• Angelika BöttgerEmail author
  • Ute Vothknecht
  • Cordelia Bolle
  • Alexander Wolf
Part of the Learning Materials in Biosciences book series (LMB)


Aromatic amino acids are produced via the shikimate pathway in the plastids, which are the precursors of phenylpropanoids. Phenylpropanoids contribute to the taste of many plant-derived food, but their interaction with the human body is in many cases not well documented. Many of these compounds act as precursors for alkaloids.


  1. Austin MB, Noel JP (2003) The chalcone synthase superfamily of type III polyketide synthases. Nat Prod Rep 20:79–110. Scholar
  2. Baldwin IT (2010) Plant volatiles. Curr Biol 20:R392–R397. Scholar
  3. Bourgaud F, Hehn A, Larbat R, Doerper S, Gontier E, Kellner S, Matern U (2006) Biosynthesis of coumarins in plants: a major pathway still to be unravelled for cytochrome P450 enzymes. Phytochem Rev 5:293–308. Scholar
  4. Brunetti C, Guidi L, Sebastiani F, Tattini M (2015) Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids are key components of the antioxidant defense system of plants facing severe excess light stress. Environ Exp Bot 119:54–62. Scholar
  5. Carvalho AA, Andrade LN, de Sousa EB, de Sousa DP (2015) Antitumor phenylpropanoids found in essential oils. Biomed Res Int 2015:392674. Scholar
  6. Cheynier V, Comte G, Davies KM, Lattanzio V, Martens S (2013) Plant phenolics: recent advances on their biosynthesis, genetics, and ecophysiology. Plant Physiol Biochem 72:1–20. Scholar
  7. Colquhoun TA, Clark DG (2011) Unraveling the regulation of floral fragrance biosynthesis. Plant Signal Behav 6:378–381. Scholar
  8. de Cassia da Silveira ESR, Andrade LN, Dos Reis Barreto de Oliveira R, de Sousa DP (2014) A review on anti-inflammatory activity of phenylpropanoids found in essential oils. Molecules 19:1459–1480.
  9. Dima O, Morreel K, Vanholme B, Kim H, Ralph J, Boerjan W (2015) Small glycosylated lignin oligomers are stored in Arabidopsis leaf vacuoles. Plant Cell 27:695–710. Scholar
  10. Falcone Ferreyra ML, Rius SP, Casati P (2012) Flavonoids: biosynthesis, biological functions, and biotechnological applications. Front Plant Sci 3:222. Scholar
  11. Fraser CM, Chapple C (2011) The phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis Book 9:e0152. Scholar
  12. Gang DR, Wang J, Dudareva N, Nam KH, Simon JE, Lewinsohn E, Pichersky E (2001) An investigation of the storage and biosynthesis of phenylpropenes in sweet basil. Plant Physiol 125:539–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gasparro FP (1996) Psoralen photobiology: recent advances. Photochem Photobiol 63:553–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Girennavar B, Jayaprakasha GK, Patil BS (2007) Potent inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9 isoenzymes by grapefruit juice and its furocoumarins. J Food Sci 72:C417–C421. Scholar
  15. Grotewold E (2006) The genetics and biochemistry of floral pigments. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:761–780. Scholar
  16. Jiang N, Doseff AI, Grotewold E (2016) Flavones: from biosynthesis to health benefits. Plants (Basel) 5. Scholar
  17. Kennedy DO (2014) Polyphenols and the human brain: plant “secondary metabolite” ecologic roles and endogenous signaling functions drive benefits. Adv Nutr 5:515–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kennedy DO (2015) Review: power foods for the brain. Cerebrum 2015:5PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Le Roy J, Huss B, Creach A, Hawkins S, Neutelings G (2016) Glycosylation is a major regulator of phenylpropanoid availability and biological activity in plants. Front Plant Sci 7:735. Scholar
  20. Maffei ME, Gertsch J, Appendino G (2011) Plant volatiles: production, function and pharmacology. Nat Prod Rep 28:1359–1380. Scholar
  21. Muhlemann JK, Klempien A, Dudareva N (2014) Floral volatiles: from biosynthesis to function. Plant Cell Environ 37:1936–1949. Scholar
  22. Petroni K, Tonelli C (2011) Recent advances on the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in reproductive organs. Plant Sci 181:219–229. Scholar
  23. Quideau S, Deffieux D, Douat-Casassus C, Pouysegu L (2011) Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 50:586–621. Scholar
  24. Ren GY, Chen CY, Chen WG, Huang Y, Qin LQ, Chen LH (2016) The treatment effects of flaxseed-derived secoisolariciresinol diglycoside and its metabolite enterolactone on benign prostatic hyperplasia involve the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41:1303–1310. Scholar
  25. Schonbrunn E, Eschenburg S, Shuttleworth WA, Schloss JV, Amrhein N, Evans JN, Kabsch W (2001) Interaction of the herbicide glyphosate with its target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase in atomic detail. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:1376–1380. Scholar
  26. Schwab W, Davidovich-Rikanati R, Lewinsohn E (2008) Biosynthesis of plant-derived flavor compounds. Plant J 54:712–732. Scholar
  27. Tanaka Y, Brugliera F, Chandler S (2009) Recent progress of flower colour modification by biotechnology. Int J Mol Sci 10:5350–5369. Scholar
  28. Tohge T, Watanabe M, Hoefgen R, Fernie AR (2013) Shikimate and phenylalanine biosynthesis in the green lineage. Front Plant Sci 4:62. Scholar
  29. Tzin V, Galili G (2010) New insights into the shikimate and aromatic amino acids biosynthesis pathways in plants. Mol Plant 3:956–972. Scholar
  30. Tzin V, Malitsky S, Ben Zvi MM, Bedair M, Sumner L, Aharoni A, Galili G (2012) Expression of a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway in Arabidopsis elucidates potential metabolic bottlenecks between primary and secondary metabolism. New Phytol 194:430–439. Scholar
  31. Zhang X, Liu CJ (2015) Multifaceted regulations of gateway enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Mol Plant 8:17–27. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelika Böttger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ute Vothknecht
    • 2
  • Cordelia Bolle
    • 3
  • Alexander Wolf
    • 4
  1. 1.Department Biology IILMU MunichPlanegg-MartinsriedGermany
  2. 2.IZMB-Plant Cell BiologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  3. 3.Department Biology ILMU MunichPlanegg-MartinsriedGermany
  4. 4.Inst. Molecular Toxicology/PharmacologyHelmholtz Zentrum MünichNeuherbergGermany

Personalised recommendations