, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools thanks to its elemental specificity, surface sensitivity, and ability to provide important information about local bonding configurations, such as hybridization, chemical states, and bond orientations. In addition, when coupled with imaging methods like photoemission electron microscopy and magnetically-guided imaging, NEXAFS spectroscopy enables chemical imaging of materials with high spatial resolution. This capability can be critical when investigating materials after tribological experiments, where chemical changes and structural transformations occur in the first few atomic layers and spatial inhomogeneities can be present across small length scales. The present contribution first describes the principles of NEXAFS spectroscopy, followed by experimental methods for the acquisition and processing of NEXAFS data. Finally, the potential of this analytical method for fundamental and applied research in tribology is demonstrated by discussing case studies in the area of solid lubricating carbon-based thin films.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1107642 and by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche under grant No. ANR-11-NS09-01 through the Materials World Network program. F.M. acknowledges support from The University of Texas at Austin Startup Funding, the Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship for Career Development within the 7th European Community Framework Program under contract no. PIOF-GA-2012-328776 and the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship within the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Program under contract no. 706289. The authors acknowledge support from the Advanced Storage Technology Consortium ASTC (grant 2011-012). The authors would like to thank Dr. C. Jaye and Dr. D. A. Fischer for the kind assistance with the NEXAFS measurements at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, and Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. The authors would like to acknowledge Prof. R. W. Carpick (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA) for fruitful discussions, valuable suggestions, and guidance. Finally, the authors would also like to thank Dr. K. D. Koshigan (Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully-Cedex, France) and Dr. J. Fontaine (Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully-Cedex, France) for performing tribological experiments on a-C:H:Si:O.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering ProgramThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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