Advertisement

Psychiatric Aspects of Cardiothoracic Surgery

  • Walter Piddoubny
  • Mario Andres Caro
Chapter

Abstract

Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the USA and accounts for 17% of healthcare expenses, with projected costs of cardiovascular disease expected to triple in the next two decades. Psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, and delirium, among others, are common in patients with cardiovascular disease, and their presence has been linked to worse medical outcomes and higher healthcare costs. In this book chapter, we will discuss the effects of different psychiatric conditions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, cardiac valvular surgery, left ventricular assist device implantation, and in patients with automatic implantable cardiac defibrillators.

Keywords

Psychiatry Cardiothoracic surgery Coronary artery bypass graft Heart failure Valvular heart disease Left ventricular assist device Automated implantable cardiac defibrillator Depression Anxiety 

References

  1. 1.
    Heidenreich PA, Trogdon JG, Khavjou OA, et al. Forecasting the future of cardiovascular disease in the United States. Circulation. 2011;123:933–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Caro MA, Rosenthal JL, Kendall K, Pozuelo L, Funk MC. What the psychiatrist needs to know about ventricular assist devices: a comprehensive review. Psychosomatics. 2016;57:229–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goyal TM, Idler EL, Krause TJ, Contrada RJ. Quality of life following cardiac surgery: impact of the severity and course of depressive symptoms. Psychosom Med. 2005;67:759–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huffman JC, Celano CM, Beach SR, Motiwala SR, Januzzi JL, Huffman JC, Celano CM, Beach SR, Motiwala SR, Januzzi JL. Depression and cardiac disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and diagnosis. Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol. 2013;2013:e695925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rutledge T, Reis VA, Linke SE, Greenberg BH, Mills PJ. Depression in heart failure: a meta-analytic review of prevalence, intervention effects, and associations with clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:1527–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kazmierski J, Kowman M, Banach M, Pawelczyk T, Okonski P, Iwaszkiewicz A, Zaslonka J, Sobow T, Kloszewska I. Preoperative predictors of delirium after cardiac surgery: a preliminary study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2006;28:536–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tully PJ, Baker RA. Depression, anxiety, and cardiac morbidity outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery: a contemporary and practical review. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2012;9:197–208.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Milbrandt EB, Deppen S, Harrison PL, Shintani AK, Speroff T, Stiles RA, Truman B, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Costs associated with delirium in mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:955–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sato K, Kubota K, Oda H, Taniguchi T. The impact of delirium on outcomes in acute, non-intubated cardiac patients. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2048872615624239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cogswell R, Smith E, Hamel A, et al. Substance abuse at the time of left ventricular assist device implantation is associated with increased mortality. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2014;33:1048–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leto L, Feola M. Cognitive impairment in heart failure patients. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2014;11:316–28.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association Circulation CIR0000000000000485; 2017.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Adult cardiac surgery database: executive summary: 10 years: STS period ending 6/30/2015. Society of Thoracic Surgeons web site. http://www.sts.org/sites/default/files/documents/2015Harvest3_ ExecutiveSummary.pdf.
  14. 14.
    Diagnostic criteria and codes. Diagn Stat Man Ment Disord. 2013.  https://doi.org/10.5555/appi.books.9780890425596.Section2.
  15. 15.
    Sockalingam S, Parekh N, Israel Bogoch I, et al. Delirium in the postoperative cardiac patient: a review. J Card Surg. 2005;20:560–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gottesman RF, Grega MA, Bailey MM, Pham LD, Zeger SL, Baumgartner WA, Selnes OA, McKhann GM. Delirium after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and late mortality. Ann Neurol. 2010;67:338–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Koster S, Hensens AG, Schuurmans MJ, van der Palen J. Consequences of delirium after cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93:705–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saczynski JS, Marcantonio ER, Quach L, Fong TG, Gross A, Inouye SK, Jones RN. Cognitive trajectories after postoperative delirium. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:30–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martin B-J, Buth KJ, Arora RC, Baskett RJF. Delirium: a cause for concern beyond the immediate postoperative period. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93:1114–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rudolph JL, Inouye SK, Jones RN, Yang FM, Fong TG, Levkoff SE, Marcantonio ER. Delirium: an independent predictor of functional decline after cardiac surgery. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58:643–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brown CH. Delirium in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2014;27:117–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Groen JA, Banayan D, Gupta S, Xu S, Bhalerao S. Treatment of delirium following cardiac surgery. J Card Surg. 2012;27:589–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schoen J, Meyerrose J, Paarmann H, Heringlake M, Hueppe M, Berger K-U. Preoperative regional cerebral oxygen saturation is a predictor of postoperative delirium in on-pump cardiac surgery patients: a prospective observational trial. Crit Care. 2011;15:R218.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hatano Y, Narumoto J, Shibata K, Matsuoka T, Taniguchi S, Hata Y, Yamada K, Yaku H, Fukui K. White-matter hyperintensities predict delirium after cardiac surgery. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;21:938–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kazmierski J, Kowman M, Banach M, et al. Incidence and predictors of delirium after cardiac surgery: results from the IPDACS Study. J Psychosom Res. 2010;69:179–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lin Y, Chen J, Wang Z. Meta-analysis of factors which influence delirium following cardiac surgery. J Card Surg. 2012;27:481–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Katznelson R, Djaiani GN, Borger MA, Friedman Z, Abbey SE, Fedorko L, Karski J, Mitsakakis N, Carroll J, Beattie WS. Preoperative use of statins is associated with reduced early delirium rates after cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rudolph JL, Jones RN, Levkoff SE, et al. Derivation and validation of a preoperative prediction rule for delirium after cardiac surgery. Circulation. 2009;119:229–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ettema RGA, Van Koeven H, Peelen LM, Kalkman CJ, Schuurmans MJ. Preadmission interventions to prevent postoperative complications in older cardiac surgery patients: a systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2014;51:251–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arenson BG, MacDonald LA, Grocott HP, Hiebert BM, Arora RC. Effect of intensive care unit environment on in-hospital delirium after cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013;146:172–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gamberini M, Bolliger D, Lurati Buse GA, et al. Rivastigmine for the prevention of postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery--a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:1762–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hudetz JA, Patterson KM, Iqbal Z, Gandhi SD, Byrne AJ, Hudetz AG, Warltier DC, Pagel PS. Ketamine attenuates delirium after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2009;23:651–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shehabi Y, Grant P, Wolfenden H, Hammond N, Bass F, Campbell M, Chen J. Prevalence of delirium with dexmedetomidine compared with morphine based therapy after cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial (DEXmedetomidine COmpared to Morphine-DEXCOM Study). Anesthesiology. 2009;111:1075–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maldonado JR, Wysong A, van der Starre PJA, Block T, Miller C, Reitz BA. Dexmedetomidine and the reduction of postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery. Psychosomatics. 2009;50:206–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mariscalco G, Cottini M, Zanobini M, et al. Preoperative statin therapy is not associated with a decrease in the incidence of delirium after cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93:1439–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cole MG, Ciampi A, Belzile E, Dubuc-Sarrasin M. Subsyndromal delirium in older people: a systematic review of frequency, risk factors, course and outcomes. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;28:771–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hakim SM, Othman AI, Naoum DO. Early treatment with risperidone for subsyndromal delirium after on-pump cardiac surgery in the elderly: a randomized trial. Anesthesiol J Am Soc Anesthesiol. 2012;116:987–97.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Prakanrattana U, Prapaitrakool S. Efficacy of risperidone for prevention of postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007;35:714–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li H-C, Chen Y-S, Chiu M-J, Fu M-C, Huang G-H, Chen CC-H. Delirium, subsyndromal delirium, and cognitive changes in individuals undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2015;30:340–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Siepe M, Pfeiffer T, Gieringer A, Zemann S, Benk C, Schlensak C, Beyersdorf F. Increased systemic perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with less early postoperative cognitive dysfunction and delirium. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;40:200–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kazmierski J, Banys A, Latek J, Bourke J, Jaszewski R. Cortisol levels and neuropsychiatric diagnosis as markers of postoperative delirium: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2013;17:R38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Humphreys JM, Denson LA, Baker RA, Tully PJ. The importance of depression and alcohol use in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients: risk factors for delirium and poorer quality of life. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2016;13:51–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Martin B-J, Buth KJ, Arora RC, Baskett RJ. Delirium as a predictor of sepsis in post-coronary artery bypass grafting patients: a retrospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2010;14:R171.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Aykut K, Albayrak G, Guzeloglu M, Baysak A, Hazan E. Preoperative mild cognitive dysfunction predicts pulmonary complications after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013;27:1267–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Selnes OA, Goldsborough MA, Borowicz LM, McKhann GM. Neurobehavioural sequelae of cardiopulmonary bypass. Lancet. 1999;353:1601–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moller J, Cluitmans P, Rasmussen L, et al. Long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: ISPOCD1 Study. Lancet. 1998;351:857–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Evered LA, Silbert BS, Scott DA, Maruff P, Ames D. Prevalence of dementia 7.5 years after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Anesthesiology. 2016;125:62–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Newman MF, Kirchner JL, Phillips-Bute B, Gaver V, Grocott H, Jones RH, Mark DB, Reves JG, Blumenthal JA. Longitudinal assessment of neurocognitive function after coronary-artery bypass surgery. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Selnes OA, Royall RM, Grega MA, Louis M, Borowicz J, Quaskey S, McKhann GM. Cognitive changes 5 years after coronary artery bypass grafting: is there evidence of late decline? Arch Neurol. 2001;58:598–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gottesman RF, Wityk RJ. Brain injury from cardiac bypass procedures. Semin Neurol. 2006;26:432–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tully PJ, Baker RA, Kneebone AC, Knight JL. Neuropsychologic and quality-of-life outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass: a prospective randomized trial. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;22:515–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    van Dijk D, Spoor M, Hijman R, Nathoe HM, Borst C, Jansen EWL, Grobbee DE, de Jaegere PPT, Kalkman CJ, Group for the OS. Cognitive and cardiac outcomes 5 years after off-pump vs on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. JAMA. 2007;297:701–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kennedy ED, Choy KCC, Alston RP, Chen S, Farhan-Alanie MMH, Anderson J, Ang YL, Moore DE, MacKenzie SA, Sykes RA. Cognitive outcome after on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013;27:253–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    van Dijk D, Moons KGM, Nathoe HM, van Aarnhem EHL, Borst C, Keizer AMA, Kalkman CJ, Hijman R. Cognitive outcomes five years after not undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85:60–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cormack F, Shipolini A, Awad WI, Richardson C, McCormack DJ, Colleoni L, Underwood M, Baldeweg T, Hogan AM. A meta-analysis of cognitive outcome following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36:2118–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Selnes OA, Gottesman RF, Grega MA, Baumgartner WA, Zeger SL, McKhann GM. Cognitive and neurologic outcomes after coronary-artery bypass surgery. 2012. In:  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1100109. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1100109. Accessed 14 May 2017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Celano CM, Huffman JC. Depression and cardiac disease: a review. Cardiol Rev. 2011;19:130–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Johansson P, Dahlström U, Alehagen U. Depressive symptoms and six-year cardiovascular mortality in elderly patients with and without heart failure. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2007;41:299–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Whooley MA, de JP, Vittinghoff E, et al. Depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2008;300:2379–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Horne D, Kehler DS, Kaoukis G, Hiebert B, Garcia E, Chapman S, Duhamel TA, Arora RC. Impact of physical activity on depression after cardiac surgery. Can J Cardiol. 2013;29:1649–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Martin F. Recognizing depression after a coronary artery bypass graft. Br J Nurs. 2006;15:703–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Barth J, Schumacher M, Herrmann-Lingen C. Depression as a risk factor for mortality in patients with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Psychosom Med. 2004;66:802–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Feinstein RE, Blumenfield M, Orlowski B, Frishman WH, Ovanessian S. A national survey of cardiovascular physicians’ beliefs and clinical care practices when diagnosing and treating depression in patients with cardiovascular disease. Cardiol Rev. 2006;14:164–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, Rush AJ, Walters EE, Wang PS. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA. 2003;289:3095–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Connerney I, Shapiro PA, McLaughlin JS, Bagiella E, Sloan RP. Relation between depression after coronary artery bypass surgery and 12-month outcome: a prospective study. Lancet. 2001;358:1766–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tully PJ, Baker RA, Winefield HR, Turnbull DA. Depression, anxiety disorders and type D personality as risk factors for delirium after cardiac surgery. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2010;44:1005–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mitchell RHB, Robertson E, Harvey PJ, Nolan R, Rodin G, Romans S, Abramson BL, Brister SJ, Ivanov J, Stewart DE. Sex differences in depression after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Am Heart J. 2005;150:1017–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Blumenthal JA, Lett HS, Babyak MA, White W, Smith PK, Mark DB, Jones R, Mathew JP, Newman MF, NORG Investigators. Depression as a risk factor for mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery. Lancet. 2003;362:604–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Baker RA, Andrew MJ, Schrader G, Knight JL. Preoperative depression and mortality in coronary artery bypass surgery: preliminary findings. ANZ J Surg. 2001;71:139–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gallagher R, McKinley S. Anxiety, depression and perceived control in patients having coronary artery bypass grafts. J Adv Nurs. 2009;65:2386–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Borowicz L, Royall R, Grega M, Selnes O, Lyketsos C, McKhann G. Depression and cardiac morbidity 5 years after coronary artery bypass surgery. Psychosomatics. 2002;43:464–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    McKhann GM, Borowicz LM, Goldsborough MA, Enger C, Selnes OA. Depression and cognitive decline after coronary artery bypass grafting. Lancet. 1997;349:1282–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pirraglia PA, Peterson JC, Williams-Russo P, Gorkin L, Charlson ME. Depressive symptomatology in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999;14:668–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Krannich J-HA, Weyers P, Lueger S, Herzog M, Bohrer T, Elert O. Presence of depression and anxiety before and after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and their relationship to age. BMC Psychiatry. 2007;7:47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Timberlake N, Klinger L, Smith P, Venn G, Treasure T, Harrison M, Newman SP. Incidence and patterns of depression following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Psychosom Res. 1997;43:197–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Phillips-Bute B, Mathew JP, Blumenthal JA, et al. Relationship of genetic variability and depressive symptoms to adverse events after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Psychosom Med. 2008;70:953–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lie I, Arnesen H, Sandvik L, Hamilton G, Bunch EH. Effects of a home-based intervention program on anxiety and depression 6 months after coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized controlled trial. J Psychosom Res. 2007;62:411–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Beresnevaitė M, Benetis R, Taylor GJ, Jurėnienė K, Kinduris Š, Barauskienė V. Depression predicts perioperative outcomes following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2010;44:289–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Burg MM, Benedetto MC, Rosenberg R, Soufer R. Presurgical depression predicts medical morbidity 6 months after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Psychosom Med. 2003;65:111–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tully PJ, Baker RA, Turnbull D, Winefield H. The role of depression and anxiety symptoms in hospital readmissions after cardiac surgery. J Behav Med. 2008;31:281–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mallik S, Krumholz HM, Lin ZQ, Kasl SV, Mattera JA, Roumains SA, Vaccarino V. Patients with depressive symptoms have lower health status benefits after coronary artery bypass surgery. Circulation. 