The Possibility of Use of Oil Seed Plants and Grasses for Phytoremediation

  • Saule AtabayevaEmail author


The possibility of using oilseed plants which have great biomass and have ability to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals is discussed. It was studied the metal accumulation ability of sunflower plants (Helianthus annus L.) and mixture grass species of Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne, and Festuca rubra, grown on the territory of the metallurgic plants in East Kazakhstan. It was showed that Zn in the plant parts studied species is accumulated in greatest amount, but Cd is found in the lowest amount. The shoot/root ratio of Cd and Cu in sunflower was higher than that of Zn and Pb, and, on the contrary, for grass species the shoot/root ratio of Pb and Zn was greatest as compare to Cd and Cu. The percentage of Pb was greatest in the shoots and roots of the studied plants, and the smallest percentage of Cd was also found. The removal of Cu and Cd by shoots of sunflower was more and the removal of Pb and Zn was lower than that of lawn grasses. The degree of soil purification by sunflower plants was higher for all metals tested than for lawn grasses. It was concluded that sunflower plants can be successfully used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals in Kazakhstan Anthropogenic pollutants, like heavy metals, are one of the prevailing polluting agents that cause various human diseases, entering to the organisms through food chain through contamination of vegetation and soil. The search for effective methods of remediation of technogeneously polluted soils is an important environmental problem in Kazakhstan. Actuality of the problem is connected with the contamination of the soil with heavy metals, in particular the area around the metallurgical plants and tailing dumps. One of the ways to prevent pollution of the environment is phytoremediation. The use of plant hyperaccumulators in phytoremediation process in Kazakhstan has some limitations like the low biomass of these plants and the absence of plant species hyperaccumulators of heavy metals adaptive to local environment. The possibility of using oilseed plants which have great biomass and have ability to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals is discussed. The cereal grass species which are tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals in soils may be considered as phytoremediants of polluted soils. The ability to accumulate great biomass of aboveground organs and roots and capability of accumulating great amounts of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd of sunflower plants, planted on the territory of metallurgic factory, were shown. The ability of grass species to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals mainly in the roots is discussed.


Phytoremediation Heavy metals Oil seed plants Sunflower Grasses 



The author expresses great gratitude to the employees of the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry of The Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology B. A. Sarsenbayev and B. N. Usenbekov for their participation in research of study of metal accumulation capacity of sunflower plants and conducting the related field work.


  1. 1.
    Suleev DK, Sagitov SI, Sagitov PI, Zhumagulov KK (2004) Ecology and nature management. The concept of a transition to sustainable development. Nauka, Almaty 391 pGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chaney RL, Malik M, Li YM et al (1997) Phytoremediation of soil metals. Curr Opin Biotechnol 8:279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chaney RL, Li YM, Scott JA (1998) Improving metal hyperaccumulator wild plants to develop commercial phytoextraction systems: approaches and progress. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 37 pGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    The concept of ecological safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1996) Noosphere 1:135–146Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fry SC, Miller JG, Panwill JC (2002) A proposed role for copper ions in cell wall loosening. Plant and Soil 247:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dixit V, Pandey V, Shyam R (2001) Differential antioxidative responses to cadmium in roots and leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L., cv Azad). J Exp Bot 52(358):1101–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zornoza P, Vazquez S, Esteban E, Fernandez-Pascual M (2002) Cadmiumstressinnodulated-whitelupin: strategiesto avoid toxicity. Plant Physiol Biochem 40:1003–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reichman SM (2002) The responses of plants to metal toxicity: a review focusing on copper, manganese and zinc. The Australian Minerals & Energy Environment Foundation, Melbourne, VIC, p 54Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sytar O, Kumar A, Latowski D, Kuczynska P, Strzałka K, Prasad MNV (2013) Heavy metal-induced oxidative damage, defense reactions, and detoxification mechanisms in plants. Acta Physiol Plant 35(4):985–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kumar A, Prasad MNV, Achary VMM, Panda BB (2013) Elucidation of lead-induced oxidative stress in Talinum triangulare roots by analysis of antioxidant responses and DNA damage at cellular level. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(7):4551–4561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ebbs S, Lau J, Ahner B (2002) Phytochelatin synthesis is not responsible for Cd tolerance in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Planta 214:635–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krotz RM, Evangelou BP, Wagner GJ (1989) Relationships between cadmium, zinc, Cd-peptide and organic acid in tobacco suspension cells. Plant Physiol 91:780–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rauser WE (1995) Phytochelatins and related peptides. Plant Physiol 109:1141–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shkolnik NY, Alekseeva-Popova IV (1983) Rastenia v extremalnih usloviah mineralnogo pitania. Nauka, Leningrad 176 p, In RussianGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chaney R, Brown S, Li Y-M, Angle S, Horner F, Green C (1995) Potential use of hyperaccumulator plant species to decontaminate metal polluted soils. Min Environ Manag 3(3):9–11Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raskin I, Smith RD, Salt DE (1997) Phytoremediation of metals: using plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Curr Opin Biotechnol 8:221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prasad MNV (2003) Prakticheskoe ispolzovanie rastenii dlya vosstanovklenia ecosystem, zagryaznennih metallami. Fiziol Rastenii 50(3):764–780Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Duffus JH (2002) “Heavy metals” – a meaningless term? (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl Chem 74(5):793–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bandman AL, Volkova NV, Grehova TD (1998) Vrednie himicheskie veshesnva. Himia, Leningrad 592 p, In RussianGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chernavskaya NM (1989) Physiologia rastitelnih organizmova I rol metallov. Nauka, Moskva 156 p, In RussianGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Harvey LJ, McArdle HJ (2008) Biomarkers of copper status: a brief update. Br J Nutr 99(S3):10–13 PubMed: 18598583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stern BR (2010) Essentiality and toxicity in copper health risk assessment: overview, update and regulatory considerations. Toxicol Environ Health A 73(2):114–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tchounwou PB, Ishaque A, Schneider J (2001) Cytotoxicity and transcriptional activation of stress genes in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) exposed to cadmium chloride. Mol Cell Biochem 222:21–28 PubMed: 11678604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Foxx D, Ishaque A, Shen E (2004) Lead-induced cytotoxicity and transcriptional activation of stress genes in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2). Mol Cell Biochem 255:161–170 PubMed: 14971657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Beyersmann D, Hartwig A (2008) Carcinogenic metal compounds: recent insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms. Arch Toxicol 82(8):493–512 PubMed: 18496671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Patlolla A, Barnes C, Yedjou C, Velma V, Tchounwou PB (2009) Oxidative stress, DNA damage and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Sprague Dawley rats. Environ Toxicol 24(1):66–73 PubMed: 18508361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Atabayeva S (2016) Heavy metals accumulation ability of wild grass species from industrial area of Kazakhstan. In: Ansari AA et al (eds) Phytoremediation: management of environmental contaminants. Section 4. Phytoremediation applications for metal contaminated soils using terrestrial plants. Springer, New York, NY, pp 157–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gimeno-Garcia E, Andreu V, Boluda R (1996) Heavy metals incidence in the application of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides to rice farming soils. Environ Pollut 92:19–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Andreu V, Boluda R (1995) Application of contamination indexes on different farming soils. Bull Environ Pollut 104:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee JS, Chon HT, Kim KW (1988) Migration and dispersion of trace elements in the rock-soil-soil plant system in areas underlain by black shales and states of the Okchon Zone, Korea. J Geochem Explor 65:61–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jackson AP, Alloway BJ (1992) The transfer of cadmium from agricultural soils to the human food chain. In: Adriano DC (ed) Biochemistry of trace metals. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp 109–158Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    FAO/WHO. Joint Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants. Position paper on cadmium (prepared by France). 