Advertisement

Computed Tomography (CT)

  • Ingrid Różyło-Kalinowska
Chapter

Abstract

Computed tomography (CT) is based on attenuation of X-ray beam passing through an examined object. Linear X-ray attenuation coefficient is calculated separately for each voxel, i.e. cuboid volumetric element which constitutes each scanned layer, and the coefficients are transformed into the Hounsfield units (HU), which make it possible to estimate densities, and are arranged in the form of a Hounsfield scale. In many cases CT examination is performed in two phases—before and after contrast medium injection resulting in the so-called contrast enhancement of blood vessels and highly vascularized tissues or lesions. Advantages of CT include short scanning time, cross-sectional imaging, high quality of multiplanar reconstructions, high contrast resolution, objective density measurements using HU and assessment of contrast enhancement. Disadvantages of CT include average to high radiation exposure dose, image artefacts and side effects of administered iodine contrast media. There are no absolute contraindications for a CT scan, and relative contraindications are pregnancy as well as side effects of contrast media administration. The use of CT in diagnostics of TMJ lesions comprises congenital malformations, arthropathies, osteoarthritis, condylar fractures, bone and fibrous ankylosis, benign and malignant tumours and evaluation of condyle morphology in relation to sagittal split osteotomy and virtual surgical planning.

Keywords

Computed tomography CT TMJ Hounsfield unit Contrast enhancement 

References

  1. 1.
    Mani FM, Sivasubramanian SS. A study of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis using computed tomographic imaging. Biom J. 2016;39(3):201–6.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Naeem A, Gemal H, Reed D. Imaging in traumatic mandibular fractures. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2017;7(4):469–79.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ranjit Kumar P, Naveen G, Raja Satish P, Srinivas Chakravarthy P, Krishna Prasad L. An unusual anterior dislocation of fractured mandibular condyle leading to pseudo-ankylosis in a 8 yr old child-A distinct case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2016;26:34–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yuang X, Lu C, Dong M, He D, Yang C, Hu Y. Evaluation of the condyle remodelling after lateral arthroplasty in growing children with temporomandibular joint ankyloses. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhao J, He D, Yang C, Hu Y, Huang D, Ellis E 3rd. 3-D computed tomography measurement of mandibular growth after costochondral grafting in growing children with temporomandibular joint ankylosis and jaw deformity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017;124(4):333–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guarda-Nardini L, Stellini E, Di Fiore A, Manfredini D. A rare case of misdiagnosed silent lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the temporomandibular joint condyle. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2017;31(2):180–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hu Y, Kuang B, Chen Y, Shu J. Imaging features for diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the temporomandibular joint: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(26):e7383.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000007383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu X, Huang Z, Zhu W, Liang P, Tao Q. Clinical and imaging findings of temporomandibular joint synovial chondromatosis: an analysis of 10 cases and literature review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;74(11):2159–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Iguchi R, Yoshizawa K, Moroi A, Tsutsui T, Hotta A, Hiraide R, Takayama A, Tsunoda T, Saito Y, Sato M, Baba N, Ueki K. Comparison of temporomandibular joint and ramus morphology between class II and class III cases before and after bi-maxillary osteotomy. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2017;45(12):2002–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lu C, He D, Yang C, Huang D, Ellis E 3rd. Computer-assisted surgical planning and simulation for unilateral condylar benign lesions causing facial asymmetry. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017;123(4):453–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tarsitano A, Battaglia S, Ramieri V, Cascone P, Ciocca L, Scotti R, Marchetti C. Short-term outcomes of mandibular reconstruction in oncological patients using a CAD-CAM prosthesis including a condyle supporting a fibular free flap. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2017;45(2):330–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akashi M, Hasegawa T, Takahashi S, Komori T. Four-dimensional computed tomography evaluation of condylar movement in a patient with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;76(2):304–13. pii: S0278-2391(17)31282-X.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2017.10.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent Unit of Propaedeutics of Dentomaxillofacial RadiologyMedical University of LublinLublinPoland

Personalised recommendations