2005;111:271–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Stenman M, Holzmann MJ, Sartipy U. Relation of major depression to survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol. 2014;114:698–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stenman M, Holzmann MJ, Sartipy U. Association between preoperative depression and long-term survival following coronary artery bypass surgery — a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2016;222:462–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dao TK, Chu D, Springer J, Gopaldas RR, Menefee DS, Anderson T, Hiatt E, Nguyen Q. Clinical depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder as risk factors for in-hospital mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;140:606–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Burg MM, Benedetto MC, Soufer R. Depressive symptoms and mortality two years after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in men. Psychosom Med. 2003;65:508–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Connerney I, Sloan RP, Shapiro PA, Bagiella E, Seckman C. Depression is associated with increased mortality 10 years after coronary artery bypass surgery. Psychosom Med. 2010;72:874–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nemati MH, Astaneh B. The impact of coronary artery bypass graft surgery on depression and anxiety. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2011;12:401–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kustrzycki W, Rymaszewska J, Malcher K, Szczepanska-Gieracha J, Biecek P. Risk factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms 8 years after coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41:302–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Baumeister H, Hutter N, Bengel J. Psychological and pharmacological interventions for depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008012.pub3.
  90. 90.
    Glassman AH, O’Connor CM, Califf RM, et al. Sertraline treatment of major depression in patients with acute MI or unstable angina. JAMA. 2002;288:701–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lespérance F, Frasure-Smith N, Koszycki D, et al. Effects of citalopram and interpersonal psychotherapy on depression in patients with coronary artery disease: the Canadian Cardiac Randomized Evaluation of Antidepressant and Psychotherapy Efficacy (CREATE) trial. JAMA. 2007;297:367–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kim DH, Daskalakis C, Whellan DJ, Whitman IR, Hohmann S, Medvedev S, Kraft WK. Safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in adults undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol. 2009;103:1391–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tully PJ, Cardinal T, Bennetts JS, Baker RA. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine and duloxetine are associated with in hospital morbidity but not bleeding or late mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Heart Lung Circ. 2012;21:206–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chocron S, Vandel P, Durst C, Laluc F, Kaili D, Chocron M, Etievent J-P. Antidepressant therapy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: the MOTIV-CABG trial. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013;95:1609–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Targownik LE, Bolton JM, Metge CJ, Leung S, Sareen J. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are associated with a modest increase in the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:1475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Xiong GL, Jiang W, Clare R, Shaw LK, Smith PK, Mahaffey KW, O’Connor CM, Krishnan KRR, Newby LK. Prognosis of patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors before coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98:42–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stenman M, Holzmann MJ, Sartipy U. Antidepressant use before coronary artery bypass surgery is associated with long-term mortality. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:2958–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Freedland KE, Skala JA, Carney RM, Rubin EH, Lustman PJ, Dávila-Román VG, Steinmeyer BC, Hogue CW. Treatment of depression after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66:387–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dickens C, Cherrington A, Adeyemi I, Roughley K, Bower P, Garrett C, Bundy C, Coventry P. Characteristics of psychological interventions that improve depression in people with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:211–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hwang B, Eastwood J-A, McGuire A, Chen B, Cross-Bodán R, Doering LV. Cognitive behavioral therapy in depressed cardiac surgery patients: role of ejection fraction. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2015;30:319–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Donohue JM, Belnap BH, Men A, He F, Roberts MS, Schulberg HC, Reynolds CF, Rollman BL. Twelve-month cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered collaborative care for treating depression following CABG surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014;36:453–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Morone NE, Weiner DK, Belnap BH, Hum B, Karp JF, Mazumdar S, Houck PR, He F, Rollman BL. The impact of pain and depression on post-CABG recovery. Psychosom Med. 2010;72:620–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rollman BL, Belnap BH. The bypassing the blues trial: collaborative care for post-CABG depression and implications for future research. Cleve Clin J Med. 2011;78(Suppl 1):S4–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Shuldham CM, Fleming S, Goodman H. The impact of pre-operative education on recovery following coronary artery bypass surgery. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Eur Heart J. 2002;23:666–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wood WG, Eckert GP, Igbavboa U, Müller WE. Statins and neuroprotection: a prescription to move the field forward. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1199:69–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mulhaupt F, Matter CM, Kwak BR, Pelli G, Veillard NR, Burger F, Graber P, Lüscher TF, Mach F. Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) reduce CD40 expression in human vascular cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2003;59:755–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Vuletic S, Riekse RG, Marcovina SM, Peskind ER, Hazzard WR, Albers JJ. Statins of different brain penetrability differentially affect CSF PLTP activity. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;22:392–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Abbasi SH, Mohammadinejad P, Shahmansouri N, Salehiomran A, Beglar AA, Zeinoddini A, Forghani S, Akhondzadeh S. Simvastatin versus atorvastatin for improving mild to moderate depression in post-coronary artery bypass graft patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. J Affect Disord. 2015;183:149–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hoyer J, Eifert GH, Einsle F, Zimmermann K, Krauss S, Knaut M, Matschke K, Köllner V. Heart-focused anxiety before and after cardiac surgery. J Psychosom Res. 2008;64:291–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Koivula M, Tarkka M-T, Tarkka M, Laippala P, Paunonen-Ilmonen M. Fear and anxiety in patients at different time-points in the coronary artery bypass process. Int J Nurs Stud. 2002;39:811–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Fitzsimons D, Parahoo K, Richardson SG, Stringer M. Patient anxiety while on a waiting list for coronary artery bypass surgery: a qualitative and quantitative analysis. Heart Lung. 2003;32:23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Székely A, Balog P, Benkö E, Breuer T, Székely J, Kertai MD, Horkay F, Kopp MS, Thayer JF. Anxiety predicts mortality and morbidity after coronary artery and valve surgery--a 4-year follow-up study. Psychosom Med. 2007;69:625–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tully PJ, Baker RA, Knight JL. Anxiety and depression as risk factors for mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Psychosom Res. 2008;64:285–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tully PJ, Winefield HR, Baker RA, Denollet J, Pedersen SS, Wittert GA, Turnbull DA. Depression, anxiety and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a five year longitudinal cohort study. Biopsychosoc Med. 2015;9:14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tully PJ, Bennetts JS, Baker RA, McGavigan AD, Turnbull DA, Winefield HR. Anxiety, depression, and stress as risk factors for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Heart Lung. 2011;40:4–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Burkauskas J, Brozaitiene J, Bunevicius A, Neverauskas J, Zaliunaite V, Bunevicius R. Association of depression, anxiety, and type D personality with cognitive function in patients with coronary artery disease. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2016;29:91–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hudetz JA, Gandhi SD, Iqbal Z, Patterson KM, Byrne AJ, Warltier DC, Pagel PS. History of post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with impaired neuropsychometric performance after coronary artery surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2010;24:964–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Schelling G, Richter M, Roozendaal B, Rothenhäusler H-B, Krauseneck T, Stoll C, Nollert G, Schmidt M, Kapfhammer H-P. Exposure to high stress in the intensive care unit may have negative effects on health-related quality-of-life outcomes after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:1971–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Stoll C, Schelling G, Goetz AE, Kilger E, Bayer A, Kapfhammer H-P, Rothenhäusler H-B, Kreuzer E, Reichart B, Peter K. Health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder in patients after cardiac surgery and intensive care treatment. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;120:505–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tarsitani L, De Santis V, Mistretta M, Parmigiani G, Zampetti G, Roselli V, Vitale D, Tritapepe L, Biondi M, Picardi A. Treatment with β-blockers and incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiac surgery: a prospective observational study. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2012;26:265–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Grabas MP, Hansen SM, Torp-Pedersen C, Bøggild H, Ullits LR, Deding U, Nielsen BJ, Jensen PF, Overgaard C. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-a register-based cohort study., alcohol consumption and mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-a register-based cohort study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2016;16(16):219.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Maheshwari A, Dalton JE, Yared J-P, Mascha EJ, Kurz A, Sessler DI. The association between alcohol consumption and morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2010;24:580–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mukamal KJ, Girotra S, Mittleman MA. Alcohol consumption, atherosclerotic progression, and prognosis among patients with coronary artery bypass grafts. Am Heart J. 2006;151:368–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lindsay GM, Tolmie EP, Martin WM, Hutton IM, Belcher PR. Smoking after coronary artery bypass: high three-year mortality. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;57:135–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano M. Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Lancet. 2006;368:1005–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hudetz JA, Iqbal Z, Gandhi SD, Patterson KM, Byrne AJ, Pagel PS. Postoperative delirium and short-term cognitive dysfunction occur more frequently in patients undergoing valve surgery with or without coronary artery bypass graft surgery compared with coronary artery bypass graft surgery alone: results of a pilot study. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2011;25:811–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Maniar HS, Lindman BR, Escallier K, et al. Delirium after surgical and transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with increased mortality. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;151:815–23. e2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ebert AD, Walzer TA, Huth C, Herrmann M. Early neurobehavioral disorders after cardiac surgery: a comparative analysis of coronary artery bypass graft surgery and valve replacement. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2001;15:15–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Vingerhoets G, Van Nooten G, Vermassen F, De Soete G, Jannes C. Short-term and long-term neuropsychological consequences of cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1997;11:424–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Knipp SC, Weimar C, Schlamann M, Schweter S, Wendt D, Thielmann M, Benedik J, Jakob H. Early and long-term cognitive outcome after conventional cardiac valve surgery. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2017;24:534–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Stortecky S, Schmid V, Windecker S, Kadner A, Pilgrim T, Buellesfeld L, Khattab AA, Wenaweser P. Improvement of physical and mental health after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation. EuroIntervention J Eur Collab Work Group Interv Cardiol Eur Soc Cardiol. 2012;8:437–43.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Oterhals K, Hanssen TA, Haaverstad R, Nordrehaug JE, Eide GE, Norekvål TM. Factors associated with poor self-reported health status after aortic valve replacement with or without concomitant bypass surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2015;48:283–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Jamieson WR, Edwards FH, Schwartz M, Bero JW, Clark RE, Grover FL. Risk stratification for cardiac valve replacement. National Cardiac Surgery Database. Database Committee of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67:943–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ho PM, Masoudi FA, Spertus JA, Peterson PN, Shroyer AL, McCarthy M Jr, Grover FL, Hammermeister KE, Rumsfeld JS. Depression predicts mortality following cardiac valve surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79:1255–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Abawi M, Nijhoff F, Agostoni P, Emmelot-Vonk MH, de Vries R, Doevendans PA, Stella PR. Incidence, predictive factors, and effect of delirium after Transcatheter aortic valve replacement. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;9:160–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Holmes DR, Nishimura RA, Grover FL, et al. Annual outcomes with Transcatheter valve therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66:2813–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Eide LSP, Ranhoff AH, Fridlund B, Haaverstad R, Hufthammer KO, Kuiper KKJ, Nordrehaug JE, Norekvål TM. Comparison of frequency, risk factors, and time course of postoperative delirium in octogenarians after Transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement. Am J Cardiol. 2015;115:802–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Eide LSP, Ranhoff AH, Fridlund B, Haaverstad R, Hufthammer KO, Kuiper KKJ, Nordrehaug JE, Norekvål TM. Readmissions and mortality in delirious versus non-delirious octogenarian patients after aortic valve therapy: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e012683.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Carozza A, De Santo LS, Romano G, Della Corte A, Ursomando F, Scardone M, Caianiello G, Cotrufo M. Infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers: patterns of presentation and long-term outcomes of surgical treatment. J Heart Valve Dis. 2006;15:125–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kaiser SP, Melby SJ, Zierer A, Schuessler RB, Moon MR, Moazami N, Pasque MK, Huddleston C, Damiano RJ Jr, Lawton JS. Long-term outcomes in valve replacement surgery for infective endocarditis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83:30–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, et al. Infective endocarditis in adults: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;132:1435–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Hartman L, Barnes E, Bachmann L, Schafer K, Lovato J, Files DC. Opiate injection-associated infective endocarditis in the Southeastern United States. Am J Med Sci. 2016;352:603–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Miró JM, del Río A, Mestres CA. Infective endocarditis and cardiac surgery in intravenous drug abusers and HIV-1 infected patients. Cardiol Clin. 2003;21:167–84. v–vi.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Yuan S-M. Right-sided infective endocarditis: recent epidemiologic changes. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014;7:199–218.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Østerdal OB, Salminen P-R, Jordal S, Sjursen H, Wendelbo Ø, Haaverstad R. Cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis in patients with intravenous drug use. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2016;22:633–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lemaire A, Dombrovskiy V, Saadat S, Batsides G, Ghaly A, Spotnitz A, Lee LY. Patients with infectious endocarditis and drug dependence have worse clinical outcomes after valvular surgery. Surg Infect. 2017;18:299–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wahba A, Nordhaug D. What are the long-term results of cardiac valve replacements in left sided endocarditis with a history of i.v. drug abuse? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2006;5:608–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Connery HS. Medication-assisted treatment of opioid use disorder: review of the evidence and future directions. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2015;23:63–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Suzuki J. Medication-assisted treatment for hospitalized patients with intravenous-drug-use related infective endocarditis. Am J Addict. 2016;25:191–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kirklin JK, Naftel DC, Pagani FD, Kormos RL, Stevenson LW, Blume ED, Myers SL, Miller MA, Baldwin JT, Young JB. Seventh INTERMACS annual report: 15,000 patients and counting. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015;34:1495–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Feldman D, Pamboukian SV, Teuteberg JJ, et al. The 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines for mechanical circulatory support: executive summary. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32:157–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Wilson SR, Mudge GH, Stewart GC, Givertz MM. Evaluation for a ventricular assist device selecting the appropriate candidate. Circulation. 2009;119:2225–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Rustad JK, Stern TA, Hebert KA, Musselman DL. Diagnosis and treatment of depression in patients with congestive heart failure: a review of the literature. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2013.  https://doi.org/10.4088/PCC.13r01511.
  154. 154.
    Friedmann E, Thomas SA, Liu F, Morton PG, Chapa D, Gottlieb SS. Relationship of depression, anxiety, and social isolation to chronic heart failure outpatient mortality. Am Heart J. 2006;152:940.e1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Haworth JE, Moniz-Cook E, Clark AL, Wang M, Waddington R, Cleland JGF. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in a sample of chronic heart failure patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Eur J Heart Fail. 2005;7:803–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Eriksson M, Samuelsson E, Gustafson Y, Aberg T, Engström KG. Delirium after coronary bypass surgery evaluated by the organic brain syndrome protocol. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2002;36:250–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Higashi H, Inaba S, Saito M, Yamaoka M, Yanagimoto R, Okiura N, Gen Y, Kojima Y, Sumimoto T. Heart failure as a strong independent predictor of delirium after pacemaker operations. IJC Metab Endocr. 2015;8:42–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Petrucci R, Kushon D, Inkles R, Fitzpatrick J, Twomey C, Samuels L. Cardiac ventricular support: considerations for psychiatry. Psychosomatics. 1999;40:298–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Baba A, Hirata G, Yokoyama F, Kenmoku K, Tsuchiya M, Kyo S, Toyoshima R. Psychiatric problems of heart transplant candidates with left ventricular assist devices. J Artif Organs. 2006;9:203–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Shapiro PA, Levin HR, Oz MC. Left ventricular assist devices psychosocial burden and implications for heart transplant programs. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1996;18(6 Suppl):30–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Rose EA, Gelijns AC, Moskowitz AJ, et al. Long-term use of a left ventricular assist device for end-stage heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1435–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Reynard AK, Butler RS, McKee MG, Starling RC, Gorodeski EZ. Frequency of depression and anxiety before and after insertion of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device. Am J Cardiol. 2014;114:433–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Yost G, Bhat G, Mahoney E, Tatooles A. Reduced anxiety and depression in patients with advanced heart failure after left ventricular assist device implantation. Psychosomatics. 2017;58:406–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Caro MA, Patare A, Oldham M, Bellumkonda L, Chen M, Bonde P, Lee HB. Conference paper. Prevalence of Pre-surgical Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Cognitive Impairment among Left-ventricular Assist DEvice (LVAD) Recipients. Presented at the 2017 Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine Annual Meeting; 2017.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    The Data Collection and Analysis Center. University of Alabama at Birmingham Intermacs Appendix A- Adverse Event Definitions.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Yuan N, Arnaoutakis GJ, George TJ, Allen JG, Ju DG, Schaffer JM, Russell SD, Shah AS, Conte JV. The spectrum of complications following left ventricular assist device placement. J Card Surg. 2012;27:630–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Dew MA, Kormos RL, Winowich S, Harris RC, Stanford EA, Carozza L, Griffith BP. Quality of life outcomes after heart transplantation in individuals bridged to transplant with ventricular assist devices. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2001;20:1199–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Brouwers C, Denollet J, Caliskan K, de Jonge N, Constantinescu A, Young Q, Kaan A, Pedersen SS. Psychological distress in patients with a left ventricular assist device and their partners: an exploratory study. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2013;14(1):53–62.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1474515113517607.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Bunzel B, Laederach-Hofmann K, Wieselthaler G, Roethy W, Wolner E. Mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to heart transplantation: what remains? Long-term emotional Sequelae in patients and spouses. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26:384–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Bunzel B, Laederach-Hofmann K, Wieselthaler GM, Roethy W, Drees G. Posttraumatic stress disorder after implantation of a mechanical assist device followed by heart transplantation: evaluation of patients and partners. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:1365–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hajduk AM, Kiefe CI, Person SD, Gore JG, Saczynski JS. Cognitive change in heart failure a systematic review. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2013;6:451–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Pressler SJ, Subramanian U, Kareken D, et al. Cognitive deficits in chronic heart failure. Nurs Res. 2010;59:127–39.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Bhat G, Yost G, Mahoney E. Cognitive function and left ventricular assist device implantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015;34:1398–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Tigges-Limmer K, Schönbrodt M, Roefe D, Arusoglu L, Morshuis M, Gummert JF. Suicide after ventricular assist device implantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2010;29:692–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Augustin M, Bruells CS, Moza A, Gillmann B, Mevissen L, Grözinger M. Electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with left ventricular assist device following deliberate disconnection of the device driveline. Brain Stimul. 2017;10:843–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Bond AE, Bolton B, Nelson K. Nursing education and implications for left ventricular assist device destination therapy. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2004;19:85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Stahl MAM, Richards NM. Ventricular assist devices: developing and maintaining a training and competency program. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2002;16:34–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Connors JM. Anticoagulation management of left ventricular assist devices. Am J Hematol. 