Conventional Radiographic Findings in TMJ Disorders

  • David MacDonald
  • Keith HornerEmail author


The radiological signs that might be identified on conventional radiographs are mainly shape changes due to remodelling and degenerative disease. The most prevalent TMJ disorders produce few or no changes on conventional radiographs.


Temporomandibular joint Temporomandibular joint disorders Radiography X-rays Radiography, panoramic Diagnosis Mandibular injuries 


  1. 1.
    Perschbacher S. Temporomandibular joint abnormalities. In: White SC, Pharoah MJ, editors. Oral radiology principles and interpretation. 7th ed. St Louis: Elsevier; 2014. p. 492–523.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nikolova SY, Toneva DH, Lazarov NE. Incidence of a bifid mandibular condyle in dry mandibles. J Craniofac Surg. 2017;28:2168–73. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miloglu O, Yilmaz AB, Yildirim E, Akgul HM. Pneumatization of the articular eminence on cone beam computed tomography: prevalence, characteristics and a review of the literature. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2011;40:110–4. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Orhan K, Oz U, Orhan AI, Ulker AE, Delilbasi C, Akcam O. Investigation of pneumatized articular eminence in orthodontic malocclusions. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2010;13:56–60. Scholar
  5. 5.
    de Rezende Barbosa GL, Nascimento Mdo C, Ladeira DB, Bomtorim VV, da Cruz AD, Almeida SM. Accuracy of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of temporal bone pneumatization: a study in vivo using cone-beam-computed tomography. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2014;42:477–81. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gray RJ, Quayle AA, Horner K, Al-Gorashi AJ. The effects of positioning variations in transcranial radiographs of the temporomandibular joint: a laboratory study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991;29:241–9. Erratum in: Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1991;29:424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Knoernschild KL, Aquilino SA, Ruprecht A. Transcranial radiography and linear tomography: a comparative study. J Prosthet Dent. 1991;66:239–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    MacDonald Jankowski DS. Calcification of the stylohyoid complex in Londoners and Hong Kong Chinese. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2001;30:35–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ren YF, Isberg A, Westesson PL. Steepness of the articular eminence in the temporomandibular joint. Tomographic comparison between asymptomatic volunteers with normal disk position and patients with disk displacement. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1995;80:258–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sato S, Kawamura H, Motegi K, Takahashi K. Morphology of the mandibular fossa and the articular eminence in temporomandibular joints with anterior disk displacement. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996;25(3):236–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shahidi S, Vojdani M, Paknahad M. Correlation between articular eminence steepness measured with cone-beam computed tomography and clinical dysfunction index in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013;116:91–7. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Paknahad M, Shahidi S, Akhlaghian M, Abolvardi M. Is mandibular fossa morphology and articular eminence inclination associated with temporomandibular dysfunction? J Dent (Shiraz). 2016 Jun;17(2):134–41.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hintze H, Wiese M, Wenzel A. Comparison of three radiographic methods for detection of morphological temporomandibular joint changes: panoramic, scanographic and tomographic examination. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2009;38:134–40. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Winocur E, Reiter S, Krichmer M, Kaffe I. Classifying degenerative joint disease by the RDC/TMD and by panoramic imaging: a retrospective analysis. J Oral Rehabil. 2010;37:171–7. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rushton VE, Horner K, Worthington HV. The quality of panoramic radiographs in a sample of general dental practices. Br Dent J. 1999;186:630–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kratz R, Nguyen CT, MacDonald DS, Walton JN. Dental students’ interpretations of digital panoramic radiographs on completely edentate patients. J Dent Educ. 2018;82(3):313–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rodrigues DB, Castro V. Condylar hyperplasia of the temporomandibular joint: types, treatment, and surgical implications. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2015;27:155–67. Scholar
  18. 18.
    McLoughlin PM, Hopper C, Bowley NB. Hyperplasia of the mandibular coronoid process: an analysis of 31 cases and a review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1995;53:250–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jaskolka MS, Eppley BL, van Aalst JA. Mandibular coronoid hyperplasia in pediatric patients. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18:849–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Twilt M, Schulten AJ, Nicolaas P, Dülger A, van Suijlekom-Smit LW. Facioskeletal changes in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:823–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abramowicz S, Simon LE, Susarla HK, Lee EY, Cheon JE, Kim S, Kaban LB. Are panoramic radiographs predictive of temporomandibular joint synovitis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:1063–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boeddinghaus R, Whyte A. Trends in maxillofacial imaging. Clin Radiol. 2018;73:4–18. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wood RE, Harris AM, Nortjé CJ, Grotepass FW. The radiologic features of true ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint. An analysis of 25 cases. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 1988;17:121–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang WH, Xu B, Zhang BJ, Lou HQ. Temporomandibular joint ankyloses contributing to coronoid process hyperplasia. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;45:1229–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tamimi D, Jalali E, Hatcher D. Temporomandibular joint imaging. In: Tamimi D, editor. Oral and maxillofacial radiology, Radiologic clinics of North America, vol. 56; 2018. p. 157–75. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saito T, Utsunomiya T, Furutani M, Yamamoto H. Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle: a case report and review of the literature. J Oral Sci. 2001;43:293–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dagenais M, MacDonald D, Baron M, Hudson M, Tatibouet S, Steele R, et al. The Canadian Systemic Sclerosis Oral Health Study IV: oral radiographic manifestations in systemic sclerosis compared with the general population. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015;120:104–11. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lee L, Yan YH, Pharoah MJ. Radiographic features of the mandible in neurofibromatosis: a report of 10 cases and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1996;81:361–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Oral, Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Division of Dentistry, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and HealthThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations