Advertisement

Secondary Metabolites in Plants: General Introduction

  • Angelika BöttgerEmail author
  • Ute Vothknecht
  • Cordelia Bolle
  • Alexander Wolf
Chapter
Part of the Learning Materials in Biosciences book series (LMB)

Abstract

Plants usually contain many different secondary metabolites, but some species contain very specific subsets of secondary metabolites. The amount of the compounds and the kind of compounds vary between different cells, tissues and developmental stages and can be influenced by external stressors. This means that the enzymatic pathways have to be tightly controlled. To synthetize secondary metabolites, plants use products from the primary metabolism as building blocks. The metabolites are further fused and modified by different processes to lead to the variations observed in nature.

References

  1. Anarat-Cappillino G, Sattely ES (2014) The chemical logic of plant natural product biosynthesis. Curr Opin Plant Biol 19:51–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2014.03.007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnaba C, Gentry K, Sumangala N, Ramamoorthy A (2017) The catalytic function of cytochrome P450 is entwined with its membrane-bound nature. F1000Res 6:662.  https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.11015.1CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bassard JE, Moller BL, Laursen T (2017) Assembly of dynamic P450-mediated metabolons-order versus chaos. Curr Mol Biol Rep 3:37–51.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40610-017-0053-yCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Boke H, Ozhuner E, Turktas M, Parmaksiz I, Ozcan S, Unver T (2015) Regulation of the alkaloid biosynthesis by miRNA in opium poppy. Plant Biotechnol J 13:409–420.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Boughton AJ, Hoover K, Felton GW (2005) Methyl jasmonate application induces increased densities of glandular trichomes on tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum. J Chem Ecol 31:2211–2216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-005-6228-7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chezem WR, Clay NK (2016) Regulation of plant secondary metabolism and associated specialized cell development by MYBs and bHLHs. Phytochemistry 131:26–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.08.006CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Dewey RE, Xie J (2013) Molecular genetics of alkaloid biosynthesis in Nicotiana tabacum. Phytochemistry 94:10–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.06.002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dewick PM (2002) The biosynthesis of C5–C25 terpenoid compounds. Nat Prod Rep 19:181–222.  https://doi.org/10.1039/b002685iCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Doblas VG et al (2013) The SUD1 gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a positive regulator of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase activity in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 25:728–743.  https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.112.108696CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Fenske MP, Imaizumi T (2016) Circadian rhythms in floral scent emission. Front Plant Sci 7:462.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00462CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Gimenez-Ibanez S, Boter M, Solano R (2015) Novel players fine-tune plant trade-offs. Essays Biochem 58:83–100.  https://doi.org/10.1042/bse0580083CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Goodspeed D, Chehab EW, Min-Venditti A, Braam J, Covington MF (2012) Arabidopsis synchronizes jasmonate-mediated defense with insect circadian behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4674–4677.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1116368109CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Groves JT (2015) Cytochrome P450 enzymes: understanding the biochemical hieroglyphs [version 1; referees: 3 approved]. F1000Research, (F1000 Faculty Rev):178 (doi: 1012688/f1000research63141) 4 (F1000 Faculty Rev) (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.6314.1)
  14. Havko NE, Major IT, Jewell JB, Attaran E, Browse J, Howe GA (2016) Control of carbon assimilation and partitioning by jasmonate: an accounting of growth-defense tradeoffs. Plants (Basel) 5.  https://doi.org/10.3390/plants5010007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hudgins JW, Franceschi VR (2004) Methyl jasmonate-induced ethylene production is responsible for conifer phloem defense responses and reprogramming of stem cambial zone for traumatic resin duct formation. Plant Physiol 135:2134–2149.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.103.037929CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Huot B, Yao J, Montgomery BL, He SY (2014) Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness. Mol Plant 7:1267–1287.  https://doi.org/10.1093/mp/ssu049CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Jaakola L (2013) New insights into the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruits. Trends Plant Sci 18:477–483.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2013.06.003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kant MR et al (2015) Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities. Ann Bot 115:1015–1051.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcv054CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim SG, Yon F, Gaquerel E, Gulati J, Baldwin IT (2011) Tissue specific diurnal rhythms of metabolites and their regulation during herbivore attack in a native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata. PLoS One 6:e26214.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026214CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Leivar P et al (2011) Multilevel control of Arabidopsis 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by protein phosphatase 2A. Plant Cell 23:1494–1511.  https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.110.074278CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu JD, Goodspeed D, Sheng Z, Li B, Yang Y, Kliebenstein DJ, Braam J (2015) Keeping the rhythm: light/dark cycles during postharvest storage preserve the tissue integrity and nutritional content of leafy plants. BMC Plant Biol 15:92.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-015-0474-9CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Memelink J (2009) Regulation of gene expression by jasmonate hormones. Phytochemistry 70:1560–1570.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.09.004CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mizutani M, Ohta D (2010) Diversification of P450 genes during land plant evolution. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:291–315.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-arplant-042809-112305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Nelson D, Werck-Reichhart D (2011) A P450-centric view of plant evolution. Plant J 66:194–211.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04529.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Papon N, Bremer J, Vansiri A, Andreu F, Rideau M, Creche J (2005) Cytokinin and ethylene control indole alkaloid production at the level of the MEP/terpenoid pathway in Catharanthus roseus suspension cells. Planta Med 71:572–574.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-864163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Patra B, Schluttenhofer C, Wu Y, Pattanaik S, Yuan L (2013) Transcriptional regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1829:1236–1247.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2013.09.006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Qi T et al (2011) The Jasmonate-ZIM-domain proteins interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes to regulate Jasmonate-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 23:1795–1814.  https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.111.083261CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Rietjens IM, Martena MJ, Boersma MG, Spiegelenberg W, Alink GM (2005) Molecular mechanisms of toxicity of important food-borne phytotoxins. Mol Nutr Food Res 49:131–158.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200400078CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Rodriguez A, Alquezar B, Pena L (2013) Fruit aromas in mature fleshy fruits as signals of readiness for predation and seed dispersal. New Phytol 197:36–48.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04382.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Traw MB, Bergelson J (2003) Interactive effects of jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 133:1367–1375.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.103.027086CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Yamada Y, Sato F (2013) Transcription factors in alkaloid biosynthesis. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 305:339–382.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407695-2.00008-1CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhang X, Liu CJ (2015) Multifaceted regulations of gateway enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Mol Plant 8:17–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2014.11.001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang XN, Liu J, Liu Y, Wang Y, Abozeid A, Yu ZG, Tang ZH (2018) Metabolomics analysis reveals that ethylene and methyl Jasmonate regulate different branch pathways to promote the accumulation of terpenoid indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus. J Nat Prod 81:335–342.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00782CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhou M, Memelink J (2016) Jasmonate-responsive transcription factors regulating plant secondary metabolism. Biotechnol Adv 34:441–449.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2016.02.004CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelika Böttger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ute Vothknecht
    • 2
  • Cordelia Bolle
    • 3
  • Alexander Wolf
    • 4
  1. 1.Department Biology IILMU MunichPlanegg-MartinsriedGermany
  2. 2.IZMB-Plant Cell BiologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  3. 3.Department Biology ILMU MunichPlanegg-MartinsriedGermany
  4. 4.Inst. Molecular Toxicology/PharmacologyHelmholtz Zentrum MünichNeuherbergGermany

Personalised recommendations