Summary and Outlook

  • Otwin BreitensteinEmail author
  • Wilhelm Warta
  • Martin C. Schubert
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics book series (MICROELECTR., volume 10)


In this book, the technique of lock-in thermography is being reviewed with special emphasis on its application to the characterization and functional testing of electronic components. The investigation of shunting phenomena in solar cells, which our lock-in thermography originally was developed for, among a lot of other applications is presented to demonstrate and discuss all the different possibilities of this rather new technique. We hope to have shown that the use of lock-in thermography instead of conventional (steady-state) thermography is a qualitatively new thermographic approach to electronic device testing and failure analysis.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otwin Breitenstein
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wilhelm Warta
    • 2
  • Martin C. Schubert
    • 2
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute of Microstructure PhysicsHalleGermany
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy SystemsFreiburgGermany

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