The Mereologies of Upper Ontologies

  • Lydia Silva Muñoz
  • Michael GrüningerEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 914)


Mereology, the formal theory of parts and wholes, has a played a prominent role within applied ontology. As a fundamental set of concepts for commonsense reasoning, it also appears in a number of upper level ontologies. Furthermore, such upper-level ontologies provide an account of the most basic, domain-independent, existing entities, such as time, space, objects, and processes. In this paper, we verify the core characterization of mereologies of the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO), and the mereology of the Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering (DOLCE), while relating their axiomatizations via ontology mapping. We show that the existing axiomatization of SUMO omits some of the intended models of classical mereology, and we propose the correction and addition of axioms to address this issue. In addition, we show the formal relationship between the axiomatization of mereology in both upper-level ontologies.


DOLCE DOLCE-CORE SUMO Ontology mapping Ontology verification Upper-level ontology Mereology Topology Mereotopology 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer ScienceUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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