A Survey on the Metal(loid) Accumulation Ability of Spontaneous and Established Plants for the Phytomanagement of an Industrial Landfill in the Venice Lagoon
The variability of plant species growing in polluted site for metal(loid) accumulation is a key factor to be investigated for the environmental relevance of the contamination at biological scale and for phytomanagement strategies. Thus, a survey on the metal(loid) accumulation in the aboveground organs of spontaneous and established plants was conducted in an industrial landfill on an island in the Venice Lagoon (Italy). For this purpose, a characterization of the metal pollution in the soil profile and in the groundwater was first performed in an experimental plot, revealing a remarkable spot contamination by As, Cd, Zn, and, to a lesser extent, Pb, in many cases with values higher than allowed by Italian Guideline Values (D.Lgs 152/06). Then, the aboveground plant organs of 12 plant species, recognized as the most representative tree, shrub, and herbaceous species growing on the island, were sampled for metal(loid) content analysis at the end of the annual vegetation cycle. All spontaneous species showed a higher ability to exclude rather than accumulate heavy metals compared to established species, except for Amaranthus retroflexus and Blackstonia perfoliata toward Zn and As, respectively. Contrarily, in the established species, a relatively high heavy metal concentration in aboveground organs was detected. Specifically, a high Pb soil-plant transfer was evidenced in Chrysopogon zizanioides and Cd and Zn in both Salix species by calculating the bioconcentration factor (BCF). PCA allowed to confirm the different behaviors of the plant species regarding their tolerance, giving indications for phytomanagement of metal-contaminated sites.
KeywordsBioconcentration factor Groundwater pollution Heavy metals Industrial waste Phytoremediation Soil pollution
This work was funded by Eni S.p.A. (contract no. 4900157051 “Experimental activity on phytostabilisation and phytoextraction of heavy metals”). Authors wish to thank Mr. Giuseppe Santarelli and Mr. Giovanni De Simone for their valuable technical assistance.
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