Congenital Septal Abnormalities in The Adult Patient

  • Ferdinando Luca LoriniEmail author
  • Cristian Ottavio Mirabile
  • Moreno Favarato


Echocardiography is the primary imaging method for the diagnosis and assessment of congenital heart disease in the paediatric and adult groups of patients. In the group of congenital septal defects transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the first device to characterize the type of defect (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and atrioventricular septal defect), to describe echoanatomic and physiopathological features of singular lesion and the associated defects. Particularly in the adult patient with substandard echocardiographic precordial windows transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has permitted the acquisition of anatomic and hemodynamic information not obtainable by TTE. In this chapter we accentuate also the role of Color Doppler and contrast echo for an accurate diagnosis of septal defect; these techniques are useful also during reparation of defects, particularly by percutaneous closure: in this case use of 2-D TEE is mandatory, but today using of 3-D echo and intracardiac echo is growing. We want to underline that echo is fundamental for intensivist because permits primarily immediate diagnosis and clinical management of adult patients with congenital septal defect and so it is possible to send early these kind of patients in a centre who daily manage congenital heart diseases. Echo plays an essential role in diagnosis, management of congenital septal abnormalities because it is a usable device with high sensitivity. As well as cardiologists, intensivists and anestesiologists also are frequent users of it in daily work.


Congenital septal abnormalities Aatrial septal defect, ASD Ahunt Right ventricular overload Pulmonary artery hypertension, PAH Color Doppler Patent forame ovale, PFO Contrast echo Percutaneous closure Ventricular septal defect, VSD Atrioventricular septal defect, AVSD 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ferdinando Luca Lorini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cristian Ottavio Mirabile
    • 2
  • Moreno Favarato
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care MedicineASST Papa Giovanni XXIIIBergamoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care-SAMU-SMURHôpital Universitaire NeckerParisFrance

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