Nanomaterials: An Upcoming Fortune to Waste Recycling

  • Mugdha Rao
  • Anal K. Jha
  • Kamal Prasad
Part of the Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences book series (NALIS)


Towards an inclination to recycle waste, the chapter articulates on the prevailing performance of nanotechnology in waste pursuit. The classification of waste, multifold waste management techniques, nanotechnology role in waste management followed up by waste conversion to valuable products, finishing with the application of the nanomaterial procured from waste have been confabulated. The chapter categorizes nanomaterial fabrication from garbage, combustible waste, ash, pharmaceutical waste, agricultural waste, and microbial biomass which in turn imparts reduced possession on conventional method of waste conversion to valuable products. Significant research attempt on nanoconversions from waste are still performed at laboratory scale. Although nanotechnology proved to be an upcoming potential technique in waste conversion to valuable products but in real picture, the technologies will worth more if it combats inadequacy in scale up of waste mediated nanoconversion.


Nanomaterials Waste recycling Waste management Nanophotocatalyst Environmental pollutants Combustible waste Pharmaceutical waste Waste microorganisms 


  1. Adedokun O, Roy A, Awodugba AO, Devi PS (2016) Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from Citrus sinensis as efficient sorbents for pollutant dyes. Luminescence 32:62–70. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adolfsson KH, Hassanzadeh S, Hakkarainen M (2015) Valorization of cellulose and waste paper to graphene oxide quantum dots. Royal Soc Chem Adv 5:26550–26558. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad J, Ansari TA (2012) Biogas from slaughterhouse waste: towards an energy self-sufficient industry with economical analysis in India. J Microbial Biochem Technol S12:001–004. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad N, Sharma S, Rai R (2012) Rapid green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using peels of Punicagranatum. Adv Mater Lett 3:376–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akhavan O, Bijanzad K, Mirsepah A (2014) Synthesis of graphene from natural and industrial carbonaceous wastes. Royal Soc Chem Adv 4:20441–20448. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alhassan FH, Rashid U, Taufiq-Yap YH (2015) Synthesis of waste cooking oil based biodiesel via ferric-manganese promoted molybdenum oxide/zirconia nanoparticle solid acid catalyst: influence of ferric and manganese dopants. J Oleo Sci 64:505–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alturaif HA, ALOthman ZA, Shapter JG, Wabaidur SM (2014) Use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polymers in solar cells. Molecules 19:17329–17344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Amin MT, Alazba AA, Manzoor U (2014) A review on removal of pollutants from water/wastewater using different types of nanomaterials. Adv Mater Sci Eng 190:190–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Armendariz V, Herrera I, Peralta-Videa JR, Jose-Yacaman M, Troiani H, Santiago P, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2004) Size controlled gold nanoparticle formation by Avena sativa biomass: use of plants in nanobiotechnology. J Nanopart Res 6:377–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arshadi M, Foroughifard S, Gholtash JE, Abbaspourrad A (2015) Preparation of iron nanoparticles-loaded Spondias purpurea seed waste as an excellent adsorbent for removal of phosphate from synthetic and natural waters. J Coll Inter Sci 452:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. AWM Handbook (2014) Waste to resources. Teri Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  12. Aziz N, Faraz M, Pandey R, Sakir M, Fatma T, Varma A, Barman I, Prasad R (2015) Facile algae-derived route to biogenic silver nanoparticles: synthesis, antibacterial and photocatalytic properties. Langmuir 31:11605–11612. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Aziz N, Pandey R, Barman I, Prasad R (2016) Leveraging the attributes of Mucor hiemalis-derived silver nanoparticles for a synergistic broad-spectrum antimicrobial platform. Front Microbiol 7:1984. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Baiocco D, Lavecchia R, Natali S, Zuorro A (2016) Production of metal nanoparticles by agro-industrial wastes: a green opportunity for nanotechnology. Chem Eng Trans 47:67–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bankar A, Joshi B, Kumar AR, Zinjarde S (2010) Banana peel extract mediated novel route for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Colloid Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 368:58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Basel Convention (1989) Basel convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes protocol on liability and compensation Basel convention protocol on liability and compensation.
