History and Principles of Ocular Ultrasonography

  • Aniruddha Agarwal
  • Arash Maleki
  • Quan Dong NguyenEmail author


Acoustics, the science of sound, started in the 6th century BC. Ultrasound physics was discovered by Lazzaro Spallanzani in 1794 when he explained echolocation in bats, used for hunting and navigating by inaudible sound. Jacques and Pierre Curie, in 1880, discovered the piezoelectric effect, which was later used in transducers to generate and detect ultrasonic waves in air and water. In 1917, the first technological application of ultrasound was introduced by Paul Langevin to detect submarines and icebergs during the First World War.


Two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound Handheld A-mode transducer Biometry Ultrasound biomicroscope Echo patterns 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aniruddha Agarwal
    • 1
  • Arash Maleki
    • 2
  • Quan Dong Nguyen
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Advanced Eye CenterPost Graduate Institute of Medicine and Research (PGIMER)ChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye InstituteStanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA

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