Echocardiography in the ICU and OR: Basic and Advanced Applications

  • Alessandro Forti
  • Ferdinando Luca LoriniEmail author
  • Carlo Sorbara


Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) may improve intraoperative decision-making and patient outcome if it is performed and interpreted correctly. It is a very important tool during cardiac surgery with a significant impact on surgical care and anesthesia management. In 1999 the American Society of Echocardiography/Society of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists task force published guidelines for performing a comprehensive intraoperative TOE examination.

It is very important to know indication and avoid possible complication induced by the TEE examination. In the last 20 years, this procedure has improved outcomes in cardiac surgery patients.


TEE (transesophageal echocardiography) ASA/SCA (American Society of Echocardiography/Society of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists) 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Forti
    • 1
  • Ferdinando Luca Lorini
    • 2
    Email author
  • Carlo Sorbara
    • 3
  1. 1.Anesthesia and Intensive Care DepartmentRegional Teaching Hospital, Azienda ULSS 9, VenetoTrevisoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesia and Intensive CareASST Papa Giovanni XXIIIBergamoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Anesthesia and Intensive CareOMCEOTrevisoItaly

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