  17. Berkmans J, Jagannatham M, Priyanka S, Haridoss P (2014) Synthesis of branched, nano channeled, ultrafine and nano carbon tubes from PET wastes using the arc discharge method. Waste Manag 11:2139–2145. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bharathy N, Sakthivadivu R, Sivakumar K, Saravanakumar VR (2012) Disposal and utilization of broiler slaughter waste by composting. Vet World 5:359–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bhat N (2007) Nanoelectronics era: novel device. J Indian Int Sci 87:61–74Google Scholar
  20. Castro L, Blázquez ML, González F, Muñoz JA, Ballester A (2015) Biosynthesis of silver and platinum nanoparticles using orange peel extract: characterisation and applications. IET Nanobiotechnol 9:252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Çelebi O, Üzüm Ç, Shahwan T, Erten HN (2007) A radiotracer study of the adsorption behavior of aqueous Ba2+ ions on nanoparticles of zero-valent iron. J Hazard Mater 148:761–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chamundeeswari M, Senthil V, Kanagavel M, Chandramohan SM, Sastry TP (2011) Preparation and characterization of nanobiocomposites containing iron nanoparticles prepared from blood and coated with chitosan and gelatin. Mater Res Bull 46:901–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chamundeeswari M, Kumar BS, Muthukumar T, Muthuraman L, Sai KP, Sastry TP (2013a) Iron nanoparticles from blood coated with collagen as a matrix for synthesis of nanohydroxyapatite. Bull Mater Sci 36:1165–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chamundeeswari M, Sastry TP, Lakhsmi BS, Senthil V, Agostinelli E (2013b) Iron nanoparticles from animal blood for cellular imaging and targeted delivery for cancer treatment. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 1830:3005–3010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dauthal P, Mukhopadhyay M (2014) Biofabrication, characterization, and possible bio-reduction mechanism of platinum nanoparticles mediated by agro-industrial waste and their catalytic activity. J Ind Eng Chem 25:185–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Demirbas A (2011) Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes. Energ Conv Manag 52:1280–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dermatas D, Mpouras T, Panagiotakis I (2018) Application of nanotechnology for waste management: challenges and limitations. Waste Manag Res 36:197–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dutta N, Mukhopadhyay A, Dasgupta AK, Chakrabarti K (2014) Improved production of reducing sugars from rice husk and rice straw using bacterial cellulase and xylanase activated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Bioresour Technol 153:269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Edison TJI, Sethuraman MG (2013) Biogenic robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Punica granatum peel and its application as a green catalyst for the reduction of an anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 04:262–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ek AEW, Hallin S, Vallin L, Schnürer A, Karlsson M (2011) Slaughterhouse waste co-digestion—experiences from 15 years of full-scale operation. World Renewable Energy Congress, LinköpingCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Essawy NAE, Ali SM, Farag HAC, Konsowa AH, Elnouby M, Hamad HA (2017) Green synthesis of graphene from recycled PET bottle wastes for use in the adsorption of dyes in aqueous solution. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 145:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fa W, Gong C, Tian L, Peng T, Zan L (2011) Enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of poly(vinylchloride) with Perchlorinated Iron (II) Phthalocyanine modified Nano-TiO2. J Appl Poly Sci 122:1823–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gade A, Ingle A, Whiteley C, Rai M (2010) Mycogenic metal nanoparticles: progress and applications. Biotechnol Lett 32:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gangadhar G, Maheshwari U, Gupta S (2012) Application of nanomaterials for the removal of pollutants from effluent streams. Nanosci Nanotechnol Asia 2:140–150Google Scholar
  35. Gao L, Li R, Sui X, Li R, Chen C, Chen Q (2014) Conversion of chicken feather waste to N-doped carbon nanotubes for the catalytic reduction of 4-Nitrophenol. Environ Sci Technol 48:10191–10197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Godavarthi S, Kumara KM, Véleza EV, Eligioc AH, Mahendhir M, N. Comoe NH, Alemane M, Gomeza LM (2017) Nitrogen doped carbon dots derived from Sargassum fluitans as fluorophore for DNA detection. J Phytochem Phytobiol, B: Biol 172:36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gong J, Liu J, Wen X, Jiang Z, Chen X, Mijowska E, Tang T (2014) Upcycling waste polypropylene into graphene flakes on organically modified montmorillonite. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:4173–4181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goudarzi M, Mir MN, Mousavi-Kamazani M, Bagheri S, Salavati-Niasari M (2016) Biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles prepared from two novel natural precursors by facile thermal decomposition methods. Sci Rep 6:32539–32513. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Hassan TA, Rangari VK, Rana RK, Jeelani S (2013) Sonochemical effect on size reduction of CaCO3 nanoparticles derived from waste eggshells. Ultrason Sonochem 20:1308–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hintsho N, Shaikjee A, Masenda H, Naidoo D, Billing D, Franklyn P, Durbach S (2014) Direct synthesis of carbon nanofibers from South African coal fly ash. Nanoscale Res Lett 9:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hintsho N, Shaikjee TPK, Masenda H, Naidoo D, Franklyn DS (2016) Effect of nitrogen and hydrogen gases on the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from coal waste fly ash as a catalyst. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 16:4672–4683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ibrahim HMM (2015) Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using banana peel extract and their antimicrobial activity against representative microorganisms. J Rad Res Appl Sci 8:265–275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jha AK, Prasad K (2012) Synthesis of nanomaterials using expired medicines: an ecofriendly option. Nanotechnol Dev 2:36–39Google Scholar
  44. Jha AK, Prasad K (2014) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles employing fish processing discard: an eco-amenable approach. J Chin Adv Mater Soc 2:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jha AK, Prasad K (2016) Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles from goat slaughter waste for environmental protection. Int J Curr Eng Technol 6:147–151Google Scholar
  46. Joo SH, Cheng IF (2006) Nanotechnology for environmental remediation. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Joseph T, Morrison M (2006) Nanoforum report: nanotechnology in agriculture and food. pp 1–14.
  48. Kadam A, Patil S, Patil S, Tumkur A (2016) Pharmaceutical waste management an overview. Ind J Pharma Pract 9:2–8Google Scholar
  49. Karimi M, Keyhani A, Akram A, Rahman M, Jenkins B, Stroeve P (2013) Hybrid response surface methodology-genetic algorithm optimization of ultrasound-assisted transesterification of waste oil catalysed by immobilized lipase on mesoporous silica/iron oxide magnetic core-shell nanoparticles. Environ Technol (UK) 34:2201–2211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaviya S, Santhanalakshmi J, Viswanathan B, Muthumary J, Srinivasan K (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 79:594–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kokila T, Ramesh PS, Geetha D (2015) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cavendish banana peel extract and its antibacterial and free radical scavenging assay: a novel biological approach. Appl Nanosci 5:911–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kokila T, Ramesh PS, Geetha D (2016) Biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract and evaluation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 134:467–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Krishnaswamy K, Vali H, Orsat V (2014) Value-adding to grape waste: green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. J Food Eng 142:210–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kumar R, Roopan SM, Prabhakarn A, Khanna VG, Chakroborty S (2012) Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 90:173–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kumar A, Hegde G, Manaf SABA, Ngaini Z, Sharma KV (2014) Catalyst free silica templated porous carbon nanoparticles from bio-waste materials. Chem Commun 50:12702–12705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kumar V, Vermab S, Choudhuryc S, Tyagid M, Chatterjee S, Variyara PS (2015) Biocompatible silver nanoparticles from vegetable waste: its characterization and bio-efficacy. Int J Nano Mater Sci 4:70–86Google Scholar
  57. Kumar U, Sikarwar S, Sonker RK (2016) Carbon nanotube: synthesis and application in solar cell. J Inorg Organomet Polym Mater 26:1231–1242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kuppusamy S, Thavamani P, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2015) Bioremediation potential of natural polyphenol rich green wastes: a review of current research and recommendations for future directions. Environ Technol Innov 4:17–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Li Z, Zheng L, Saini V, Bourdo S, Dervishi E, Biris AS (2013) Solar cells with graphene and carbon nanotubes on silicon. J Exp Nanosci 8:565–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lunge SS, Singh S, Sinha A (2014) Magnetic nanoparticle: synthesis and environmental applications. International Conference on Chemical Civil and Environmental Engineering.
