Advertisement

Psychiatric Aspects of Obstetrics and Gynecology Patients

  • PoChu HoEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Psychiatric conditions are common and can affect gynecologic conditions and their treatment outcomes. Gynecologists encounter psychiatric conditions in the outpatient settings and during perioperative periods. Common gynecologic surgeries such as hysterectomy, sterilization, and dilatation and curettage have significant impact on psychological well-being of women. Delirium is common after surgeries for gynecologic conditions. Colposcopy, an outpatient procedure used for the diagnosis and treatment of cervical dysplasia, is associated with anxiety before, during, and after the procedure. Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric disorders in women; these and other psychiatric conditions will be examined in the context of uterine leiomyoma, endometriosis, polycystic ovarian disease, urinary incontinence, pelvic prolapse, and gynecologic cancers. Finally, in the last section, therapeutic approaches for psychiatric comorbidities in the gynecologic patient and psychotropics for nonpsychiatric conditions are discussed.

Keywords

Psychiatry Hysterectomy Fertility Endometriosis Cervical cancer 

References

  1. 1.
    Oliphant SS, Jones KA, Wang L, Bunker CH, Lowder JL. Trends over time with commonly performed obstetric and gynecologic inpatient procedures. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(4):926–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fingar KR, Stocks C, Weiss AJ, Steiner CA. Most frequent operating room procedures performed in U.S. hospitals, 2003–2012: statistical brief #186. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2006.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moore BJ, Steiner CA, Davis PH, Stocks C, Barrett ML. Trends in hysterectomies and oophorectomies in hospital inpatient and ambulatory settings, 2005–2013: statistical brief #214. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2006.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barrett ML, Weiss AJ, Stocks C, Steiner CA, Myers ER. Procedures to treat benign uterine fibroids in hospital inpatient and hospital-based ambulatory surgery settings, 2013: statistical brief #200. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2006.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steiner CA, Karaca Z, Moore BJ, Imshaug MC, Pickens G. Surgeries in hospital-based ambulatory surgery and hospital inpatient settings, 2014: statistical brief #223. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2006.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Doll KM, Dusetzina SB, Robinson W. Trends in inpatient and outpatient hysterectomy and oophorectomy rates among commercially insured women in the United States, 2000-2014. JAMA Surg. 2016;151(9):876–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andryjowicz E, Wray T. Regional expansion of minimally invasive surgery for hysterectomy: implementation and methodology in a large multispecialty group. Perm J. 2011;15(4):42–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carlson KJ, Nichols DH, Schiff I. Indications for hysterectomy. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(12):856–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Darwish M, Atlantis E, Mohamed-Taysir T. Psychological outcomes after hysterectomy for benign conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014;174:5–19.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gibson CJ, Bromberger JT, Weiss GE, Thurston RC, Sowers M, Matthews KA. Negative attitudes and affect do not predict elective hysterectomy: a prospective analysis from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2011;18(5):499–507.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ryan MM, Dennerstein L, Pepperell R. Psychological aspects of hysterectomy. A prospective study. Br J Psychiatry. 1989;154:516–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thakar R, Ayers S, Georgakapolou A, Clarkson P, Stanton S, Manyonda I. Hysterectomy improves quality of life and decreases psychiatric symptoms: a prospective and randomised comparison of total versus subtotal hysterectomy. BJOG. 2004;111(10):1115–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flory N, Bissonnette F, Binik YM. Psychosocial effects of hysterectomy: literature review. J Psychosom Res. 2005;59(3):117–29.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thakar R. Dispelling the myth--does hysterectomy cause pelvic organ dysfunction? BJOG. 2004;111(Suppl 1):20–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vandyk AD, Brenner I, Tranmer J, Van Den Kerkhof E. Depressive symptoms before and after elective hysterectomy. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2011;40(5):566–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brunschwig A. Complete excision of pelvic viscera for advanced carcinoma; a one-stage abdominoperineal operation with end colostomy and bilateral ureteral implantation into the colon above the colostomy. Cancer. 1948;1(2):177–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morley GW, Hopkins MP, Lindenauer SM, Roberts JA. Pelvic exenteration, University of Michigan: 100 patients at 5 years. Obstet Gynecol. 1989;74(6):934–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arnaboldi P, Santoro L, Mazzocco K, Oliveri S, Maggioni A, Pravettoni G. The paradox of pelvic exenteration: the interaction of clinical and psychological variables. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2015;25(8):1534–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Committee on Ethics. Committee opinion no. 695: sterilization of women: ethical issues and considerations. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;129(4):e109–e16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hillis SD, Marchbanks PA, Tylor LR, Peterson HB. Poststerilization regret: findings from the United States collaborative review of sterilization. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93(6):889–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmidt JE, Hillis SD, Marchbanks PA, Jeng G, Peterson HB. Requesting information about and obtaining reversal after tubal sterilization: findings from the U.S. collaborative review of sterilization. Fertil Steril. 2000;74(5):892–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Curtis KM, Mohllajee AP, Peterson HB. Regret following female sterilization at a young age: a systematic review. Contraception. 2006;73(2):205–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shreffler KM, Greil AL, McQuillan J, Gallus KL. Reasons for tubal sterilisation, regret and depressive symptoms. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2016;34(3):304–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brier N. Grief following miscarriage: a comprehensive review of the literature. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008;17(3):451–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brier N. Anxiety after miscarriage: a review of the empirical literature and implications for clinical practice. Birth. 2004;31(2):138–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Robinson GE. In: Fogel BS, Greenberg DB, editors. Psychiatric care of the medical patient. 3rd ed. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press; 2015.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    DTS L, Cheung LP, Haines CJ, KPM C, TKH C. A comparison of the psychologic impact and client satisfaction of surgical treatment with medical treatment of spontaneous abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185(4):953–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Marteau TM, Walker P, Giles J, Smail M. Anxieties in women undergoing colposcopy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990;97(9):859–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kola-Palmer S, Walsh JC. Correlates of psychological distress immediately following colposcopy. Psychooncology. 2015;24(7):819–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Galaal K, Bryant A, Deane KH, Al-Khaduri M, Lopes AD. Interventions for reducing anxiety in women undergoing colposcopy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;12:Cd006013.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    O’Connor M, O’Leary E, Waller J, Gallagher P, D’Arcy T, Flannelly G, et al. Trends in, and predictors of, anxiety and specific worries following colposcopy: a 12-month longitudinal study. Psychooncology. 2016;25(5):597–604.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Parikh SS, Chung F. Postoperative delirium in the elderly. Anesth Analg. 1995;80(6):1223–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McAlpine JN, Hodgson EJ, Abramowitz S, Richman SM, Su Y, Kelly MG, et al. The incidence and risk factors associated with postoperative delirium in geriatric patients undergoing surgery for suspected gynecologic malignancies. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;109(2):296–302.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang S, Allen D, Kheir YN, Campbell N, Khan B. Aging and post-intensive care syndrome: a critical need for geriatric psychiatry. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017;26(2):212–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gunderson CC, Walter AC, Ruskin R, Ding K, Moore KN. Post-intensive care unit syndrome in gynecologic oncology patients. Support Care Cancer. 2016;24(11):4627–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Silver JK, Baima J, Mayer RS. Impairment-driven cancer rehabilitation: an essential component of quality care and survivorship. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013;63(5):295–317.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tsimopoulou I, Pasquali S, Howard R, Desai A, Gourevitch D, Tolosa I, et al. Psychological prehabilitation before cancer surgery: a systematic review. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015;22(13):4117–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carli F, Brown R, Kennepohl S. Prehabilitation to enhance postoperative recovery for an octogenarian following robotic-assisted hysterectomy with endometrial cancer. Can J Anaesth. 2012;59(8):779–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gelinas C, Dasta JF, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(1):263–306.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Adler J, Malone D. Early mobilization in the intensive care unit: a systematic review. Cardiopulm Phys Ther J. 2012;23(1):5–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Neufeld KJ, Yue J, Robinson TN, Inouye SK, Needham DM. Antipsychotic medication for prevention and treatment of delirium in hospitalized adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016;64(4):705–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):593–602.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Scholle SH, Chang JC, Harman J, Scholle SH. Trends in women’s health services by type of physician seen: data from the 1985 and 1997-98 NAMCS. Womens Health Issues. 2002;12(4):165–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Scholle SH, Kelleher K. Assessing primary care performance in an obstetrics/gynecology clinic. Women Health. 2003;37(1):15–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Coleman VH, Laube DW, Hale RW, Williams SB, Power ML, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists and primary care: training during obstetrics-gynecology residency and current practice patterns. Acad Med. 2007;82(6):602–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cerimele JM, Vanderlip ER, Croicu CA, Melville JL, Russo J, Reed SD, et al. Presenting symptoms of women with depression in an obstetrics and gynecology setting. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(2 Pt 1):313–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bixo M, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Bjorn I, astrom M. Patients with psychiatric disorders in gynecologic practice. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185(2):396–402.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynecologists. ACOG statement on depression screening. [document on the internet]. Washington, DC: American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynecologists; 2016. Available from: https://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News-Room/Statements/2016/ACOG-Statement-on-Depression-Screening Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Baird DD, Dunson DB, Hill MC, Cousins D, Schectman JM. High cumulative incidence of uterine leiomyoma in black and white women: ultrasound evidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188(1):100–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Committee on Gynecologic Practice. Committee opinion no. 701 summary: choosing the route of hysterectomy for benign disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;129(6):1149–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ghant MS, Sengoba KS, Recht H, Cameron KA, Lawson AK, Marsh EE. Beyond the physical: a qualitative assessment of the burden of symptomatic uterine fibroids on women’s emotional and psychosocial health. J Psychosom Res. 2015;78(5):499–503.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shen TC, Yang CY, Huang YJ, Lin CL, Sung FC. Risk of depression in patients with uterine leiomyoma: a nationwide population-based cohort study. J Affect Disord. 2017;213:126–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Haas D, Chvatal R, Reichert B, Renner S, Shebl O, Binder H, et al. Endometriosis: a premenopausal disease? Age pattern in 42, 079 patients with endometriosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;286(3):667–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lagana AS, La Rosa VL, AMC R, Valenti G, Sapia F, Chiofalo B, et al. Anxiety and depression in patients with endometriosis: impact and management challenges. Int J Womens Health. 2017;9:323–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sepulcri Rde P, do Amaral VF. Depressive symptoms, anxiety, and quality of life in women with pelvic endometriosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;142(1):53–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smorgick N, Marsh CA, As-Sanie S, Smith YR, Quint EH. Prevalence of pain syndromes, mood conditions, and asthma in adolescents and young women with endometriosis. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2013;26(3):171–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Friedl F, Riedl D, Fessler S, Wildt L, Walter M, Richter R, et al. Impact of endometriosis on quality of life, anxiety, and depression: an Austrian perspective. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;292(6):1393–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lorencatto C, Petta CA, Navarro MJ, Bahamondes L, Matos A. Depression in women with endometriosis with and without chronic pelvic pain. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(1):88–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins-Gynecology. ACOG practice bulletin no. 108: polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114(4):936–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hart R, Doherty DA. The potential implications of a PCOS diagnosis on a woman’s long-term health using data linkage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(3):911–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cesta CE, Mansson M, Palm C, Lichtenstein P, Iliadou AN, Landen M. Polycystic ovary syndrome and psychiatric disorders: co-morbidity and heritability in a nationwide Swedish cohort. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;73:196–203.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hung JH, Hu LY, Tsai SJ, Yang AC, Huang MW, Chen PM, et al. Risk of psychiatric disorders following polycystic ovary syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97041.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Markland AD, Richter HE, Fwu CW, Eggers P, Kusek JW. Prevalence and trends of urinary incontinence in adults in the United States, 2001 to 2008. J Urol. 2011;186(2):589–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nygaard I, Barber MD, Burgio KL, Kenton K, Meikle S, Schaffer J, et al. Prevalence of symptomatic pelvic floor disorders in US women. JAMA. 2008;300(11):1311–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Waetjen LE, Liao S, Johnson WO, Sampselle CM, Sternfield B, Harlow SD, et al. Factors associated with prevalent and incident urinary incontinence in a cohort of midlife women: a longitudinal analysis of data: study of women’s health across the nation. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(3):309–18.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 603: evaluation of uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence in women before surgical treatment. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(6):1403–7.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Trutnovsky G, Rojas RG, Mann KP, Dietz HP. Urinary incontinence: the role of menopause. Menopause. 2014;21(4):399–402.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Milsom I, Ekelund P, Molander U, Arvidsson L, Areskoug B. The influence of age, parity, oral contraception, hysterectomy and menopause on the prevalence of urinary incontinence in women. J Urol. 1993;149(6):1459–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Simeonova Z, Bengtsson C. Prevalence of urinary incontinence among women at a Swedish primary health care centre. Scand J Prim Health Care. 1990;8(4):203–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wu JM, Matthews CA, Conover MM, Pate V, Jonsson Funk M. Lifetime risk of stress urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(6):1201–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nygaard I, Turvey C, Burns TL, Crischilles E, Wallace R. Urinary incontinence and depression in middle-aged United States women. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(1):149–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mishra GD, Barker MS, Herber-Gast GC, Hillard T. Depression and the incidence of urinary incontinence symptoms among young women: results from a prospective cohort study. Maturitas. 2015;81(4):456–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Barber MD, Maher C. Epidemiology and outcome assessment of pelvic organ prolapse. Int Urogynecol J. 2013;24(11):1783–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ghetti C, Lowder JL, Ellison R, Krohn MA, Moalli P. Depressive symptoms in women seeking surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Int Urogynecol J. 2010;21(7):855–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017;67(1):7–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zabora J, BrintzenhofeSzoc K, Curbow B, Hooker C, Piantadosi S. The prevalence of psychological distress by cancer site. Psychooncology. 2001;10(1):19–28.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Spiegel D, Giese-Davis J. Depression and cancer: mechanisms and disease progression. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54(3):269–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chang HY, Keyes KM, Mok Y, Jung KJ, Shin YJ, Jee SH. Depression as a risk factor for overall and hormone-related cancer: the Korean cancer prevention study. J Affect Disord. 2015;173:1–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chen CY, Yang YH, Lee CP, Wang TY, Cheng BH, Huang YC, et al. Risk of depression following uterine cancer: a nationwide population-based study. Psychooncology. 2017;26(11):1770–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG practice bulletin number 131: screening for cervical cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120(5):1222–38.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schiffman M, Kjaer SK. Chapter 2: natural history of anogenital human papillomavirus infection and neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2003;2003(31):14–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(2):87–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ferrandina G, Mantegna G, Petrillo M, Fuoco G, Venditti L, Terzano S, et al. Quality of life and emotional distress in early stage and locally advanced cervical cancer patients: a prospective, longitudinal study. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;124(3):389–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Yang YL, Liu L, Wang XX, Wang Y, Wang L. Prevalence and associated positive psychological variables of depression and anxiety among Chinese cervical cancer patients: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94804.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin no. 103: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(4):957–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Watts S, Prescott P, Mason J, McLeod N, Lewith G. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates. BMJ Open. 2015;5(11):e007618.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Huang T, Poole EM, Okereke OI, Kubzansky LD, Eliassen AH, Sood AK, et al. Depression and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from two large prospective cohort studies. Gynecol Oncol. 2015;139(3):481–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rosenberg MJ, Waugh MS. Oral contraceptive discontinuation: a prospective evaluation of frequency and reasons. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179(3 Pt 1):577–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sanders SA, Graham CA, Bass JL, Bancroft J. A prospective study of the effects of oral contraceptives on sexuality and well-being and their relationship to discontinuation. Contraception. 2001;64(1):51–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Poromaa IS, Segebladh B. Adverse mood symptoms with oral contraceptives. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91(4):420–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Skovlund CW, Morch LS, Kessing LV, Lidegaard O. Association of hormonal contraception with depression. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(11):1154–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zethraeus N, Dreber A, Ranehill E, Blomberg L, Labrie F, von Schoultz B, et al. A first-choice combined oral contraceptive influences general well-being in healthy women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(5):1238–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Benazzi F. Gender differences in bipolar II and unipolar depressed outpatients: a 557-case study. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1999;11(2):55–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Burt VK, Rasgon N. Special considerations in treating bipolar disorder in women. Bipolar Disord. 2004;6(1):2–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Leibenluft E, Ashman SB, Feldman-Naim S, Yonkers KA. Lack of relationship between menstrual cycle phase and mood in a sample of women with rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46(4):577–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rasgon N, Bauer M, Glenn T, Elman S, Whybrow PC. Menstrual cycle related mood changes in women with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2003;5(1):48–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shivakumar G, Bernstein IH, Suppes T, Keck PE, SL ME, Altshuler LL, et al. Are bipolar mood symptoms affected by the phase of the menstrual cycle? J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008;17(3):473–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Teatero ML, Mazmanian D, Sharma V. Effects of the menstrual cycle on bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2014;16(1):22–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lewis DO, Comite F, Mallouh C, Zadunaisky L, Hutchinson-Williams K, Cherksey BD, et al. Bipolar mood disorder and endometriosis: preliminary findings. Am J Psychiatry. 1987;144(12):1588–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kumar V, Khan M, Vilos GA, Sharma V. Revisiting the association between endometriosis and bipolar disorder. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2011;33(11):1141–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Isojarvi JI, Laatikainen TJ, Pakarinen AJ, Juntunen KT, Myllyla VV. Polycystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism in women taking valproate for epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(19):1383–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Klipstein KG, Goldberg JF. Screening for bipolar disorder in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study. J Affect Disord. 2006;91(2–3):205–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rassi A, Veras AB, dos Reis M, Pastore DL, Bruno LM, Bruno RV, et al. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51(6):599–602.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pope CJ, Sharma V, Sharma S, Mazmanian D. A systematic review of the association between psychiatric disturbances and endometriosis. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015;37(11):1006–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chen LC, Hsu JW, Huang KL, Bai YM, Su TP, Li CT, et al. Risk of developing major depression and anxiety disorders among women with endometriosis: a longitudinal follow-up study. J Affect Disord. 2016;190:282–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Dokras A, Clifton S, Futterweit W, Wild R. Increased prevalence of anxiety symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(1):225–30.e2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Melville JL, Walker E, Katon W, Lentz G, Miller J, Fenner D. Prevalence of comorbid psychiatric illness and its impact on symptom perception, quality of life, and functional status in women with urinary incontinence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187(1):80–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bogner HR, Gallo JJ, Swartz KL, Ford DE. Anxiety disorders and disability secondary to urinary incontinence among adults over age 50. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2002;32(2):141–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ghetti C, Skoczylas LC, Oliphant SS, Nikolajski C, Lowder JL. The emotional burden of pelvic organ prolapse in women seeking treatment: a qualitative study. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2015;21(6):332–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Vrijens D, Berghmans B, Nieman F, van Os J, van Koeveringe G, Leue C. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and their association with pelvic floor dysfunctions-A cross sectional cohort study at a Pelvic Care Centre. Neurourol Urodyn. 