Advertisement

Morphology and Anatomy of the Pearl Oyster, Pinctada margaritifera in the Red Sea: A Case Study from Dungonab Bay, Sudan

  • Dirar Nasr
Chapter
Part of the Springer Oceanography book series (SPRINGEROCEAN)

Abstract

The black-lip-mother of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera has special economic value in Dungonab Bay (Sudan). It has been cultivated in the area for a long time as it has the advantage of having a definite spawning season starting at the end of June and continuing throughout July and August. Morphological and anatomical studies of this oyster are given in this piece of work including description of external feature of the shells and internal organs such as the mantle, the gills, digestive system, circulatory system, nervous system, excretory system and the reproductive organs. Morphological and anatomical differences between P. margaritifera on one hand and both the European oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the American oyster, Crassostrea gigas, are presented. These differences included the presence of a long hinge on one side of the umbo in P. margaritifera an its absence in both O. edulis and C. virginica; both valves in P. margaritifera are moderately convex and neither of them can be easily distinguished, unlike O. edulis, and C. gigas; the mantles have free edges in P. margaritifera and the omission of pedal ganglia in both C. gigas and O. edulis due to the absence of a foot in these two species.

Keywords

Teaching Research Project management 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am most grateful to Dr. P. J. Vine for his continuous encouragement and thanks are due to the Fish Diseases Laboratory at Weymouth, U.K., for allowing a working space in their laboratory. This research work has been sponsored by the National Council for Research, Khartoum, Sudan, to whom I am grateful, for much support and encouragement.

References

  1. Crossland C (1957) The cultivation of the mother-of-pearl oyster in the Red Sea. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 8:11–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fougerouse A, Rousseau M and Lucas S (2008) Soft tissue anatomy, shell structure and biomineralization. In: Sauthgate P, Lucas J (eds) The pearl oyster. Elsevier BV pp 76–102Google Scholar
  3. Galtsoff PS (1964) The American oyster crassostrea virginica Gmelin, vol 64. U.S. Bureau Fisheries Bulletin, pp 1–480Google Scholar
  4. Herdman WA (1904) The pearl oyster fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar. Report to the Government of Ceylon, Part II. The Royal Society, London, pp 37–67Google Scholar
  5. Hynd JS (1954) A revision on the Australian pearl shells, Genus Pinctada (Lamellibranchia). Aust J Mar Freshw Res 6(1):98–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nelson TC (1918) On the origin, nature and function of the crystalline style of lamellibranchs. J Morphol 31:53–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Orton JH (1937) Oyster biology and oyster culture. Buckland lectures for 1935. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. PERSGA/GEF (2004). Survey of the proposed marine protected area at Dungonab Bay and Mukawwar Island, Sudan. Report for PERSGA. PERSGA JeddahGoogle Scholar
  9. Reed W (1964) The pearl shell farm at Dongonab Bay. Sudan Notes Rec 45:158–163Google Scholar
  10. Yonge CM (1926a) The digestive diverticula in the lamellibranchs. Trans Roy Soc Edinburgh 54:703–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Yonge CM (1926b) Structure and physiology of the organs of feeding and digestion in Ostrea edulis. J Marine Biol Assoc U K 14:295–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Yonge CM (I960) Oysters. Willmer Brothers & Harman Ltd. London, 209 pGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Red Sea UniversityPort SudanSudan

Personalised recommendations