  61. Luther W (2008) Application of nano-technologies in the energy sector, vol 9 of the series Aktionslinie Hessen-nanotech of the Hessian Ministry of Economy, Transport, Urban and Regional development Www.Hessen-Nanotech.De
  62. Lymer J (2016) Waste classification guide. Royal Society of Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Group. p 4624Google Scholar
  63. Malav OP, Birla R, Virk KS, Sandhu HS, Mehta N, Kumar P, Wagh RV (2018) Safe disposal of slaughter house waste. Appro Poult Dairy Vet Sci 2:3–5Google Scholar
  64. Malhotra A, Sharma N, Navdezda KN, Dolma K, Sharma D, Nandanwar HS, Choudhury AR (2014) Multi-analytical approach to understand biomineralization of gold using rice bran: a novel and economical route. Roy Soc Chem 74:39484–39490. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Meng X, Deng D (2017) Trash to treasure: waste eggshells as chemical reactors for the synthesis of amorphous co(OH)2 nanorod arrays on various substrates for applications in rechargeable alkaline batteries and electrocatalysis. ACS Appl Mater Interf 9:5244–5253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Meyabadi TF, Dadashian F, Sadeghi GMM, Asl HEZ (2014) Spherical cellulose nanoparticles preparation from waste cotton using a green method. Powder Technol 261:232–240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Murugan K, Suresh U, Panneerselvam C, Rajaganesh R, Roni M, Aziz AT, Hwang J, Sathishkumar K, Rajasekar A, Kumar S, Alarfaj AA, Higuchi A, Benelli G (2017) Managing wastes as green resources: cigarette butt-synthesized pesticides are highly toxic to malaria vectors with little impact on predatory copepods. Environ Sci Pollut Res 11:10456–10470. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Narayanamma MK, Rani A, Raju ME (2016) Natural synthesis of silver nanoparticles by banana peel extract and as an antibacterial agent. Int J Sci Res 5:1431–1441Google Scholar
  69. Nikalje AP (2015) Nanotechnology and its applications in medicine. Med Chem 5:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nogueira V, Lopes I, Freitas AC, Rocha-Santos TAP, Gonçalves F, Duarte AC, Pereira R (2015) Biological treatment with fungi of olive mill wastewater pre-treated by photocatalytic oxidation with nanomaterials. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 115:234–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Park SY, Lee HU, Park ES, Lee SC, Lee JW, Jeong SW, Kim CH, Lee YC, Huh YS, Lee J (2014) Photoluminescent green carbon nanodots from food-waste- derived sources: large-scale synthesis, properties, and biomedical applications. Appl Mater Sci Inter 6:3365–3370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Park JS, Ahn EY, Park Y (2017) Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green- synthesized by mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extracts. Int J Nanomed 12:6895–6908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Patra JK, Baek KH (2015) Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. Int J Nanomed 10:7253–7264Google Scholar
  74. Patra JK, Das G, Baek KH (2016) Phyto-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the rind extract of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) under photo-catalyzed condition and investigation of its antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant efficacy. Photochem Photobiol 161:200–210. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Prasad R (2014) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in photosynthetic plants. J Nanopart 963961. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Prasannan A, Imae T (2013) One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots from orange waste peels. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:15673–15678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Qu J, Zhang Q, Xia Y, Cong Q, Luo C (2014) Synthesis of carbon nanospheres using fallen willow leaves and adsorption of rhodamine B and heavy metals by them. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2:1408–1419. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rahman FA (2000) Reduce, reuse, recycle: alternatives for waste management. pp 1–4Google Scholar
  79. Rajarao R, Ferreira R, Sadi SHF, Khanna R, Sahajwalla V (2014) Synthesis of silicon carbide nanoparticles by using electronic waste as carbon source. Mater Lett 120:65–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ramezanianpour AA (2014) Cement replacement materials. Spring Geochem/Mineralo Verlag, Berlin. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rao M, Jha B, Jha AK, Prasad K (2017a) Fungal nanotechnology: a Pandora to agricultural science and engineering. In: Prasad R (ed) Fungal nanotechnology. Fungal biology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  82. Rao M, Jha B, Jha AK (2017b) Nanoparticles from kitchen waste (Orange peels): an avenue for conversion of green waste to value added product. Int J Plant Res 30(supl):21–24Google Scholar
  83. Rodrigues F, Alves AC, Nunes C, Sarmento B, Amaral MH, Reis S, Oliveira MBPP (2016) Permeation of topically applied caffeine from a food by-product in cosmetic formulations: is nanoscale in vitro approach an option? Int J Pharm 513:496–503. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rożalska S, Soliwoda K, Długoński J (2016) Synthesis of silver nanoparticle by Metarhizium robertsii waste biomass extract after nonylphenol degradation and its antimicrobial and catalytic potential. Roy Soc Chem 6:21475–21485. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sangeetha J, Thangadurai D, Hospet R, Harish ER, Purushotham P, Mujeeb MA, Shrinivas J, David M, Mundaragi AC, Thimmappa AC, Arakera SB, Prasad R (2017a) Nanoagrotechnology for soil quality, crop performance and environmental management. In: Prasad R, Kumar M, Kumar V (eds) Nanotechnology. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd, Singapore, pp 73–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sangeetha J, Thangadurai D, Hospet R, Purushotham P, Karekalammanavar G, Mundaragi AC, David M, Shinge MR, Thimmappa SC, Prasad R, Harish ER (2017b) Agricultural nanotechnology: concepts, benefits, and risks. In: Prasad R, Kumar M, Kumar V (eds) Nanotechnology. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd, Singapore, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  87. Sangeetha J, Thangadurai D, Hospet R, Purushotham P, Manowade KR, Mujeeb MA, Mundaragi AC, Jogaiah S, David M, Thimmappa SC, Prasad R, Harish ER (2017c) Production of bionanomaterials from agricultural wastes. In: Prasad R, Kumar M, Kumar V (eds) Nanotechnology. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd, Singapore, pp 33–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Saratale RG, Shin H, Kumar G (2017) Exploiting fruit byproducts for eco-friendly nanosynthesis: Citrus × Clementina peel extract mediated fabrication of silver nanoparticles with high efficacy against microbial pathogens and rat glial tumor C6 cells. Environ Sci Pollut Res 11:10250–10263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shan G, Surampalli RY, Tyagi RD, Zhang TC (2009) Nanomaterials for environmental burden reduction, waste treatment, and nonpoint source pollution control: a review. Front Environ Sci Eng China 3:249–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shankar S, Jaiswal L, Aparna RSL, Prasad RGSV (2014) Synthesis, characterization, in vitro biocompatibility, and antimicrobial activity of gold, silver and gold silver alloy nanoparticles prepared from Lansium domesticum fruit peel extract. Mater Lett 137:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sharma S, Kalita G, Hirano R, Shinde SM, Papon R, Ohtani H, Tanemura M (2014) Synthesis of graphene crystals from solid waste plastic by chemical vapor deposition. Carbon 72:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sharma K, Kaushik S, Jyoti A (2016) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using waste vegetable peel and its antibacterial activities. J Pharma Sci Res 8:313–316Google Scholar
  93. Sinha T, Ahmaruzzaman M (2015) Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles for the efficient removal (degradation) of dye from aqueous phase. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:20092–20100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sinyoung S, Kunchariyakun K, Asavapisit S, Mackenzie KJD (2017) Synthesis of belite cement from nano-silica extracted from two rice husk ashes. J Environ Manag 90:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Somanathan T, Prasad K, Ostrikov K, Saravanan A, Krishna VM (2015) Graphene oxide synthesis from agro waste. Nanomaterials 5:826–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sonkar SK, Roy M, Babar DG, Sarkar S (2012) Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants. Nanoscale 4:7670–7675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sun L, Tian C, Li M, Meng X, Wang L, Wang R, Yin J, Fu H (2013) From coconut shell to porous graphene-like nanosheets for high-power supercapacitors†. J Mater Chem 1:6462–6470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sundaram M, Banu AN et al (2015) A study on anti-bacterial activity of keratin nanoparticles from chicken feather waste against Staphylococcus aureus (bovine mastitis Bacteria) and its anti-oxidant activity. Eur J Biotechnol Biosci 3:1–5Google Scholar
