Self-directed Professional Learning and Educator Self-Efficacy: The Case of Voxer

  • Jeffrey P. Carpenter
  • Tim D. Green


Self-efficacy beliefs are critical determinants of human behavior and motivation. Self-efficacy, however, was developed as a concept prior to the advent of social media, and it is not yet fully understood how these new media impact self-efficacy beliefs. In the particular case of educator self-efficacy, the potential role social media could play in its development has yet to be examined. In this chapter, we consider how social media might affect educator self-efficacy first by reviewing the relevant literature. We then present the case of our research on a particular social media service, Voxer. Voxer is a multimodal messaging tool that allows for voice, text, image, and video communication. Using an electronic survey, we gathered data from 240 educators regarding their uses of and perceptions regarding Voxer. Results indicated that participants perceived their use of Voxer as having a positive impact on their self-efficacy beliefs. Voxer use appeared to most clearly relate to two of the sources of self-efficacy posited by Bandura (Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986): vicarious experience and verbal persuasion. We discuss the implications of our findings for educator self-efficacy and teaching in an era of ubiquitous social media.


Social media Professional learning network Professional development Educational technology Connected learning Online communities 



We would like to thank the busy educators who took the time to complete our survey for their contributions to this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey P. Carpenter
    • 1
  • Tim D. Green
    • 2
  1. 1.Elon UniversityElonUSA
  2. 2.California State University, FullertonFullertonUSA

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