2017;36(7):1816–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Merrell J, Brethauer S, Windover A, Ashton K, Heinberg L. Psychosocial correlates of pelvic floor disorders in women seeking bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2012;8(6):792–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Distefano M, Riccardi S, Capelli G, Costantini B, Petrillo M, Ricci C, et al. Quality of life and psychological distress in locally advanced cervical cancer patients administered pre-operative chemoradiotherapy. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;111(1):144–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kim SH, Kang S, Kim YM, Kim BG, Seong SJ, Cha SD, et al. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among cervical cancer survivors in Korea. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20(6):1017–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lau KL, Yim PH, Cheung EY. Psychiatric morbidity in Chinese women after cervical cancer treatment in a regional gynaecology clinic. East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2013;23(4):144–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sukegawa A, Miyagi E, Asai-Sato M, Saji H, Sugiura K, Matsumura T, et al. Anxiety and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among patients awaiting surgery for suspected ovarian cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008;34(4):543–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kessler RC, Merikangas KR. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R): background and aims. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004;13(2):60–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tolin DF, Foa EB. Sex differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: a quantitative review of 25 years of research. Psychol Bull. 2006;132(6):959–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kulka RA. Trauma and the Vietnam War generation: report of findings from the National Vietnam veterans readjustment study. New York: Routledge; 2013.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Brewin CR, Andrews B, Valentine JD. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68(5):748–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ozer EJ, Best SR, Lipsey TL, Weiss DS. Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2003;129(1):52–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52(12):1048–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kimerling R, Calhoun KS. Somatic symptoms, social support, and treatment seeking among sexual assault victims. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1994;62(2):333–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Koss MP, Woodruff WJ, Koss PG. Criminal victimization among primary care medical patients: prevalence, incidence, and physician usage. Behav Sci Law. 1991;9(1):85–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Swartzman S, Booth JN, Munro A, Sani F. Posttraumatic stress disorder after cancer diagnosis in adults: a meta-analysis. Depress Anxiety. 2017;34(4):327–39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Goncalves V, Jayson G, Tarrier N. A longitudinal investigation of posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with ovarian cancer. J Psychosom Res. 2011;70(5):422–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Aleman A, Kahn RS, Selten JP. Sex differences in the risk of schizophrenia: evidence from meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(6):565–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hafner H. Gender differences in schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003;28(Suppl 2):17–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: summary of national findings, NSDUH series H-48, HHS publication no. (SMA) 14–4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2014. Available from: https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUHresultsPDFWHTML2013/Web/NSDUHresults2013.pdf Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Compton WM, Thomas YF, Stinson FS, Grant BF. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(5):566–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Randall CL, Roberts JS, Del Boca FK, Carroll KM, Connors GJ, Mattson ME. Telescoping of landmark events associated with drinking: a gender comparison. J Stud Alcohol. 1999;60(2):252–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Gavaler JS, Van Thiel DH. The association between moderate alcoholic beverage consumption and serum estradiol and testosterone levels in normal postmenopausal women: relationship to the literature. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992;16(1):87–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Alcohol, height, and adiposity in relation to estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87(17):1297–302.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Onland-Moret NC, Peeters PH, van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE, van Gils CH. Alcohol and endogenous sex steroid levels in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(3):1414–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Rinaldi S, Peeters PH, Bezemer ID, Dossus L, Biessy C, Sacerdote C, et al. Relationship of alcohol intake and sex steroid concentrations in blood in pre- and post-menopausal women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17(8):1033–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Fernandez SV. Estrogen, alcohol consumption, and breast cancer. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35(3):389–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Smink FR, van Hoeken D, Hoek HW. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013;26(6):543–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kimmel MC, Ferguson EH, Zerwas S, Bulik CM, Meltzer-Brody S. Obstetric and gynecologic problems associated with eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2016;49(3):260–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Call C, Walsh BT, Attia E. From DSM-IV to DSM-5: changes to eating disorder diagnoses. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013;26(6):532–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hebebrand J, Muller TD, Holtkamp K, Herpertz-Dahlmann B. The role of leptin in anorexia nervosa: clinical implications. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12(1):23–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Poyastro Pinheiro A, Thornton LM, Plotonicov KH, Tozzi F, Klump KL, Berrettini WH, et al. Patterns of menstrual disturbance in eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2007;40(5):424–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Resch M, Szendei G, Haasz P. Eating disorders from a gynecologic and endocrinologic view: hormonal changes. Fertil Steril. 2004;81(4):1151–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Algars M, Huang L, Von Holle AF, Peat CM, Thornton LM, Lichtenstein P, et al. Binge eating and menstrual dysfunction. J Psychosom Res. 2014;76(1):19–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lee I, Cooney LG, Saini S, Smith ME, Sammel MD, Allison KC, et al. Increased risk of disordered eating in polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(3):796–802.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Felde G, Ebbesen MH, Hunskaar S. Anxiety and depression associated with urinary incontinence. A 10-year follow-up study from the Norwegian HUNT study (EPINCONT). Neurourol Urodyn. 2017;36(2):322–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Melville JL, Fan MY, Rau H, Nygaard IE, Katon WJ. Major depression and urinary incontinence in women: temporal associations in an epidemiologic sample. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201(5):490.e1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Legendre G, Ringa V, Panjo H, Zins M, Fritel X. Incidence and remission of urinary incontinence at midlife: a cohort study. BJOG. 2015;122(6):816–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Maserejian NN, Minassian VA, Chen S, Hall SA, McKinlay JB, Tennstedt SL. Treatment status and risk factors for incidence and persistence of urinary incontinence in women. Int Urogynecol J. 2014;25(6):775–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Siff LN, Jelovsek JE, Barber MD. The effect of major depression on quality of life after surgery for stress urinary incontinence: a secondary analysis of the trial of midurethral slings. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215(4):455.e1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Khan ZA, Whittal C, Mansol S, Osborne LA, Reed P, Emery S. Effect of depression and anxiety on the success of pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic floor dysfunction. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013;33(7):710–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Spence AR, Goggin P, Franco EL. Process of care failures in invasive cervical cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2007;45(2–3):93–106.