Pericardium and Pericardial Disease

  • Ferdinando Luca LoriniEmail author
  • Stefania Cerutti
  • Giovanni Di Dedda


Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line imaging modality for diagnosing pericardial diseases like pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade, constrictive pericarditis, pericardial cysts and tumors, and partial and complete absence of the pericardium. The limitations of this imaging are very few, mainly represented by a poor echocardiographic window and the lack of details of the pericardium’s anatomy. Although transthoracic echocardiography is almost always the ideal technique to detect pericardial diseases, many factors in the postoperative period after cardiac surgery may indicate the need of transesophageal echocardiography.


Pericardium Pericardial effusion Cardiac tamponade Constrictive pericarditis TEE guidelines Pericardial tumors Pericardial disease 

Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ferdinando Luca Lorini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stefania Cerutti
    • 1
  • Giovanni Di Dedda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care MedicineASST Papa Giovanni XXIIIBergamoItaly

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