This chapter reflects on the fragmented consultancy market from the late 1990s onwards. Whilst the most high-profile state assignments were still undertaken by “American” or “accountancy” firms, new market entrants specialising in outsourcing services were growing in influence (the “outsourcing generation”). In this chapter, the work of the influential Prime Minister’s Delivery Unit and the work of outsourcing firms for local authorities are analysed in detail. Where consultancies had hitherto largely confined themselves to advisory or implementation work, by the twenty-first century the outsourcing generation of consultancies commenced providing service delivery functions to the state, representing a significant discontinuity from historical precedent. By moving to providing state functions, rather than just advising on how to provide them, the change brought about by the “outsourcing generation” raises materially different questions about the state-consultancy relationship than previous generations of consultancies had done.