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kaida A, Colman I, Janssen PA. Recent pap tests among Canadian women: is depression a barrier to cervical cancer screening? J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008;17(7):1175–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ludman EJ, Ichikawa LE, Simon GE, Rohde P, Arterburn D, Operskalski BH, et al. Breast and cervical cancer screening specific effects of depression and obesity. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38(3):303–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Pirraglia PA, Sanyal P, Singer DE, Ferris TG. Depressive symptom burden as a barrier to screening for breast and cervical cancers. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004;13(6):731–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Vigod SN, Kurdyak PA, Stewart DE, Gnam WH, Goering PN. Depressive symptoms as a determinant of breast and cervical cancer screening in women: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2011;14(2):159–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Weitlauf JC, Jones S, Xu X, Finney JW, Moos RH, Sawaya GF, et al. Receipt of cervical cancer screening in female veterans: impact of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Womens Health Issues. 2013;23(3):e153–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Abrams MT, Myers CS, Feldman SM, Boddie-Willis C, Park J, McMahon RP, et al. Cervical cancer screening and acute care visits among Medicaid enrollees with mental and substance use disorders. Psychiatr Serv. 2012;63(8):815–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Osann K, Hsieh S, Nelson EL, Monk BJ, Chase D, Cella D, et al. Factors associated with poor quality of life among cervical cancer survivors: implications for clinical care and clinical trials. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;135(2):266–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Nho JH, Kim SR, Kwon YS. Depression and appetite: predictors of malnutrition in gynecologic cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2014;22(11):3081–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Wilbur MB, Mannschreck DB, Angarita AM, Matsuno RK, Tanner EJ, Stone RL, et al. Unplanned 30-day hospital readmission as a quality measure in gynecologic oncology. Gynecol Oncol. 2016;143(3):604–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Mahdi H, Swensen RE, Munkarah AR, Chiang S, Luhrs K, Lockhart D, et al. Suicide in women with gynecologic cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;122(2):344–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ward KK, Roncancio AM, Plaxe SC. Women with gynecologic malignancies have a greater incidence of suicide than women with other cancer types. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2013;43(1):109–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Robson A, Scrutton F, Wilkinson L, MacLeod F. The risk of suicide in cancer patients: a review of the literature. Psychooncology. 2010;19(12):1250–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Noor-Mahomed SB, Schlebusch L, Bosch BA. Suicidal behavior in patients diagnosed with cancer of the cervix. Crisis. 2003;24(4):168–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Chochinov HM, Wilson KG, Enns M, Lander S. Depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation in the terminally ill. Psychosomatics. 1998;39(4):366–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Akechi T, Okamura H, Kugaya A, Nakano T, Nakanishi T, Akizuki N, et al. Suicidal ideation in cancer patients with major depression. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2000;30(5):221–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Martinsson L, Westman J, Hallgren J, Osby U, Backlund L. Lithium treatment and cancer incidence in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2016;18(1):33–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lin GM, Chen YJ, Kuo DJ, Jaiteh LE, Wu YC, Lo TS, et al. Cancer incidence in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan, 1997-2009. Schizophr Bull. 2013;39(2):407–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    BarChana M, Levav I, Lipshitz I, Pugachova I, Kohn R, Weizman A, et al. Enhanced cancer risk among patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2008;108(1–2):43–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Liang JA, Sun LM, Su KP, Chang SN, Sung FC, Muo CH, et al. A nationwide population-based cohort study: will anxiety disorders increase subsequent cancer risk? PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e36370.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Kain ZN, Sevarino F, Alexander GM, Pincus S, Mayes LC. Preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain in women undergoing hysterectomy. A repeated-measures design. J Psychosom Res. 2000;49(6):417–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ciccozzi A, Marinangeli F, Colangeli A, Antonacci S, Pilerci G, Di Stefano L, et al. Anxiolysis and postoperative pain in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for abdominal hysterectomy. Minerva Anestesiol. 2007;73(7–8):387–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Levandovski R, Ferreira MB, Hidalgo MP, Konrath CA, da Silva DL, Caumo W. Impact of preoperative anxiolytic on surgical site infection in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Am J Infect Control. 2008;36(10):718–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Seng JS, Clark MK, McCarthy AM, Ronis DL. PTSD and physical comorbidity among women receiving Medicaid: results from service-use data. J Trauma Stress. 2006;19(1):45–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Cohen BE, Maguen S, Bertenthal D, Shi Y, Jacoby V, Seal KH. Reproductive and other health outcomes in Iraq and Afghanistan women veterans using VA health care: association with mental health diagnoses. Womens Health Issues. 2012;22(5):e461–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Coker AL, Hopenhayn C, DeSimone CP, Bush HM, Crofford L. Violence against women raises risk of cervical cancer. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18(8):1179–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Weitlauf JC, Finney JW, Ruzek JI, Lee TT, Thrailkill A, Jones S, et al. Distress and pain during pelvic examinations: effect of sexual violence. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112(6):1343–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Weitlauf JC, Frayne SM, Finney JW, Moos RH, Jones S, Hu K, et al. Sexual violence, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the pelvic examination: how do beliefs about the safety, necessity, and utility of the examination influence patient experiences? J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010;19(7):1271–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Cronholm PF, Bowman MA. Women with safety concerns report fewer gender-specific preventive healthcare services. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18(7):1011–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Farley M, Golding JM, Minkoff JR. Is a history of trauma associated with a reduced likelihood of cervical cancer screening? J Fam Pract. 2002;51(10):827–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Lehavot K, Hoerster KD, Nelson KM, Jakupcak M, Simpson TL. Health indicators for military, veteran, and civilian women. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(5):473–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ryan GL, Mengeling MA, Summers KM, Booth BM, Torner JC, Syrop CH, et al. Hysterectomy risk in premenopausal-aged military veterans: associations with sexual assault and gynecologic symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;214(3):352.e1–e13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Meaney AM, O’Keane V. Prolactin and schizophrenia: clinical consequences of hyperprolactinaemia. Life Sci. 2002;71(9):979–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ebdrup NH, Assens M, Hougaard CO, Pinborg A, Hageman I, Schmidt L. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder: a national cohort study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014;177:115–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ji J, Sundquist K, Ning Y, Kendler KS, Sundquist J, Chen X. Incidence of cancer in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives: a population-based study in Sweden. Schizophr Bull. 2013;39(3):527–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Kisely S, Crowe E, Lawrence D. Cancer-related mortality in people with mental illness. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(2):209–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Martens PJ, Chochinov HM, Prior HJ, Fransoo R, Burland E. Are cervical cancer screening rates different for women with schizophrenia? A Manitoba population-based study. Schizophr Res. 2009;113(1):101–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Tilbrook D, Polsky J, Lofters A. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening? Can Fam Physician. 2010;56(4):358–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Mo PK, Mak WW, Chong ES, Shen H, Cheung RY. The prevalence and factors for cancer screening behavior among people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107237.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    James M, Thomas M, Frolov L, Riano NS, Vittinghoff E, Schillinger D, et al. Rates of cervical cancer screening among women with severe mental illness in the public health system. Psychiatr Serv. 2017;68(8):839–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Woodhead C, Cunningham R, Ashworth M, Barley E, Stewart RJ, Henderson MJ. Cervical and breast cancer screening uptake among women with serious mental illness: a data linkage study. BMC Cancer. 2016;16(1):819.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Bonney WW, Gupta S, Hunter DR, Arndt S. Bladder dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1997;25(3):243–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Walid MS. Prevalence of urinary incontinence in female residents of American nursing homes and association with neuropsychiatric disorders. J Clin Med Res. 2009;1(1):37–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Hsu WY, Muo CH, Ma SP, Kao CH. Association between schizophrenia and urinary incontinence: a population-based study. Psychiatry Res. 2017;248:35–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Nitti VW. The prevalence of urinary incontinence. Rev Urol. 2001;3(Suppl 1):S2–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Maserejian NN, Kupelian V, Miyasato G, McVary KT, McKinlay JB. Are physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in men or women? Results from a population based observational study. J Urol. 2012;188(2):490–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Bortolotti A, Bernardini B, Colli E, Di Benedetto P, Giocoli Nacci G, Landoni M, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence in Italy. Eur Urol. 2000;37(1):30–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Hannestad YS, Rortveit G, Daltveit AK, Hunskaar S. Are smoking and other lifestyle factors associated with female urinary incontinence? The Norwegian EPINCONT Study. BJOG. 2003;110(3):247–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Eggert J, Theobald H, Engfeldt P. Effects of alcohol consumption on female fertility during an 18-year period. Fertil Steril. 2004;81(2):379–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Tolstrup JS, Kjaer SK, Holst C, Sharif H, Munk C, Osler M, et al. Alcohol use as predictor for infertility in a representative population of Danish women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82(8):744–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Hassan MA, Killick SR. Negative lifestyle is associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. Fertil Steril. 2004;81(2):384–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Klonoff-Cohen H, Lam-Kruglick P, Gonzalez C. Effects of maternal and paternal alcohol consumption on the success rates of in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer. Fertil Steril. 2003;79(2):330–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Parazzini F, Cipriani S, Bravi F, Pelucchi C, Chiaffarino F, Ricci E, et al. A metaanalysis on alcohol consumption and risk of endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209(2):106.e1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Bagnardi V, Blangiardo M, La Vecchia C, Corrao G. A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2001;85(11):1700–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Kaaks R, Lukanova A, Kurzer MS. Obesity, endogenous hormones, and endometrial cancer risk: a synthetic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2002;11(12):1531–43.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Davies MJ, Baer DJ, Judd JT, Brown ED, Campbell WS, Taylor PR. Effects of moderate alcohol intake on fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;287(19):2559–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Allen NE, Beral V, Casabonne D, Kan SW, Reeves GK, Brown A, et al. Moderate alcohol intake and cancer incidence in women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(5):296–305.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Folsom AR, Demissie Z, Harnack L. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of endometrial cancer: the Iowa women’s health study. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(2):119–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Friberg E, Wolk A. Long-term alcohol consumption and risk of endometrial cancer incidence: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2009;18(1):355–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Gapstur SM, Potter JD, Sellers TA, Kushi LH, Folsom AR. Alcohol consumption and postmenopausal endometrial cancer: results from the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control. 1993;4(4):323–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Jain MG, Rohan TE, Howe GR, Miller AB. A cohort study of nutritional factors and endometrial cancer. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000;16(10):899–905.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Kabat GC, Miller AB, Jain M, Rohan TE. Dietary intake of selected B vitamins in relation to risk of major cancers in women. Br J Cancer. 2008;99(5):816–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Loerbroks A, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer risk: results from the Netherlands cohort study. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18(5):551–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Terry P, Baron JA, Weiderpass E, Yuen J, Lichtenstein P, Nyren O. Lifestyle and endometrial cancer risk: a cohort study from the Swedish twin registry. Int J Cancer. 1999;82(1):38–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Fedirko V, Jenab M, Rinaldi S, Biessy C, Allen NE, Dossus L, et al. Alcohol drinking and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Ann Epidemiol. 2013;23(2):93–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Je Y, De Vivo I, Giovannucci E. Long-term alcohol intake and risk of endometrial cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study, 1980-2010. Br J Cancer. 2014;111(1):186–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Setiawan VW, Monroe KR, Goodman MT, Kolonel LN, Pike MC, Henderson BE. Alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. Int J Cancer. 2008;122(3):634–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Zhou Q, Guo P, Li H, Chen XD. Does alcohol consumption modify the risk of endometrial cancer? A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;295(2):467–79.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Hennessy BT, Coleman RL, Markman M. Ovarian cancer. Lancet. 2009;374(9698):1371–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Chang ET, Canchola AJ, Lee VS, Clarke CA, Purdie DM, Reynolds P, et al. Wine and other alcohol consumption and risk of ovarian cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18(1):91–103.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Kushi LH, Mink PJ, Folsom AR, Anderson KE, Zheng W, Lazovich D, et al. Prospective study of diet and ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(1):21–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Bagnardi V, Rota M, Botteri E, Tramacere I, Islami F, Fedirko V, et al. Alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer risk: a comprehensive dose-response meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2015;112(3):580–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Rota M, Pasquali E, Scotti L, Pelucchi C, Tramacere I, Islami F, et al. Alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;125(3):758–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Felding C, Jensen LM, Tonnesen H. Influence of alcohol intake on postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;166(2):667–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Tonnesen H, Kehlet H. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity. Br J Surg. 1999;86(7):869–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Karamanis G, Skalkidou A, Tsakonas G, Brandt L, Ekbom A, Ekselius L, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in women with anorexia nervosa. Int J Cancer. 2014;134(7):1751–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    McHugh RK, Whitton SW, Peckham AD, Welge JA, Otto MW. Patient preference for psychological vs pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders: a meta-analytic review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(6):595–602.