27th Session. The Hague, The Netherlands. 20–24 March, 1995. 32 pGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tasekeev M (2004) Bioremediatsia toksichnih promishlennih othodov. Promishlennost Kazakhstana 5(26):59–63Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kvesitadze GI, Hatisashvili GA, Sadunishvili TA, Evstigneeva ZG (2005) Metabolism antropogennih toksikantov v visshih rasteniah. Nauka, Moskva 197 p, In RussianGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brown SL, Chaney RL, Angle JS, Baker AJ (1995) Zinc and cadmium uptake of Thlaspi caerulescens grown in nutrient solution. Soil Sci Soc Am J 59:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Prasad MN (2003) Prakticheskoe ispolzovanie rasenii dlia vosstanovlenia ekosyste, zagryaznennih tiazhelimi metallami. Fiziol Rastenii 50(5):764–780 In RussianGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hooda V (2007) Phytoremediation of toxic metals from soil and waste water. J Environ Biol 28(2):367–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Huang JW, Cunningham SD (1996) Lead phytoextraction: species variation in lead uptake and translocation. New Phytol 134:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li YM, Chaney R, Brewer E, Roserberg R, Angle JS, Baker A, Reeves R, Nelkin J (2003) Development of a technology for commercial phytoextraction of nickel: economic and technical considerations. Plant and Soil 249:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Broadly MR, White PJ, Hammond JP, Zelko I, Lux A (2007) Zinc in plants. New Phytol 173:677–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Palmergen MG, Clemens S, Williams LE, Kramer U, Borg S, Schjorring JK, Sanders D (2008) Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions. Trends Plant Sci 13:464–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brooks RR (1998) Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals, vol 53. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McGrath SP (1998) Phytoextraction for soil remediation. In: Brooks RR (ed) Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals. AB International, Wallingford, pp 261–287Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lasat MM, Fuhrman M, Ebbs SD (2003) Phytoextraction of radiocesium-contaminated soil: evaluation of cesium-137 bioaccumulation in the shoots of three plant species. J Environ Qual 27:165–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Baker AJ, McGrath SP, Reeves RD (2000) Metal hyperaccumulator plants: a review of the ecology and physiology of a biochemical resource for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils. In: Contaminated soil and water. Lewis Publishers, Boca-Raton, FL, pp 85–107Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kos B, Grčman H, Leštan D (2003) Phytoextraction of lead, zinc and cadmium from soil by selected plants. Plant Soil Environ 49:548–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lesage E, Meers E, Vervaeke P, Lamsal S, Hopgood M, Tack FM (2005) Enhanced phytoextraction: II. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on heavy metal uptake by Helianthus annuus from a calcareous soil. Int J Phytoremediation 7(2):143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Raskin I, PBA K, Dushenkov S, Salt DE (1994) Bioconcentration of heavy metals by plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 5:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Romeiro S, Lagôa AMM, Furlani PR, De Abreu CA, De Abreu MF, Erismann NM (2006) Lead uptake and tolerance of Ricinus communis L. Braz J Plant Physiol 18(4):18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vwioko DE, Anoliefo G, Fashemi SD (2006) Castor oil grown in soil contaminated with spent lubricating oil. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 10(3):127–134Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marchiol L, Assoaris S, Sacco P, Zerbi G (2004) Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil. Environ Pollut 132(1):21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boonyapookana B, Parkpian P, Techapinyawat S, De Laune RD, Jugsujinda A (2005) Phytoaccumulation of lead by sunflower (Helianthus annuus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). J Environ Sci Health A Toxic Hazard Subst Environ Eng 40(1):117–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gulz PA, Gupta SK, Schulin R (2003) P-enhanced phytoextraction of arsenic from contaminated soil using sunflower. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements (7th ICOBTE), 15–19 June, 2003, Uppsala, Sweden. Book of Abstracts. – Vol I-II. P. 148–149Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mukhtar S, Bhatti HN, Khalid M, Haq MA, Shahzad SM (2010) Potential of sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) contaminated water. Pak J Bot 42(6):4017–4026Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Begonia GB (1997) Comparative lead uptake and responses of some plants grown on lead contaminated soils. Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217.
  56. 56.
    Lee I, Baek K, Kim H, Kim S, Kim J, Kwon Y, Chang Y, Bae B (2007) Phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with heavy metals and TNT using four plant species. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 42(13):2039–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Solhi M, Hajabbasi MA, Shareatmadari H (2005) Heavy metals extraction potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and canola (Brassica napus), Caspian. J Env Sci 31:35–42Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Adesodun JK, Atayese MO, Agbaje TA, Osadiaye BA, Mafe OF, Soretire AA, Adesodun JK (2010) Phytoremediation potentials of sunflowers (Tithonia diversifolia and Helianthus annuus) for metals in soils contaminated with zinc and lead nitrates. Water Air Soil Pollut 207(1–4):195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Madejon P, Murillo JM, Maranon T, Cabrera F, Soriano MA (2003) Trace element and nutrient accumulation in sunflower plants two years after the Aznacolla mine spill. Sci Total Environ 37:239–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Marchiol L, Fellet G, Perosa D, Zerbi G (2007) Removal of trace, metals by Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus in a site polluted with zinc by industrial wastes: a field experience. Plant Physiol Biochem 45:379–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lin J, Jiang W, Lin D (2003) Accumulation of copper by roots, hypocotyls, cotyledons and leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Bioresour Technol 86:151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Angelova V, Perifanova-Nemska MN, Uzunova GP, Ivanov KI, Lee HQ (2016) Potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation for soils contaminated with heavy metals. Int J Environ Ecol Eng 10(9):576–583Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Patel SJ, Bhattacharya P, Banu S, Bai L, Namratha R (2015) Phytoremediation of copper and lead by using sunflower. Indian mustard and water hyacinth plants. Int J Sci Res 4(5):113–115 ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zavoda T, Cutright J, Szpak I, Fallon E (2001) Uptake, selectivity and inhibition of hydroponic treatment of contaminants. J Environ Eng 127:502–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Prasad MNV (2007) Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) – a potential crop for environmental industry. Helia 30:167–174Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zadeh BM, Savaghebi-Firozabadi GR, Alikhani HA, Hosseini HM (2008) Effect of sunflower and amaranthus culture and application of inoculants on phytoremediation of the soils contaminated with cadmium. Am Eur J Agric Environ Sci 4(1):93–103Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Herrero EM, Lopez-Gonzalvez A, Ruiz MA, Lucas-Garcia JA, Barbas C (2003) Uptake and distribution of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper in Brassica napus var oleifera and Helianthus annuus grown in contaminated soils. Int J Phytoremediation 5:153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rivelli AR, De Maria S, Puschenreiter M, Gherbin P (2012) Accumulation of cadmium, zinc and copper by Helianthus annuus L. Impact on plant growth and uptake of nutritional elements. Int J Phytoremediation 14:320–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chen H, Cutright TJ (2002) The interactive effects of chelator, fertilizer and rhizobacteria for enhancing phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. J Soil Sediment 2:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Martins CDC, Liduino VS, Oliveira FJS, Sérvulo EFC (2014) Phytoremediation of soil multi-contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals using sunflowers. Int J Eng Technol 14(5):144305–147171Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gołda S, Korzeniowska J (2016) Comparison of phytoremediation potential of three grass species in soil contaminated with cadmium. Environ Protect Nat Resour 27(1 (67)):8–14. Scholar
  72. 72.
    Aibubu N, Liu Y, Zeng G, Wang X, Chen B, Song H, Xu L (2010) Cadmium accumulation in Vetiveria zizanioides and its effects on growth, physiological and biochemical characters. Bioresour Technol 101:6297–6303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Xu P, Wang Z (2013) Physiological mechanism of hypertolerance of cadmium in Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue: chemical forms and tissue distribution. Environ Exp Bot 96:35–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Abaga NOZ, Dousset S, Mbengue S, Munier-Lamy C (2014) Is vetiver grass of interest for the remediation of Cu and Cd to protect marketing gardens in Burkina Faso. Chemosphere 113:2–47Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    LMN/SOP-06 (2006) Digestion of hard samples for heavy metal determination in the flame, 10 pGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    LMN/SOP-08 (FLAA) (2001) Work process of Аnalyst 300 Perkin Elmer (in the flame), 14 pGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Agoramoorthy G, Chen F-A, Hsu MJ (2008) Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tami Nadu, India. Environ Pollut 155:320–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Research Institute of Ecology ProblemsAlmatyKazakhstan

Personalised recommendations