Plant-Derived Drugs Affecting GPRCs

  • Angelika BöttgerEmail author
  • Ute Vothknecht
  • Cordelia Bolle
  • Alexander Wolf
Part of the Learning Materials in Biosciences book series (LMB)


The presence of GPRCs in plants is still a question of debate. While G-protein coupled signalling exists, the signalling cycle is typically not activated by seven transmembrane-spanning receptors. By contrast, many plant secondary metabolites are known to affect human GPRCs. Some are very specific for a single type of receptor; however, many others act on more than one type, albeit with often strongly different affinities.


  1. Aguilar F, Crebelli R, Dusemund B, Galtier P, Gott D, Gundert-Remy U, Koenig J, Lambré C, Leblanc J-C, Mosesso P, Mortensen A, Oskarsson A, Parent-Massin D, Rose M, Stankovic I, Tobback P, Waalkens-Berendsen I, Woutersen R, Beckman-Sund U, Wiesner J (2013) Scientific opinion on the evaluation of the safety in use of Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille) EFSA panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food (ANS). EFSA J 11.
  2. Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Soydaner U, Ozturk E, Schibano D, Simsir Y, Navarro P, Etxebarria N, Usobiaga A (2016) Evolution of the cannabinoid and terpene content during the growth of Cannabis sativa plants from different Chemotypes. J Nat Prod 79(2):324–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andraws R, Chawla P, Brown DL (2005) Cardiovascular effects of ephedra alkaloids: a comprehensive review. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 47(4):217–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Appel JB, Callahan PM (1989) Involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimulus properties of mescaline. Eur J Pharmacol 159(1):41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Appendino G, Gibbons S, Giana A, Pagani A, Grassi G, Stavri M, Smith E, Rahman M (2008) Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study. J Nat Prod 71(8):1427–1430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bai G, Yang Y, Shi Q, Liu Z, Zhang Q, Zhu YY (2008) Identification of higenamine in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata as a beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist. Acta Pharmacol Sin 29(10):1187–1194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bajgar J (2004) Organophosphates/nerve agent poisoning: mechanism of action, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment. Adv Clin Chem 38(38):151–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumann TW (2006) Some thoughts on the physiology of caffeine in coffee: and a glimpse of metabolite profiling. Braz J Plant Physiol 18:243–251Google Scholar
  9. Bruhn JG, De Smet PA, El-Seedi HR, Beck O (2002) Mescaline use for 5700 years. Lancet 359(9320):1866. Scholar
  10. Bustos AP, Pohlan HAJ, Schulz M (2008) Interaction between coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and intercropped herbs under field conditions in the Sierra Norte of Puebla, Mexico. J Agric Rural Dev Trop Subtrop 109(1):85–93Google Scholar
  11. Cascio MG, Gauson LA, Stevenson LA, Ross RA, Pertwee RG (2010) Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT(1A) receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 159(1):129–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen JH, Bayne CJ (1995) Hemocyte adhesion in the California mussel (Mytilus californianus): regulation by adenosine. Biochim Biophys Acta 1268(2):178–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Crosby DM, McLaughlin JL (1973) Cactus alkaloids. XIX. Crystallization of mescaline HCl and 3-methoxytyramine HCl from Trichocereus pachanoi. Lloydia 36(4):416–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Czarnoleski M, Pawel O, Budzyńska P, Lembicz M, Kozlowski J (2010) Fungal endophytes protect grass seedlings against herbivory and allow economical seed production. Evol Ecol Res 12:769–777Google Scholar
  15. Denoeud F, Carretero-Paulet L, Dereeper A, Droc G, Guyot R, Pietrella M, Zheng CF, Alberti A, Anthony F, Aprea G, Aury JM, Bento P, Bernard M, Bocs S, Campa C, Cenci A, Combes MC, Crouzillat D, Da Silva C, Daddiego L, De Bellis F, Dussert S, Garsmeur O, Gayraud T, Guignon V, Jahn K, Jamilloux V, Joet T, Labadie K, Lan TY, Leclercq J, Lepelley M, Leroy T, Li LT, Librado P, Lopez L, Munoz A, Noel B, Pallavicini A, Perrotta G, Poncet V, Pot D, Priyono RM, Rouard M, Rozas J, Tranchant-Dubreuil C, VanBuren R, Zhang Q, Andrade AC, Argout X, Bertrand B, de Kochko A, Graziosi G, Henry RJ, Jayarama MR, Nagai C, Rounsley S, Sankoff D, Giuliano G, Albert VA, Wincker P, Lashermes P (2014) The coffee genome provides insight into the convergent evolution of caffeine biosynthesis. Science 345(6201):1181–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Di Marzo V, Sepe N, De Petrocellis L, Berger A, Crozier G, Fride E, Mechoulam R (1998) Trick or treat from food endocannabinoids? Nature 396(6712):636–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Di Tomaso E, Beltramo M, Piomelli D (1996) Brain cannabinoids in chocolate. Nature 382(6593):677–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. El-Seedi HR, De Smet PA, Beck O, Possnert G, Bruhn JG (2005) Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas. J Ethnopharmacol 101(1–3):238–242. Scholar
  19. Fleming MPR, Clarke RC (1998) Physical evidence for the antiquity of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). J Int Hemp Assoc 5(2):80–92Google Scholar
  20. Fraser PJ (1957) Pharmacological actions of pure Muscarine chloride. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 12(1):47–52PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Fredholm BB, Battig K, Holmen J, Nehlig A, Zvartau EE (1999) Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacol Rev 51(1):83–133PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Friedman J, Waller GR (1983) Caffeine hazards and their prevention in germinating seeds of coffee (Coffea arabica L.). J Chem Ecol 9(8):1099–1106. Scholar
  23. Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R (1964) Isolation, structure, and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish. J Am Chem Soc 86(8):1646–1647. Scholar
  24. Gertsch J, Raduner S, Altmann K-H (2006) New natural noncannabinoid ligands for cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 26(5–6):709–730. Scholar
  25. Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S, Racz I, Chen JZ, Xie XQ, Altmann KH, Karsak M, Zimmer A (2008) Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(26):9099–9104PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Gertsch J, Pertwee RG, Di Marzo V (2010) Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist? Br J Pharmacol 160(3):523–529PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Glick D, Glaubach S (1941) The occurrence and distribution of atropinesterase, and the specificity of tropinesterases. J Gen Physiol 25(2):197–205PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Haller CA, Benowitz NL (2000) Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med 343(25):1833–1838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hasrat JA, DeBruyne T, DeBacker JP, Vauquelin G, Vlietinck AJ (1997) Cirsimarin and cirsimaritin, flavonoids of Microtea debilis (phytolaccaceae) with adenosine antagonistic properties in rats: leads for new therapeutics in acute renal failure. J Pharm Pharmacol 49(11):1150–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hazslinsky B (1956) Toxische Wirkung eines Honigs der Tollkirsche (Atropa belladonna L.). Z. Bienenforschung 3:93–96Google Scholar
  31. Hofmann A (1980) LSD—my problem child. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Hofmann A, Heim R, Brack A, Kobel H, Frey A, Ott H, Petrzilka T, Troxler F (1959) Psilocybin und Psilocin, zwei psychotrope Wirkstoffe aus mexikanischen Rauschpilzen. Helv Chim Acta 42(5):1557–1572. Scholar
  33. Holzman MD, Robert S (1998) The Legacy of atropos, the fate who cut the thread of life anesthesiology. Anesthesiology 89(1):241–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Huang RQ, O’Donnell AJ, Barboline JJ, Barkman TJ (2016) Convergent evolution of caffeine in plants by co-option of exapted ancestral enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113(38):10613–10618PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Islam MN, Khalil MI, Islam MA, Gan SH (2014) Toxic compounds in honey. J Appl Toxicol 34(7):733–742. Scholar
  36. Jacobson KA, Moro S, Manthey JA, West PL, Ji XD (2002) Interactions of flavones and other phytochemicals with adenosine receptors. Adv Exp Med Biol 505:163–171PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Jenkinson D (1986) Goodman and Gilman the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 7th- Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F. Nature 319 (6056):802–803Google Scholar
  38. Kobayashi S, Endou M, Sakuraya F, Matsuda N, Zhang XH, Azuma M, Echigo N, Kemmotsu O, Hattori Y, Gando S (2003) The sympathomimetic actions of l-ephedrine and d-pseudoephedrine: direct receptor activation or norepinephrine release? Anesth Analg 97(5):1239–1245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kollner TG, Held M, Lenk C, Hiltpold I, Turlings TCJ, Gershenzon J, Degenhardt J (2008) A maize (E)-beta-caryophyllene synthase implicated in indirect defense responses against herbivores is not expressed in most American maize varieties. Plant Cell 20(2):482–494PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Kong H, Jones PP, Koop A, Zhang L, Duff HJ, Chen SRW (2008) Caffeine induces Ca2+ release by reducing the threshold for luminal Ca2+ activation of the ryanodine receptor. Biochem J 414:441–452PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Korte G, Dreiseitel A, Schreier P, Oehme A, Locher S, Geiger S, Heilmann J, Sand PG (2010) Tea catechins’ affinity for human cannabinoid receptors. Phytomedicine 17(1):19–22. Scholar
  42. Kuganathan N, Ganeshalingam S (2011) Chemical analysis of Datura Metel leaves and investigation of the acute toxicity on grasshoppers and red ants. J Chem 8(1):107–112. Scholar
  43. Kutchan TM, Ayabe S, Coscia CJ (1985) Cytodifferentiation and papaver alkaloid accumulation. In: The chemistry and biology of Isoquinoline alkaloids. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 281–294Google Scholar
  44. Ladenburg A (1881) Die natürlich vorkommenden mydriatisch wirkenden Alkaloïde. Justus Liebigs Ann Chem 206(3):274–307. Scholar
  45. Leonti M, Casu L, Raduner S, Cottiglia F, Floris C, Altmann KH, Gertsch J (2010) Falcarinol is a covalent cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist and induces pro-allergic effects in skin. Biochem Pharmacol 79(12):1815–1826PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Li H-L (1973) An archaeological and historical account of cannabis in China. Econ Bot 28(4):437–448. Scholar
  47. Liu YJ, Peng W, Hu MB, Xu M, Wu CJ (2016) The pharmacology, toxicology and potential applications of arecoline: a review. Pharm Biol 54(11):2753–2760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lonitzer A (1593) Kreuterbuch, Kunstliche Conterfeytunge der Bäume, Stauden, Hecken, Kreuter, Getreyde, Gewürtze. Egenolff, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  49. Lurie Y, Wasser SP, Taha M, Shehade H, Nijim J, Hoffmann Y, Basis F, Vardi M, Lavon O, Suaed S, Bisharat B, Bentur Y (2009) Mushroom poisoning from species of genus Inocybe (fiber head mushroom): a case series with exact species identification. Clin Toxicol 47(6):562–565Google Scholar
  50. Lydon J, Teramura AH, Coffman CB (1987) Uv-B radiation effects on photosynthesis, growth and cannabinoid production of 2 Cannabis-sativa chemotypes. Photochem Photobiol 46(2):201–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ma LJ, Gu RH, Tang L, Chen ZE, Di R, Long CL (2015) Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine. Toxins (Basel) 7(1):138–155. Scholar
  52. Malone M, Robichaud R, Tyler V Jr, Brady L (1962) Relative muscarinic content of thirty Inocybe species. Lloydia 25:231–237Google Scholar
  53. Maurelli S, Bisogno T, DePetrocellis L, DiLuccia A, Marino G, DiMarzo V (1995) Two novel classes of neuroactive fatty acid amides are substrates for mouse neuroblastoma ‘anandamide amidohydrolase’. FEBS Lett 377(1):82–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mein HFG (1831) Ueber die Darstellung des Atropins in weissen Kristallen. Annalen der Pharmacie 6(1):67–72Google Scholar
  55. Millgate AG, Pogson BJ, Wilson IW, Kutchan TM, Zenk MH, Gerlach WL, Fist AJ, Larkin PJ (2004) Analgesia: morphine-pathway block in top1 poppies. Nature 431(7007):413–414. Scholar
  56. Mishra MK, Slater A (2012) Recent advances in the genetic transformation of coffee. Biotechnol Res Int 2012:580857. Scholar
  57. Morimoto S, Suemori K, Moriwaki J, Taura F, Tanaka H, Aso M, Tanaka M, Suemune H, Shimohigashi Y, Shoyama Y (2001) Morphine metabolism in the opium poppy and its possible physiological function. Biochemical characterization of the morphine metabolite, bismorphine. J Biol Chem 276(41):38179–38184. Scholar
  58. Murray J (2001) The world of caffeine: the science and culture of the world’s most popular drug, vol 19. Routledge, London. Scholar
  59. Nathanson JA (1984) Caffeine and related methylxanthines - possible naturally-occurring pesticides. Science 226(4671):184–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Nathanson JA, Hunnicutt EJ, Kantham L, Scavone C (1993) Cocaine as a naturally-occurring insecticide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(20):9645–9648PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Nishihara E, Parvez MM, Araya H, Fujii Y (2004) Germination growth response of different plant species to the allelochemical L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). Plant Growth Regul 42(2):181–189Google Scholar
  62. Noever R, Cronise J, Relwani RA (1995) Using spider-web patterns to determine toxicity. NASA Tech Briefs 19(4):82Google Scholar
  63. Ogita S, Uefuji H, Yamaguchi Y, Koizumi N, Sano H (2003) RNA interference - producing decaffeinated coffee plants. Nature 423(6942):823–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Onoyovwe A, Hagel JM, Chen X, Khan MF, Schriemer DC, Facchini PJ (2013) Morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy involves two cell types: sieve elements and laticifers. Plant Cell 25(10):4110–4122. Scholar
  65. Ortega A, Blount JF, Manchand PS (1982) Salvinorin, a new trans-neoclerodane diterpene from Salvia divinorum(Labiatae). J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1:2505–2508. Scholar
  66. Pare PW, Dmitrieva N, Mabry TJ (1991) Phytoalexin aurone induced in Cephalocereus-senilis liquid suspension-culture. Phytochemistry 30(4):1133–1135Google Scholar
  67. Pate DW (1983) Possible role of ultraviolet-radiation in evolution of Cannabis chemotypes. Econ Bot 37(4):396–405Google Scholar
  68. Plowman T, Weil AT (1979) Coca pests and pesticides. J Ethnopharmacol 1(3):263–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Poisson MJ (1960) Presence de mescaline dans une Cactacee peruvienne. Ann Pharm Fr 18:764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Pringle H (1997) Archaeology - ice age communities may be earliest known net hunters. Science 277(5330):1203–1204Google Scholar
  71. Radwan MM, ElSohly MA, Slade D, Ahmed SA, Khan IA, Ross SA (2009) Biologically active cannabinoids from high-potency Cannabis sativa. J Nat Prod 72(5):906–911. Scholar
  72. Rasmann S, Kollner TG, Degenhardt J, Hiltpold I, Toepfer S, Kuhlmann U, Gershenzon J, Turlings TCJ (2005) Recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots. Nature 434(7034):732–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rehr SS, Janzen DH, Feeny PP (1973) L-dopa in legume seeds: a chemical barrier to insect attack. Science 181(4094):81–82. Scholar
  74. Reith MEA, Li MY, Yan QS (1997) Extracellular dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats during intracerebral dialysis following systemic administration of cocaine and other uptake blockers. Psychopharmacology 134(3):309–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Ritchie JM (1975) Central nervous system stimulants. II The xanthines. In: Goodman LS, Gilman A (eds) Pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 5th edn. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Ritz MC, Lamb RJ, Goldberg SR, Kuhar MJ (1987) Cocaine receptors on dopamine transporters are related to self-administration of cocaine. Science 237(4819):1219–1223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rivenes SM, Bakerman PR, Miller MB (1997) Intentional caffeine poisoning in an infant. Pediatrics 99(5):736–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rivier L (1981) Analysis of alkaloids in leaves of cultivated Erythroxylum and characterization of alkaline substances used during coca chewing. J Ethnopharmacol 3(2):313–335. Scholar
  79. Roth BL, Baner K, Westkaemper R, Siebert D, Rice KC, Steinberg S, Ernsberger P, Rothman RB (2002) Salvinorin A: a potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous kappa opioid selective agonist. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(18):11934–11939. Scholar
  80. Runge FF (1866) Hauswirtschaftliche Briefe. Reprinted In: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe with FW. von Biedermann (ed) Goethes Gespräche, vol. 10. Nachträge, 1755–1832. Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  81. Sathiyanarayanan L, Arulmozhi S (2007) Mucuna pruriens Linn. – a comprehensive review. Pharmacogn Rev 1(1):157–162Google Scholar
  82. Sawin PB, Glick D (1943) Atropinesterase, a genetically determined enzyme in the rabbit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 29(2):55–59PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Schardl CL, Panaccione DG, Tudzynski P (2006) Chap. 2: Ergot alkaloids – biology and molecular biology. In: Cordell GA (ed) The alkaloids: chemistry and biology, vol 63. Academic Press, London, pp 45–86. Scholar
  84. Schmiedeberg O, Koppe R (1869) Das Muscarin, das giftige Alkaloid des Fliegenpilzes (Agaricus muscarius L.), seine Darstellung, chemischen Eigenschaften, physiologischen Wirkungen, toxicologische Bedeutung und sein Verhältniss zur Pilzvergiftung im allgemeinen. Verlag von F.C.W. Vogel, Leipzig:Google Scholar
  85. Schuldiner S, Liu Y, Edwards RH (1993) Reserpine binding to a vesicular amine transporter expressed in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 268(1):29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sertürner FW (1805) Darstellung der reinen Mohnsäure (Opiumsäure) nebst einer chemischen Untersuchung des Opiums mit vorzüglicher Hinsicht auf einen darin neu entdeckten Stoff und die dahin gehörigen Bemerkungen. Trommsdorffs Journal der Pharmacie 14:47Google Scholar
  87. Shekelle PG, Hardy ML, Morton SC, Maglione M, Mojica WA, Suttorp MJ, Rhodes SL, Jungvig L, Gagne J (2003) Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance - a meta-analysis. JAMA 289(12):1537–1545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Soares AR, Siqueira-Soares RD, Salvador VH, Ferrarese MDL, Ferrarese O (2012) The effects of L-DOPA on root growth, lignification and enzyme activity in soybean seedlings. Acta Physiol Plant 34(5):1811–1817Google Scholar
  89. Steiner U, Ahimsa-Muller MA, Markert A, Kucht S, Gross J, Kauf N, Kuzma M, Zych M, Lamshoft M, Furmanowa M, Knoop V, Drewke C, Leistner E (2006) Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae). Planta 224(3):533–544. Scholar
  90. Thomas BF, Adams IB, Mascarella SW, Martin BR, Razdan RK (1996) Structure-activity analysis of anandamide analogs: relationship to a cannabinoid pharmacophore. J Med Chem 39(2):471–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ukers WH (1922) All about coffee. New York The Tea and Coffee Trade Journal Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Valdés LJ, Hatheld GM, Koreeda M, Paul AG (1987) Studies of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae), an Hallucinogenic mint from the Sierra Mazateca in Oaxaca, Central Mexico. Econ Bot 41(2):283–291. Scholar
  93. Van Alstyne KL, Harvey EL, Cataldo M (2014) Effects of dopamine, a compound released by the green-tide macroalga Ulvaria obscura (Chlorophyta), on marine algae and invertebrate larvae and juveniles. Phycologia 53(2):195–202Google Scholar
  94. Vincent PG, Bare CE, Gentner WA (1977) Thebaine content of selections of Papaver bracteatum Lindl. at different ages. J Pharm Sci 66(12):1716–1719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Weid M, Ziegler J, Kutchan TM (2004) The roles of latex and the vascular bundle in morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(38):13957–13962. Scholar
  96. Weinberg BA, Bealer BK (2001) The world of caffeine: the science and culture of the world’s most popular drug. Psychology Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. Wright GA, Baker DD, Palmer MJ, Stabler D, Mustard JA, Power EF, Borland AM, Stevenson PC (2013) Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a Pollinator’s memory of reward. Science 339(6124):1202–1204PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Yi Z, Wang X-X, Zhang Z-F, Chen N, Zhu J-Y, Tian H-G, Fan Y-L, Liu T-X Pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum sequesters plant-derived secondary metabolite L-DOPA for wound healing and UVA resistance. Sci Rep 6.
  99. Zhang N, Lian Z, Peng X, Li Z, Zhu H (2017) Applications of higenamine in pharmacology and medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 196:242–252. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelika Böttger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ute Vothknecht
    • 2
  • Cordelia Bolle
    • 3
  • Alexander Wolf
    • 4
  1. 1.Department Biology IILMU MunichPlanegg-MartinsriedGermany
  2. 2.IZMB-Plant Cell BiologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  3. 3.Department Biology ILMU MunichPlanegg-MartinsriedGermany
  4. 4.Inst. Molecular Toxicology/PharmacologyHelmholtz Zentrum MünichNeuherbergGermany

Personalised recommendations