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Bhat A, Reed SD, Unutzer J. The obstetrician-gynecologist’s role in detecting, preventing, and treating depression. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;129(1):157–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Leddy MA, Lawrence H, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists and women’s mental health: findings of the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network 2005-2009. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2011;66(5):316–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Katon W, Russo J, Reed SD, Croicu CA, Ludman E, LaRocco A, et al. A randomized trial of collaborative depression care in obstetrics and gynecology clinics: socioeconomic disadvantage and treatment response. Am J Psychiatry. 2015;172(1):32–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Melville JL, Reed SD, Russo J, Croicu CA, Ludman E, LaRocco-Cockburn A, et al. Improving care for depression in obstetrics and gynecology: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(6):1237–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Osborn RL, Demoncada AC, Feuerstein M. Psychosocial interventions for depression, anxiety, and quality of life in cancer survivors: meta-analyses. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2006;36(1):13–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Sternbach H. Are antidepressants carcinogenic? A review of preclinical and clinical studies. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(10):1153–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Harlow BL, Cramer DW. Self-reported use of antidepressants or benzodiazepine tranquilizers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: evidence from two combined case-control studies (Massachusetts, United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1995;6(2):130–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Coogan PF, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Stolley PD, Zauber AG, et al. Risk of ovarian cancer according to use of antidepressants, phenothiazines, and benzodiazepines (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11(9):839–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Wu CS, Lu ML, Liao YT, Lee CT, Chen VC. Ovarian cancer and antidepressants. Psychooncology. 2015;24(5):579–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Lin CF, Chan HL, Hsieh YH, Liang HY, Chiu WC, Huang KY, et al. Endometrial cancer and antidepressants: a nationwide population-based study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(29):e 4178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Chan HL, Hsieh YH, Lin CF, Liang HY, Huang KY, Chiu WC, et al. Invasive cervical cancer and antidepressants: a nationwide population-based study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(42):e1866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Christensen DK, Armaiz-Pena GN, Ramirez E, Matsuo K, Zimmerman B, Zand B, et al. SSRI use and clinical outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer. Oncotarget. 2016;7(22):33179–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Pillarella J, Higashi A, Alexander GC, Conti R. Trends in use of second-generation antipsychotics for treatment of bipolar disorder in the United States, 1998-2009. Psychiatr Serv. 2012;63(1):83–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Anderson EL, Reti IM. ECT in pregnancy: a review of the literature from 1941 to 2007. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(2):235–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Miller LJ. Use of electroconvulsive therapy during pregnancy. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1994;45(5):444–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Saatcioglu O, Tomruk NB. The use of electroconvulsive therapy in pregnancy: a review. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2011;48(1):6–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Patsalos PN, Froscher W, Pisani F, van Rijn CM. The importance of drug interactions in epilepsy therapy. Epilepsia. 2002;43(4):365–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Sabers A, Buchholt JM, Uldall P, Hansen EL. Lamotrigine plasma levels reduced by oral contraceptives. Epilepsy Res. 2001;47(1–2):151–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Galimberti CA, Mazzucchelli I, Arbasino C, Canevini MP, Fattore C, Perucca E. Increased apparent oral clearance of valproic acid during intake of combined contraceptive steroids in women with epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006;47(9):1569–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Ismaili E, Walsh S, O’Brien PMS, Backstrom T, Brown C, Dennerstein L, et al. Fourth consensus of the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders (ISPMD): auditable standards for diagnosis and management of premenstrual disorder. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2016;19(6):953–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Steiner M, Steinberg S, Stewart D, Carter D, Berger C, Reid R, et al. Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. Canadian Fluoxetine/Premenstrual Dysphoria Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(23):1529–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Marjoribanks J, Brown J, O’Brien PM, Wyatt K. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(6):Cd001396. Available from:  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001396.pub3.
  250. 250.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. General anxiety disorder and panic disorder in adults: management. [Document on the Internet]. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2011. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg113/chapter/1-Guidance Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Fitelson E, McGibbon C. Evaluation and management of behavioral health disorders in women: an overview of major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and sleep in the primary care setting. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am. 2016;43(2):231–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Davidson JR, Zhang W, Connor KM, Ji J, Jobson K, Lecrubier Y, et al. A psychopharmacological treatment algorithm for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24(1):3–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Kain ZN, Mayes LC, Bell C, Weisman S, Hofstadter MB, Rimar S. Premedication in the United States: a status report. Anesth Analg. 1997;84(2):427–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Caumo W, Levandovski R, Hidalgo MP. Preoperative anxiolytic effect of melatonin and clonidine on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Pain. 2009;10(1):100–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Caumo W, Torres F, Moreira NL Jr, Auzani JA, Monteiro CA, Londero G, et al. The clinical impact of preoperative melatonin on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg. 2007;105(5):1263–71, table of contents.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Hidalgo MP, Auzani JA, Rumpel LC, Moreira NL Jr, Cursino AW, Caumo W. The clinical effect of small oral clonidine doses on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg. 2005;100(3):795–802, table of contents.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Joseph TT, Krishna HM, Kamath S. Premedication with gabapentin, alprazolam or a placebo for abdominal hysterectomy: effect on pre-operative anxiety, post-operative pain and morphine consumption. Indian J Anaesth. 2014;58(6):693–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Vitale AT, O’Connor PC. The effect of Reiki on pain and anxiety in women with abdominal hysterectomies: a quasi-experimental pilot study. Holist Nurs Pract. 2006;20(6):263–72. quiz 73–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Watts BV, Schnurr PP, Mayo L, Young-Xu Y, Weeks WB, Friedman MJ. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(6):e541–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Lee DJ, Schnitzlein CW, Wolf JP, Vythilingam M, Rasmusson AM, Hoge CW. Psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: systemic review and meta-analyses to determine first-line treatments. Depress Anxiety. 2016;33(9):792–806.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense. The Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Work Group. VA/DOD Clinical practice guideline for the management of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder [Document on the Internet]. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense; 2017. Available from: https://www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/MH/ptsd/VADoDPTSDCPGFinal.pdf Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Lindamer LA, Buse DC, Lohr JB, Jeste DV. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: positive effect on negative symptoms? Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49(1):47–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Kulkarni J, de Castella A, Fitzgerald PB, Gurvich CT, Bailey M, Bartholomeusz C, et al. Estrogen in severe mental illness: a potential new treatment approach. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(8):955–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Akhondzadeh S, Nejatisafa AA, Amini H, Mohammadi MR, Larijani B, Kashani L, et al. Adjunctive estrogen treatment in women with chronic schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003;27(6):1007–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Usall J, Huerta-Ramos E, Labad J, Cobo J, Nunez C, Creus M, et al. Raloxifene as an adjunctive treatment for postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: a 24-week double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. Schizophr Bull. 2016;42(2):309–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Kulkarni J, Gavrilidis E, Gwini SM, Worsley R, Grigg J, Warren A, et al. Effect of adjunctive raloxifene therapy on severity of refractory schizophrenia in women: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(9):947–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Thompson KN, Kulkarni J, Sergejew AA. Extrapyramidal symptoms and oestrogen. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;101(2):130–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Hand DJ, Short VL, Abatemarco DJ. Treatments for opioid use disorder among pregnant and reproductive-aged women. Fertil Steril. 2017;108(2):222–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Baser O, Chalk M, Rawson R, Gastfriend DR. Alcohol dependence treatments: comprehensive healthcare costs, utilization outcomes, and pharmacotherapy persistence. Am J Manag Care. 2011;17(Suppl 8):S222–34.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Zindel LR, Kranzler HR. Pharmacotherapy of alcohol use disorders: seventy-five years of progress. J Stud Alcohol Drugs Suppl. 2014;75(Suppl 17):79–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    DeVido J, Bogunovic O, Weiss RD. Alcohol use disorders in pregnancy. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2015;23(2):112–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Gianoulakis C. Influence of the endogenous opioid system on high alcohol consumption and genetic predisposition to alcoholism. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001;26(4):304–18.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Canidate SS, Carnaby GD, Cook CL, Cook RL. A systematic review of naltrexone for attenuating alcohol consumption in women with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017;41(3):466–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Littleton JM. Acamprosate in alcohol dependence: implications of a unique mechanism of action. J Addict Med. 2007;1(3):115–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Mason BJ, Lehert P. Acamprosate for alcohol dependence: a sex-specific meta-analysis based on individual patient data. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012;36(3):497–508.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Oppedal K, Moller AM, Pedersen B, Tonnesen H. Preoperative alcohol cessation prior to elective surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:Cd008343.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Tonnesen H, Nielsen PR, Lauritzen JB, Moller AM. Smoking and alcohol intervention before surgery: evidence for best practice. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102(3):297–306.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Horne RL, Ferguson JM, Pope HG Jr, Hudson JI, Lineberry CG, Ascher J, et al. Treatment of bulimia with bupropion: a multicenter controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 1988;49(7):262–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Mondraty N, Birmingham CL, Touyz S, Sundakov V, Chapman L, Beumont P. Randomized controlled trial of olanzapine in the treatment of cognitions in anorexia nervosa. Australas Psychiatry. 2005;13(1):72–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Brambilla F, Garcia CS, Fassino S, Daga GA, Favaro A, Santonastaso P, et al. Olanzapine therapy in anorexia nervosa: psychobiological effects. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(4):197–204.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Bissada H, Tasca GA, Barber AM, Bradwejn J. Olanzapine in the treatment of low body weight and obsessive thinking in women with anorexia nervosa: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(10):1281–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Bosanac P, Kurlender S, Norman T, Hallam K, Wesnes K, Manktelow T, et al. An open-label study of quetiapine in anorexia nervosa. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(4):223–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Zerbe KJ. Eating disorders in the 21st century: identification, management, and prevention in obstetrics and gynecology. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;21(2):331–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Eisler I, Dare C, Russell GF, Szmukler G, le Grange D, Dodge E. Family and individual therapy in anorexia nervosa. A 5-year follow-up. Arch gen. Psychiatry. 1997;54(11):1025–30.Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Dare C, Eisler I, Russell G, Treasure J, Dodge L. Psychological therapies for adults with anorexia nervosa: randomised controlled trial of out-patient treatments. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;178:216–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Fluoxetine Bulimia Nervosa Collaborative Study Group. Fluoxetine in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49(2):139–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Hoopes SP, Reimherr FW, Hedges DW, Rosenthal NR, Kamin M, Karim R, et al. Treatment of bulimia nervosa with topiramate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, part 1: improvement in binge and purge measures. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(11):1335–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Nickel C, Tritt K, Muehlbacher M, Pedrosa Gil F, Mitterlehner FO, Kaplan P, et al. Topiramate treatment in bulimia nervosa patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Eat Disord. 2005;38(4):295–300.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Brownley KA, Berkman ND, Peat CM, Lohr KN, Cullen KE, Bann CM, et al. Binge-eating disorder in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(6):409–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Hudson JI, McElroy SL, Ferreira-Cornwell MC, Radewonuk J, Gasior M. Efficacy of lisdexamfetamine in adults with moderate to severe binge-eating disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74(9):903–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    McElroy SL, Hudson JI, Capece JA, Beyers K, Fisher AC, Rosenthal NR. Topiramate for the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a placebo-controlled study. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(9):1039–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Claudino AM, de Oliveira IR, Appolinario JC, Cordas TA, Duchesne M, Sichieri R, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate plus cognitive-behavior therapy in binge-eating disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(9):1324–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Carpenter J, Gass MLS, Maki PM, Newton KM, Pinkerton JV. Nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: 2015 position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2015;22(11):1155–72. quiz 73–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Brown JN, Wright BR. Use of gabapentin in patients experiencing hot flashes. Pharmacotherapy. 2009;29(1):74–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Hayes LP, Carroll DG, Kelley KW. Use of gabapentin for the management of natural or surgical menopausal hot flashes. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45(3):388–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Loprinzi CL, Qin R, Balcueva EP, Flynn KA, Rowland KM Jr, Graham DL, et al. Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of pregabalin for alleviating hot flashes, N07C1. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(4):641–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Carey ET, Till SR, As-Sanie S. Pharmacological management of chronic pelvic pain in women. Drugs. 2017;77(3):285–301.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Lewis SC, Bhattacharya S, Wu O, Vincent K, Jack SA, Critchley HO, et al. Gabapentin for the management of chronic pelvic pain in women (GaPP1): a pilot randomised controlled trial. PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0153037.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryYale UniversityWest HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations