Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis for Wear Surface Characterization
Wear surface analysis , specifically in the subsurface regions, is essential for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of friction and material removal during wear. The advent of focused ion-beam systems (combined scanning electron and focused ion-beam microscopes) has made it possible to prepare site-specific cross sections of wear surfaces for scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. During the past decade, these state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques are being increasingly used to characterize wear-induced changes to microstructures and crystallographic textures.
Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525. The authors gratefully acknowledge Professor Thomas W. Scharf, University of North Texas, for many years of collaboration with the authors on this subject, and Dr. Corbett Battaile for critically reviewing the manuscript. Special thanks to Michael Rye for the FIB work and to Bonnie McKenzie for the SEM, EBSD and TKD studies.
- 5.F.P. Bowden, D. Tabor D, The Friction and Lubrication of Solids (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986), pp. 112, 120Google Scholar
- 7.D.B. Williams, C.B. Carter, Transmission electron microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science, 2nd edn. (Springer, 2013) ISBN-13: 978–0387765006Google Scholar
- 11.L. Giannuzzi, Introduction to Focused Ion Beams: Instrumentation, Theory, Techniques and Practice (Springer, New York, 2006)Google Scholar
- 12.J.I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, J.R. Michael, N.W.M. Ritchie, J.H. Scott, D.C. Joy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis (Springer, New York, 2017)Google Scholar
- 18.V. Randle, Microtexture Determination and its Applications (Maney Publishing, London, 2003)Google Scholar
- 19.A.J. Schwartz, M. Kumar, B.L. Adams, D.P. Field (eds.), Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science (Springer, New York, 2009)Google Scholar
- 23.H.S. von Harrach, P. Dona, B. Freitag, H. Soltau, A. Niculae, M. Rohde, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 241, 012015 (2010)Google Scholar
- 24.R.B. Mott, C.G. Waldman, R. Batcheler, J.J. Friel, Position tagged spectrometry: A new approach for EDS spectrum imaging. in Proceeding of Microscopy Microanalysis, ed. by G.W. Bailey, M.H. Ellisman, R.A. Hennigar, N.J. Zaluzec. Jones and Begell Publishing, New York, pp. 592–593Google Scholar
- 34.M.R. Keenan, P.G. Kotula, Apparatus and System for Multivariate Spectral Analysis. US Patent # 6,584,413, 2003Google Scholar
- 35.M.R. Keenan, P.G. Kotula, Method of Multivariate Spectral Analysis. US Patent # 6,675,106, 2004Google Scholar
- 36.M.R. Keenan, Multivariate analysis of spectral images composed of count data. in Techniques and Applications of Hyperspectral Image Analysis, ed. by H. Grahn, P. Geladi (Wiley & Sons, Chinchester, 2007)Google Scholar
- 37.I.T. Jollife, Principal Component Analysis, 2nd edn. (Springer, New York, 2002)Google Scholar