  99. Suriani AB, Dalila AR, Mohamed A, Rosmi MS, Mamat MH, Malek MF, Ahmad MK, Hashim N, Isa IM, Soga T, Tanemura M (2016) Parametric study of waste chicken fat catalytic chemical vapour deposition for controlled synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Cogent Phys 3:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Suryawanshi A, Biswal M, Mhamane D, Gokhale R, Patil S, Guin D, Ogale S (2012) Large scale synthesis of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) from waste biomass and their use as an efficient and selective photoluminescence on-off-on probe for Ag+ ions. Nanoscale 20:11664–11670. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tang Y, Shen X, Zhang J, Guo D, Kong F, Zhang N (2015) Extraction of cellulose nano-crystals from old corrugated container fiber using phosphoric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis followed bysonication. Carbohydr Polym 125:360–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thines KR, Abdullah EC, Mubarak NM, Ruthiraan M (2017) Synthesis of magnetic biochar from agricultural waste biomass to enhancing route for waste water and polymer application: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 67:257–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tran DL, Le VH, Pham HL, Hoang TMN, Nguyen TQ, Luong TT, Ha PT, Nguyen XP (2010) Biomedical and environmental applications of magnetic nanoparticles. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 1:045013–045015. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Velu K, Elumalai D, Hemalatha P, Janaki A, Babu M, Hemavathi M, Kaleena PK (2015) Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:7769–17779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang Q, Liu X, Zhang L, Lv Y (2012a) Microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon nanodots through an eggshell membrane and their fluorescent application. Analyst 137:5392–5397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wang X, Guo Y, Yang L, Han M, Zhao J, Cheng X (2012b) Nanomaterials as sorbents to remove heavy metal ions in wastewater treatment. J Environ Anal Toxicol 2:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Williams CM (2008) Poultry waste management in developing countries. Poult Dev Rev 4Google Scholar
  108. Wu ZY, Liang HW, Chen LF, Hu BC, Yu SH (2016) Bacterial cellulose: a robust platform for design of three dimensional carbon-based functional nanomaterials. Acc Chem Res 49:96–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. A, Li X, Yang J, Du C, Shen W, Yan J (2017) Upcycling waste lard oil into vertical graphene sheets by inductively coupled plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. Nano 1:96–105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yang N, Li WH (2013) Mango peel extract mediated novel route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial application of silver noparticles loaded onto non-woven fabrics. Ind Crop Prod 48:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yang K, Zhu LZ, Xing BS (2006) Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by carbon nanomaterials. Environ Sci Technol 40:1855–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yao Y, Zhang J, Wu G, Wang S, Hu Y, Su C, Xu T (2017) Iron encapsulated in 3D N-doped carbon nanotube/porous carbon hybrid from waste biomass for enhanced oxidative activity. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:7679–7692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yu CY, Huang LY, Kuan IC, Lee SL (2013) Optimized production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles. Int J Mol Sci 14:24074–24086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yuvakkumar R, Suresh J, Nathanael AJ, Sundrarajan M, Hong SI (2014) Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications. Mater Sci Eng C 41:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang Z, Gonzalez AM, Davies EGR, Liu Y (2012) Agricultural wastes. Water Environ Res 84:1386–1406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang M, Gao B, Varnoosfaderani S, Hebard A, Yao Y, Inyang M (2013) Preparation and characterization of a novel magnetic biochar for arsenic removal. Bioresour Technol 130:457–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhou Y, Yang D, Zeng Y, Zhou Y, Ng WJ, Yan Q, Fong E (2014) Recycling bacteria for the synthesis of LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn) nanostructures for high-power lithium batteries. Small 10:3997–4002CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mugdha Rao
    • 1
  • Anal K. Jha
    • 1
  • Kamal Prasad
    • 2
  1. 1.Aryabhatta Centre for Nanoscience and NanotechnologyAryabhatta Knowledge UniversityPatnaIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsTilka Manjhi Bhagalpur UniversityBhagalpurIndia

Personalised recommendations