The Cardiomyopathies

  • Ferdinando Luca LoriniEmail author
  • Alessandra Rizza
  • Francesco Ferri


The cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of disease of the myocardium. Historically in the WHO/International Society and Federation of Cardiology classification of 1996, cardiomyopathies were defined as primary disorders of unknown cause. Heart muscle diseases of known cause or associated with systemic disorders were classified as secondary. However, this distinction between primary and secondary heart muscle disease has become redundant, as the cause of previously idiopathic disorders has been discovered. Recently different classifications have been proposed to identify the different types of cardiomyopathies. There is no ideal classification; however, from an echocardiographic point of view, the classification based on structure and function is the most useful. This chapter will describe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and left ventricular noncompaction according to the ESC classification.


Cardiomyopathies Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Left ventricular noncompaction 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ferdinando Luca Lorini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alessandra Rizza
    • 2
  • Francesco Ferri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care MedicineASST Papa Giovanni XXIIIBergamoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care MedicineOspedale Pediatrico Bambino GesùRomeItaly

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