2014;90:175–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Anglin R, Yuan Y, Moayyedi P, Tse F, Armstrong D, Leontiadis GI. Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with or without concurrent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109:811–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Crow S, Chen D, Milano C, et al. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in continuous-flow ventricular assist device recipients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;90:1263–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Meyer AL, Malehsa D, Budde U, Bara C, Haverich A, Strueber M. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in patients with a centrifugal or axial continuous flow left ventricular assist device. JACC Heart Fail. 2014;2:141–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    de Abajo FJ, García-Rodríguez LA. Risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine therapy: interaction with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and effect of acid-suppressing agents. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65:795–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Halperin D, Reber G. Influence of antidepressants on hemostasis. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2007;9:47–59.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Labos C, Dasgupta K, Nedjar H, Turecki G, Rahme E. Risk of bleeding associated with combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antiplatelet therapy following acute myocardial infarction. CMAJ. 2011;183:1835–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Harding JD, Piacentino IIIV, Rothman S, Chambers S, Jessup M, Margulies KB. Prolonged repolarization after ventricular assist device support is associated with arrhythmias in humans with congestive heart failure. J Card Fail. 2005;11:227–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Harding JD, Piacentino V, Gaughan JP, Houser SR, Margulies KB. Electrophysiological alterations after mechanical circulatory support in patients with advanced cardiac failure. Circulation. 2001;104:1241–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Genovese EA, Dew MA, Teuteberg JJ, et al. Incidence and patterns of adverse event onset during the first 60 days after ventricular assist device implantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;88:1162–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Beach SR, Celano CM, Noseworthy PA, Januzzi JL, Huffman JC. QTc prolongation, Torsades de pointes, and psychotropic medications. Psychosomatics. 2013;54:1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Baghai TC, Möller H-J. Electroconvulsive therapy and its different indications. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2008;10:105–17.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Bruce CR. A review of ethical considerations for ventricular assist device placement in older adults. Aging Dis. 2013;4:100–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Petrucci RJ, Benish LA, Carrow BL, Prato L, Hankins SR, Eisen HJ, Entwistle JW. Ethical considerations for ventricular assist device support: a 10-point model. ASAIO J. 2011;57:268–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Freedenberg V, Thomas SA, Friedmann E. Anxiety and depression in implanted cardioverter-defibrillator recipients and heart failure: a review. Heart Fail Clin. 2011;7:59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Moss AJ, Zareba W, Hall WJ, Klein H, Wilber DJ, Cannom DS, Daubert JP, Higgins SL, Brown MW, Andrews ML. Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:877–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, et al. Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter–defibrillator for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:225–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Bostwick JM, Sola CL. An updated review of implantable cardioverter/defibrillators, induced anxiety, and quality of life. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2007;30:677–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Sears SF, Conti JB. Understanding implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks and storms: medical and psychosocial considerations for research and clinical care. Clin Cardiol. 2003;26:107–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Camm AJ, Sears SF, Todaro JF, Lewis TS, Sotile W, Conti JB. Examining the psychosocial impact of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a literature review. Clin Cardiol. 1999;22:481–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kapa S, Rotondi-Trevisan D, Mariano Z, Aves T, Irvine J, Dorian P, Hayes DL. Psychopathology in patients with ICDs over time: results of a prospective study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2010;33:198–208.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Manzoni GM, Castelnuovo G, Compare A, Pagnini F, Essebag V, Proietti R. Psychological effects of implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks. A review of study methods. Front Psychol. 2015;6:39.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Pedersen SS, Theuns DAMJ, Jordaens L, Kupper N. Course of anxiety and device-related concerns in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients the first year post implantation. Europace. 2010;12:1119–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Thylén I, Dekker RL, Jaarsma T, Strömberg A, Moser DK. Characteristics associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and quality-of-life in a large cohort of implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. J Psychosom Res. 2014;77:122–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Habibović M, Burg MM, Pedersen SS. Behavioral interventions in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: lessons learned and where to go from here? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2013;36:578–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Brojmohun A, Lou JY, Zardkoohi O, Funk MC. Protected from torsades de pointes? What psychiatrists need to know about pacemakers and defibrillators. Psychosomatics. 2013;54:407–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Piddoubny
    • 1
  • Mario Andres Caro
    • 2
  1. 1.Stony Brook University Medical CenterStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Natchaug HospitalMansfield CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations