Microstructure and Geochemistry of Magmatic Dykes from the Arabian Margin, Red Sea

  • Davide ZanoniEmail author
  • Najeeb M. A. Rasul
  • Antonio Langone
  • Moustafa Khorshid


The Red Sea rifting nucleated within the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield, which formed during the Pan-African orogeny over a time period of about 300 million years. The Red Sea rifting started about at 30 Ma and was assisted by much diffused magmatism that lasted until recent times. The majority of magmatic rocks consist of basalts that constitute volcanic plateaux (harrats), which represent one of the largest Cenozoic volcanic provinces in the world. Volcanic rocks are distributed all along the Arabian plate margin of the Red Sea, from Yemen to Jordan. Some of the oldest magmatic rocks are acidic in composition, especially along the southern part of the Arabian margin. In this chapter microstructure and geochemistry of acidic, intermediate, and basic dykes sampled along the Arabian margin are described. Acidic dykes consist of granitoids and porphyritic rhyolites. Intermediate and basic dykes consist of andesite and basanite/basalt, respectively. Granitoid dykes show equal-granular coarse-grained texture and mostly consist of euhedral crystals. Other than local displays of crystal-plastic deformation in quartz, these dykes have primary magmatic textures. Dykes consisting of rhyolites contain euhedral K-feldspar phenocrysts with frequent perthitic intergrowth of albite. The rock matrix consists of quartz, K-feldspar, and albite. Basanite/basaltic dykes consist of plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole phenocrysts. Plagioclase is also abundant in the groundmass where glass is also preserved. Andesite dykes are characterised by a pervasive alteration that in some instances prevents the identification of original phenocrysts. Where identifiable, phenocrysts consist of plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene. Locally, in the groundmass interstitial quartz shows crystal-plastic deformation. Fluidal magmatic structures are recorded locally in basanitic and basaltic dykes and only weakly in rhyolitic dykes. The fine-grained texture of the rock groundmass and vesicular structures indicate that dyke emplacement is quite shallow (hypabyssal conditions). However, the Al-content in amphibole phenocrysts of basanite/basalt dykes is consistent with phenocryst crystallisation depths of 15–20 km. The first U-Pb tests on granitoids reveal that they contain zircon grains from Cryogenian to Ediacaran (middle to late Neoproterozoic) age. Geochemical results indicate that basanite/basaltic dykes are compatible with a divergent environment such as the Red Sea rifting, whereas andesite dykes are compatible with a convergent setting. The rhyolitic dykes are interpreted as related to the Red Sea rifting as they show geochemical signatures compatible with divergent tectonics and are from a region where rhyolitic dykes were dated around 20 Ma.



This work was funded by the MIUR (Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca)—PRIN (Progetti di Ricerca di Interesse Nazionale) protocol 20125JKANY “Rift-to-Drift Transition in the Red Sea”. A. Schettino and P.P. Pierantoni carried out the fieldwork and sampled the dykes in 2015 with the financial support and logistical assistance of the Saudi Geological Survey. A. Schettino read the first draft of the chapter, A. Sanfilippo advised on whole rock geochemistry, and A. Rizzi assisted the work at the SEM. Four anonymous reviewers greatly helped with valuable advice.


  1. Abdelsalam MG, Stern RJ (1996) Sutures and shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. J African Earth Sci 23:289–310. Scholar
  2. Al-Amri AM, Fnais MS, Abdel-Rahman K, Mogren S, Al-Dabbagh M (2012) Geochronological dating and stratigraphic sequences of Harrat Lunayyir, NW Saudi Arabia. Int J Phys Sci 7:2791–2805. Scholar
  3. Al-Husseini M (2015) Ediacaran-Cambrian Middle East geologic time scale 2015: spatio-temporal position of the Ediacaran Thalbah Basin in the Najd Fault System, Arabian Shield. GeoArabia 20:17–44Google Scholar
  4. Ali KA, Azer MK, Gahlan HA, Wilde SA, Samuel MD, Stern RJ (2010) Age constraints on the formation and emplacement of Neoproterozoic ophiolites along the Allaqi-Heiani Suture, South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Gondwana Res 18:583–595. Scholar
  5. Almalki KA, Betts PG, Ailleres L (2014) Episodic sea-floor spreading in the southern Red Sea. Tectonophysics 617:140–149. Scholar
  6. Al-Saleh AM, Boyle AP (2001) Structural rejuvenation of the eastern Arabian Shield during continental collision: 40Ar/39Ar evidence from the Ar Ridayniyah ophiolitic mélange. J African Earth Sci 33:135–141. Scholar
  7. ArRajehi A, McClusky S, Reilinger R, Daoud M, Alchalbi A, Ergintav S, Gomez F, Sholan J, Bou-Rabee F, Ogubazghi G, Haileab B, Fisseha S, Asfaw L, Mahmoud S, Rayan A, Bendik R, Kogan L (2010) Geodetic constraints on present-day motion of the Arabian Plate: implications for Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting. Tectonics 29:TC3011.
  8. Aubry GJ, Sator N, Guillot B (2013) Vesicularity, bubble formation and noble gas fractionation during MORB degassing. Chem Geol 343:85–98. Scholar
  9. Audin L, Quidelleur X, Coulié E, Courtillot V, Gilder S, Manighetti I, Gillot P-Y, Tapponnier P, Kidane T (2004) Palaeomagnetism and K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages in the Ali Sabieh area (Republic of Djibouti and Ethiopia): constraints on the mechanism of Aden ridge propagation into southeastern Afar during the last 10 Myr. Geophys J Int 158:327–345. Scholar
  10. Baker J, Snee L, Menzies M (1996) A brief Oligocene period of flood volcanism in Yemen: implications for the duration and rate of continental flood volcanism at the Afro-Arabian triple junction. Earth Planet Sci Lett 138:39–55. Scholar
  11. Bakhsh RA (2015) Pliocene-Quaternary basalts from the Harrat Tufail, western Saudi Arabia: recycling of ancient oceanic slabs and generation of alkaline intra-plate magma. J African Earth Sci 112:37–54. Scholar
  12. Bayer H-J, El-Isa Z, Hotzl H, Mechie J, Prodehl C, Saffarini G (1989) Large tectonic and lithospheric structures of the Red Sea region. J African Earth Sci (and Middle East) 8:565–587. Scholar
  13. Be’eri-Shlevin Y, Eyal M, Eyal Y, Whitehouse MJ, Litvinovsky B (2012) The Sa’al volcano-sedimentary complex (Sinai, Egypt): a latest Mesoproterozoic volcanic arc in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield. Geology 40:403–406. Scholar
  14. Be’eri-Shlevin Y, Katzir Y, Whitehouse M (2009) Post-collisional tectonomagmatic evolution in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield: time constraints from ion-probe U-Pb dating of zircon. J Geol Soc London 166:71–85. Scholar
  15. Belachew M, Ebinger C, Cote D (2013) Source mechanisms of dike-induced earthquakes in the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo rift segment in Afar, Ethiopia: implications for faulting above dikes. Geophys J Int 192:907–917. Scholar
  16. Bendick R, McClusky S, Bilham R, Asfaw L, Klemperer S (2006) Distributed Nubia-Somalia relative motion and dike intrusion in the Main Ethiopian Rift. Geophys J Int 165:303–310. Scholar
  17. Bertrand H, Chazot G, Blichert-Toft J, Thoral S (2003) Implications of widespread high-μ volcanism on the Arabian Plate for Afar mantle plume and lithosphere composition. Chem Geol 198:47–61. Scholar
  18. Beyth M, Eyal Y, Garfunkel Z (2014) The geology of the northern tip of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. J African Earth Sci 99:332–341. Scholar
  19. Bicknell JD, MacDonald KC, Miller SP, Lonsdale PF, Becker K (1986) Tectonics of the Nereus Deep, Red Sea: a deep-tow investigation of a site of initial rifting. Mar Geophys Res 8:131–148. Scholar
  20. Bohannon RG, Naeser CW, Schmidt DL, Zimmermann RA (1989) The timing of uplift, volcanism, and rifting peripheral to the Red Sea: a case for passive rifting? J Geophys Res 94:1683–1701. Scholar
  21. Bonatti E (1985) Punctiform initiation of seafloor spreading in the Red Sea during transition from a continental to an oceanic rift. Nature 316:33–37. Scholar
  22. Bonatti E, Colantoni P, Della Vedova B, Taviani M (1984) Geology of the Red Sea transitional region (22 N-25 N). Oceanol Acta 7:385–398Google Scholar
  23. Bosworth W, Huchon P, McClay K (2005) The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Basins. J African Earth Sci 43:334–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bosworth W, Stockli DF (2016) Early magmatism in the greater Red Sea rift: timing and significance. Can J Earth Sci 53:1158–1176. Scholar
  25. Buddington AF, Lindsley DH (1964) Iron-titanium oxide minerals and synthetic equivalents. J Petrol 5:310–357. Scholar
  26. Camp VE, Roobol MJ (1992) Upwelling asthenosphere beneath western Arabia and its regional implications. J Geophys Res 97:15255–15271. Scholar
  27. Cathelineau M (1988) Cation site occupancy in chlorites and illites as a function of temperature. Clay Miner 23:471–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chang S-J, Merino M, Van der Lee S, Stein S, Stein CA (2011) Mantle flow beneath Arabia offset from the opening Red Sea. Geophys Res Lett 38:L04301. Scholar
  29. Chang S-J, Van der Lee S (2011) Mantle plumes and associated flow beneath Arabia and East Africa. Earth Planet Sci Lett 302:448–454. Scholar
  30. Christensen NI, Mooney WD (1995) Seismic velocity structure and composition of the continental crust: a global view. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 100:9761–9788. Scholar
  31. Clark MD (1985) Late Proterozoic crustal evolution of the Midyan region, northwestern Saudi Arabia. Geology 13:611–615. Scholar
  32. Cochran JR (1981) The Gulf of Aden: structure and evolution of a young ocean basin and continental margin. J Geophys Res 86:263. Scholar
  33. Cochran JR (1983) A model for development of Red Sea. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 67:41–69Google Scholar
  34. Cochran JR, Martinez F, Steckler MS, Hobart MA (1986) Conrad Deep: a new northern Red Sea deep. Earth Planet Sci Lett 78:18–32. Scholar
  35. Coleman RG, Gregory RT, Brown GF (1983) Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia. US Geol Surv Open File Rep USGS-OF-03-93, 82 pp.
  36. Coleman RG, McGuire AV (1988) Magma systems related to the Red Sea opening. Tectonophysics 150:77–100. Scholar
  37. Coulié E, Quidelleur X, Gillot P-Y, Courtillot V, Lefèvre J-C, Chiesa S (2003) Comparative K-Ar and Ar/Ar dating of Ethiopian and Yemenite Oligocene volcanism: implications for timing and duration of the Ethiopian traps. Earth Planet Sci Lett 206:477–492. Scholar
  38. Courtillot V, Armijo R, Tapponnier P (1987) Kinematics of the Sinai triple junction and a two-phase model of Arabia-Africa rifting. Geol Soc London, Spec Publ 28:559–573. Scholar
  39. Daradich A, Mitrovica JX, Pysklywec RN, Willett SD, Forte AM (2003) Mantle flow, dynamic topography, and rift-flank uplift of Arabia. Geology 31:901–904. Scholar
  40. Davies FB (1985) Geological map of the Al Wahj Quadrangle, Sheet 26B, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of Mineral ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  41. Davison I, Al-Kadasi M, Al-Khirbash S, Al-Subbary AK, Baker J, Blakey S, Bosence D, Dart C, Heaton R, McClay K, Menzies M, Nichols G, Owen L, Yelland A (1994) Geological evolution of the southeastern Red Sea Rift margin, Republic of Yemen. Geol Soc Am Bull 106:1474–1493. Scholar
  42. Desissa M, Johnson NE, Whaler KA, Hautot S, Fisseha S, Dawes GJK (2013) A mantle magma reservoir beneath an incipient mid-ocean ridge in Afar, Ethiopia. Nature Geosci 6:861–865. Scholar
  43. Dilek Y, Ahmed Z (2003) Proterozoic ophiolites of the Arabian Shield and their significance in Precambrian tectonics. Geol Soc London, Spec Publ 218:685–700. Scholar
  44. Dixon TH, Stern RJ, Hussein IM (1987) Control of Red Sea rift geometry by Precambrian structures. Tectonics 6:551–571. Scholar
  45. Droop GTR (1987) A general equation for estimating Fe3+ concentrations in ferromagnesian silicates and oxides from microprobe analyses, using stoichiometric criteria. Mineral Mag 51:431–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Duncan RA, Al-Amri AM (2013) Timing and composition of volcanic activity at Harrat Lunayyir, western Saudi Arabia. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 260:103–116. Scholar
  47. Ebinger CJ, Ayele A, Keir D, Rowland J, Yirgu G, Wright T, Belachew M, Hamling I (2010) Length and timescales of rift faulting and magma intrusion: the Afar rifting cycle from 2005 to Present. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 38:439–466. Scholar
  48. Ebinger CJ, Keir D, Ayele A, Calais E, Wright TJ, Belachew M, Hammond JOS, Campbell E, Buck WR (2008) Capturing magma intrusion and faulting processes during continental rupture: seismicity of the Dabbahu (Afar) rift. Geophys J Int 174:1138–1152. Scholar
  49. Eby GN (1992) Chemical subdivision of the A-type granitoids: petrogenetic and tectonic implications. Geology 20:661–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ehrhardt A, Hübscher C, Gajewski D (2005) Conrad Deep, northern Red Sea: development of an early stage ocean deep within the axial depression. Tectonophysics 411:19–40. Scholar
  51. El-Bialy MZ, Omar MM (2015) Spatial association of Neoproterozoic continental arc I-type and post-collision A-type granitoids in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: the Wadi Al-Baroud Older and Younger Granites, North Eastern Desert. Egypt. J African Earth Sci 103:1–29. Scholar
  52. Farahat ES, Mohamed HA, Ahmed AF, El Mahallawi MM (2007) Origin of I- and A-type granitoids from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: implications for crustal growth in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield. J African Earth Sci 49:43–58. Scholar
  53. Fournier M, Chamot-Rooke N, Petit C, Huchon P, Al-Kathiri A, Audin L, Beslier M-O, d’Acremont E, Fabbri O, Fleury J-M, Khanbari K, Lepvrier C, Leroy S, Maillot B, Merkouriev S (2010) Arabia-Somalia plate kinematics, evolution of the Aden-Owen-Carlsberg triple junction, and opening of the Gulf of Aden. J Geophys Res 115:B04102. Scholar
  54. Fritz H, Abdelsalam M, Ali KA, Bingen B, Collins AS, Fowler AR, Ghebreab W, Hauzenberger CA, Johnson PR, Kusky TM, Macey P, Muhongo S, Stern RJ, Viola G (2013) Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: a review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution. J African Earth Sci 86:65–106. Scholar
  55. Frost BR, Barnes CG, Collins WJ, Arculus RJ, Ellis DJ, Frost CD (2001) A geochemical classification for granitic rocks. J Petrol 42:2033–2048. Scholar
  56. Garson MS, Krs M (1976) Geophysical and geological evidence of the relationship of Red Sea transverse tectonics to ancient fractures. Geol Soc Am Bull 87:169–181. Scholar
  57. Gaulier JM, Le Pichon X, Lyberis N, Avedik F, Geli L, Moretti I, Deschamps A, Hafez S (1988) Seismic study of the crust of the northern Red Sea and Gulf of Suez. Tectonophysics 153:55–88. Scholar
  58. Genna A, Nehlig P, Le Goff E, Guerrot C, Shanti M (2002) Proterozoic tectonism of the Arabian Shield. Precambrian Res 117:21–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ghebreab W (1998) Tectonics of the Red Sea region reassessed. Earth-Sci Rev 45:1–44. Scholar
  60. Ghebreab W, Talbot CJ (2000) Red Sea extension influenced by Pan-African tectonic grain in eastern Eritrea. J Struct Geol 22:931–946. Scholar
  61. Ghent ED, Coleman RG, Hadley DG (1980) Ultramafic inclusions and host alkali olivine basalts of the southern coastal plain of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Am J Sci 280A:499–527Google Scholar
  62. Gosso G, Rebay G, Roda M, Spalla MI, Tarallo M, Zanoni D, Zucali M (2015) Taking advantage of petrostructural heterogeneities in subduction-collisional orogens, and effect on the scale of analysis. Period Mineral 84(3B):779–825. Scholar
  63. Grainger DJ, Hanif R (1989) Geologic map of the Shaghab Quadrangle, Sheet 27 B, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of Mineral ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  64. Green NL, Usdansky SI (1986) Toward a practical plagioclase-muscovite thermometer. Am Mineral 71:1109–1117Google Scholar
  65. Hansen SE, Rodgers AJ, Schwartz SY, Al-Amri AMS (2007) Imaging ruptured lithosphere beneath the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula. Earth Planet Sci Lett 259:256–265. Scholar
  66. Hargrove US, Stern RJ, Kimura J-I, Manton WI, Johnson PR (2006) How juvenile is the Arabian-Nubian Shield? Evidence from Nd isotopes and pre-Neoproterozoic inherited zircon in the Bi’r Umq suture zone, Saudi Arabia. Earth Planet Sci Lett 252:308–326. Scholar
  67. Hempton MR (1987) Constraints on Arabian Plate motion and extensional history of the Red Sea. Tectonics 6:687–705. Scholar
  68. Hey MH (1954) A new review of the chlorites. Mineral Mag 30:277–292Google Scholar
  69. Hiess J, Condon DJ, McLean N, Noble SR (2012) 238U/235U systematics in terrestrial uranium-bearing minerals. Geology 335:1610–1614. Scholar
  70. Hofmann C, Courtillot V, Féraud G, Rochette P, Yirgu G, Ketefo E, Pik R (1997) Timing of the Ethiopian flood basalt event and implications for plume birth and global change. Nature 389:838–841. Scholar
  71. Horstwood MSA, Foster GL, Parrish RR, Noble SR, Nowell GM (2003) Common-Pb corrected in situ U-Pb accessory mineral geochronology by LA-MC-ICP-MS. J Analyt At Spectrom 18:837–846. Scholar
  72. Ibrahim KM, Al-Malabeh A (2006) Geochemistry and volcanic features of Harrat El Fahda: a young volcanic field in northwest Arabia, Jordan. J Asian Earth Sci 27:147–154. Scholar
  73. Ibrahim KM, McCourt WJ (1995) Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the northern Arabian Shield: evidence from southwest Jordan. J African Earth Sci 20:103–118. Scholar
  74. Ibrahim KM, Tarawneh K, Rabba’ I (2003) Phases of activity and geochemistry of basaltic dike systems in northeast Jordan parallel to the Red Sea. J Asian Earth Sci 21:467–472. Scholar
  75. Ilani S, Harlavan Y, Tarawneh K, Rabba I, Weinberger R, Ibrahim K, Peltz S, Steinitz G (2001) New K-Ar ages of basalts from the Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic field in Jordan: implications for the span and duration of the upper-mantle upwelling beneath the western Arabian plate. Geology 29:171–174. Scholar
  76. Irvine TN, Baragar WRA (1971) A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Can J Earth Sci 8:523–548. Scholar
  77. Jackson SE, Pearson NJ, Griffin WL, Belousova EA (2004) The application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to in situ U-Pb zircon geochronology. Chem Geol 211:47–69. Scholar
  78. Jarrar G (2001) The youngest Neoproterozoic mafic dyke suite in the Arabian Shield: mildly alkaline dolerites from South Jordan—their geochemistry and petrogenesis. Geol Mag 138:309–323. Scholar
  79. Johnson PR (1998) Tectonic map of Saudi Arabia and adjacent areas. Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources Technical Report USGS-TR-98-3 (IR 948)Google Scholar
  80. Johnson PR, Andresen A, Collins AS, Fowler AR, Fritz H, Ghebreab W, Kusky T, Stern RJ (2011) Late Cryogenian-Ediacaran history of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: a review of depositional, plutonic, structural, and tectonic events in the closing stages of the northern East African Orogen. J African Earth Sci 61:167–232. Scholar
  81. Johnson PR, Kattan FH, Al-Saleh AM (2004) Neoproterozoic ophiolites in the Arabian Shield: field relations and structure. Dev Precambrian Geol 13:129–162. Scholar
  82. Jowett EC (1991) Fitting iron and magnesium into the hydrothermal chlorite geothermometer. In: Geol Assoc Canada/Mineral Assoc Canada/Soc Econ Geol Joint Annual Meeting, abstracts, p 62Google Scholar
  83. Kaliwoda M, Altherr R, Meyer H-P (2007) Composition and thermal evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Harrat Uwayrid, eastern flank of the Red Sea rift (Saudi Arabia). Lithos 99:105–120. Scholar
  84. Keir D, Ebinger CJ, Stuart GW, Daly E, Ayele A (2006) Strain accommodation by magmatism and faulting as rifting proceeds to breakup: seismicity of the northern Ethiopian rift. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 111:B05314. Scholar
  85. Kessel R, Stein M, Navon O (1998) Petrogenesis of late Neoproterozoic dikes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield: implications for the origin of A-type granites. Precambrian Res 92:195–213. Scholar
  86. Ketchum JWF, Jackson SE, Culshaw NG, Barr SM (2001) Depositional and tectonic setting of the Paleoproterozoic Lower Aillik Group, Makkovik Province, Canada: evolution of a passive margin-foredeep sequence based on petrochemistry and U-Pb (TIMS and LAM-ICP-MS) geochronology. Precambrian Res 105:331–356. Scholar
  87. Khattab MM (1992) The extent of oceanization of the Egyptian northern Red Sea crust indicated by gravity and magnetic data. J African Earth Sci (and Middle East) 14:493–498. Scholar
  88. Koulakov I, El Khrepy S, Al-Arifi N, Sychev I, Kuznetsov P (2014) Evidence of magma activation beneath the Lunayyir basaltic field (Saudi Arabia) from attenuation tomography. Solid Earth Discuss 6:1401–1421. Scholar
  89. Krienitz M-S, Haase KM, Mezger K, van den Bogaard P, Thiemann V, Shaikh-Mashail MA (2009) Tectonic events, continental intraplate volcanism, and mantle plume activity in northern Arabia: constraints from geochemistry and Ar-Ar dating of Syrian lavas. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 10:Q04008. Scholar
  90. Kröner A (1985) Ophiolites and the evolution of tectonic boundaries in the late proterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield of northeast Africa and Arabia. Precambrian Res 27:277–300. Scholar
  91. Kröner A, Linnebacher P, Stern RJ, Reischmann T, Manton W, Hussein IM (1991) Evolution of Pan-African island arc assemblages in the southern Red Sea Hills, Sudan, and in southwestern Arabia as exemplified by geochemistry and geochronology. Precambrian Res 53:99–118. Scholar
  92. Lazar M, Ben-Avraham Z, Garfunkel Z (2012) The Red Sea—new insights from recent geophysical studies and the connection to the Dead Sea fault. J African Earth Sci 68:96–110. Scholar
  93. Leake BE, Woolley AR, Arps CES, Birch WD, Gilbert MC, Grice JD, Hawthorne FC, Kato A, Kisch HJ, Krivovichev VG, Linthout K, Laird J, Mandarino JA, Maresch WV, Nickel EH, Rock NMS, Schumacher JC, Smith DC, Stephenson NCN, Ungaretti L, Whittaker EJW, Guo Y (1997) Nomenclature of amphiboles; report of the subcommittee on amphiboles of the international mineralogical association, commission on new minerals and mineral names. Am Mineral 82:1019–1037Google Scholar
  94. Locock AJ (2014) An Excel spreadsheet to classify chemical analyses of amphiboles following the IMA 2012 recommendations. Comput Geosci 62:1–11. Scholar
  95. Ludwig KR (2003) Isoplot/Ex version 3.0: a geochronological toolkit for Microsoft Excel. In: Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication 4, Berkeley, 70 ppGoogle Scholar
  96. Makris J, Rihm R (1991) Shear-controlled evolution of the Red Sea: pull apart model. Tectonophysics 198:441–466. Scholar
  97. Manetti P, Capaldi G, Chiesa S, Civetta L, Conticelli S, Gasparon M, La Volpe L, Orsi G (1991) Magmatism of the eastern Red Sea margin in the northern part of Yemen from Oligocene to present. Tectonophysics 198:181–202. Scholar
  98. Mohr P (1983) Ethiopian flood basalt province. Nature 303:577–584. Scholar
  99. Morimoto N (1988) Nomenclature of pyroxenes. Mineral Mag 52:535–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moufti MR, Moghazi AM, Ali KA (2013) 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Neogene-Quaternary Harrat Al-Madinah intercontinental volcanic field, Saudi Arabia: implications for duration and migration of volcanic activity. J Asian Earth Sci 62:253–268. Scholar
  101. Nehlig P, Asfirane F, Genna A, Guerrot C, Nicol N, Salpeteur I, Shanti M, Thiéblemont D (2001) Aeromagnetic map constrains cratonization of the Arabian Shield. Terra Nova 13:347–353. Scholar
  102. Nehlig P, Genna A, Asfirane F, Dubreuil N, Guerrot C, Eberlé JM, Kluyver HM, Lasserre JM, Le Goff E, Nicol N, Salpeteur N, Shanti M, Thiéblemont D, Truffert C (2002) A review of the Pan-African evolution of the Arabian Shield. GeoArabia 7:103–124Google Scholar
  103. Pallister JS (1987) Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Geol Soc Am Bull 98:400–417. Scholar
  104. Pallister JS (1986) Geologic map of the Al Lith Quadrangle, Sheet 20D, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of Mineral ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  105. Pallister JS, McCausland WA, Jónsson S, Lu Z, Zahran HM, El Hadidy S, Aburukbah A, Stewart ICF, Lundgren PR, White RA, Moufti MRH (2010) Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia. Nat Geosci 3:705–712. Scholar
  106. Pallister JS, Stacey JS, Fischer LB, Premo WR (1987) Arabian Shield ophiolites and Late Proterozoic microplate accretion. Geology 15:320–323. Scholar
  107. Park Y, Nyblade AA, Rodgers AJ, Al-Amri A (2007) Upper mantle structure beneath the Arabian Peninsula and northern Red Sea from teleseismic body wave tomography: implications for the origin of Cenozoic uplift and volcanism in the Arabian Shield. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 8:Q06021. Scholar
  108. Passchier CW, Trouw RAJ (2005) Microtectonics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. Paterson SR, Vernon RH, Tobisch OT (1989) A review of criteria for the identification of magmatic and tectonic foliation in granitoids. J Struct Geol 11:349–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pautot G (1983) Les fosses de la Mer Rouge: approche géomorphologique d’un stade initial d’ouverture océanique réalisée à l’aide du Seabeam. Oceanol Acta 6:235–244Google Scholar
  111. Pavoni N (1992) Rifting of Africa and pattern of mantle convection beneath the African plate. Tectonophysics 215:35–53. Scholar
  112. Pellaton C (1982) Geological map of the Umm Laji Quadrangle, Sheet 25 B, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of Mineral ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  113. Pellaton C (1979) Geological map the Yanbu al Bahr Quadrangle, Sheet 24C, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of Mineral ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  114. Pryer LL, Robin P-YF (1996) Differential stress control on the growth and orientation of flame perthite: a palaeostress direction indicator. J Struct Geol 18:1151–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Quick JE (1991) Late Proterozoic transpression on the Nabitah fault system - implications for the assembly of the Arabian Shield. Precambrian Res 53:119–147. Scholar
  116. Ridolfi F, Renzulli A (2012) Calcic amphiboles in calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas: thermobarometric and chemometric empirical equations valid up to 1,130 C and 2.2 GPa. Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:877–895. Scholar
  117. Riisager P, Knight KB, Baker JA, Ukstins Peate I, Al-Kadasi M, Al-Subbary A, Renne PR (2005) Paleomagnetism and 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Yemeni Oligocene volcanics: implications for timing and duration of Afro-Arabian traps and geometry of the Oligocene paleomagnetic field. Earth Planet Sci Lett 237:647–672. Scholar
  118. Robinson FA, Foden JD, Collins AS, Payne JL (2014) Arabian Shield magmatic cycles and their relationship with Gondwana assembly: insights from zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 408:207–225. Scholar
  119. Roger J, Platel JP, Cavelier C, Bourdillon-de-Grissac C (1989) Données nouvelles sur la stratigraphie et l’histoire géologique du Dhofar (sultanat d’Oman). Bull Société Géologique Fr 8:265–277. Scholar
  120. Rollinson H (1993) Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. Longman, EssexGoogle Scholar
  121. Rona PA, Boström K, Epstein S (1980) Hydrothermal quartz vug from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geology 8:569–572. Scholar
  122. Roobol MJ, Al-Rehaili M (1998) Geohazards along the Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources Tech Rep BRGM-TR-98, 20 ppGoogle Scholar
  123. Rooney TO, Hanan BB, Graham DW, Furman T, Blichert-Toft J, Schilling J-G (2012) Upper mantle pollution during Afar plume-continental rift interaction. J Petrol 53:365–389. Scholar
  124. Runge MG, Bebbington MS, Cronin SJ, Lindsay JM, Moufti MR (2016) Integrating geological and geophysical data to improve probabilistic hazard forecasting of Arabian Shield volcanism. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 311:41–59. Scholar
  125. Saccani E (2015) A new method of discriminating different types of post-Archean ophiolitic basalts and their tectonic significance using Th-Nb and Ce-Dy-Yb systematics. Geosci Front 6:481–501. Scholar
  126. Schettino A, Macchiavelli C, Pierantoni PP, Zanoni D, Rasul N (2016) Recent kinematics of the tectonic plates surrounding the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Geophys J Int 207:457–480. Scholar
  127. Schmidt DL, Hadley DG, Brown GF (1983) Middle Tertiary continental rift and evolution of the Red Sea in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Open-File Report, USGS-OF-03-06, 56 ppGoogle Scholar
  128. Sebai A, Zumbo V, Féraud G, Bertrand H, Hussain AG, Giannerini G, Campredon R (1991) 40Ar/39Ar dating of alkaline and tholeiitic magmatism of Saudi Arabia related to the early Red Sea Rifting. Earth Planet Sci Lett 104:473–487. Scholar
  129. Shanti M, Roobol MJ (1979) A late Proterozoic ophiolite complex at Jabal Ess in northern Saudi Arabia. Nature 279:488–491. Scholar
  130. Shaw JE, Baker JA, Kent AJR, Ibrahim KM, Menzies MA (2007) The geochemistry of the Arabian lithospheric mantle—a source for intraplate volcanism? J Petrol 48:1495–1512. Scholar
  131. Shaw JE, Baker JA, Menzies MA, Thirwall MF, Ibrahim KM (2003) Petrogenesis of the largest intraplate volcanic field on the Arabian plate (Jordan): a mixed lithosphere-asthenosphere source activated by lithospheric extension. J Petrol 44:1657–1679. Scholar
  132. Stern RJ (1994) Neoproterozoic (900-550 Ma) arc assembly and continental collision in the East African orogen: implications for the consolidation of Gondwanaland. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 22:319–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stern RJ, Gottfried D, Hedge CE (1984) Late Precambrian rifting and crustal evolution in the northeastern desert of Egypt. Geology 12:168–172. Scholar
  134. Stipp M, Stünitz H, Heilbronner R, Schmid SM (2002) The eastern Tonale fault zone: a “natural laboratory” for crystal plastic deformation of quartz over a temperature range from 250 to 700 C. J Struct Geol 24:1861–1884. Scholar
  135. Stoeser DB, Camp VE (1985) Pan-African microplate accretion of the Arabian Shield. Geol Soc Am Bull 96:817–826. Scholar
  136. Stoeser DB, Frost CD (2006) Nd, Pb, Sr, and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes. Chem Geol 226:163–188. Scholar
  137. Stoeser DB, Whitehouse MJ, Stacey JS (2001) The Khida terrane? Geology of Paleoproterozoic rocks in the Muhayil area, eastern Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia. Gondwana Res 4:192–194. Scholar
  138. Sultan M, Becker R, Arvidson RE, Shore P, Stern RJ, El Alfy Z, Attia RI (1993) New constraints on Red Sea rifting from correlations of Arabian and Nubian Neoproterozoic outcrops. Tectonics 12:1303–1319. Scholar
  139. Sun S-S, McDonough WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. Geol Soc London, Spec Publ 42:313–345. Scholar
  140. Vail JR (1985) Pan-African (late Precambrian) tectonic terrains and the reconstruction of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Geology 13:839–842. Scholar
  141. Van Achterbergh E, Ryan CG, Jackson SE, Griffin WL (2001) Data reduction software for LAICPMS. In: Sylvester P (ed) Laser ablation ICPMS in the earth sciences: Principles and applications. Mineralogical Assoc Canada Short Course Ser 29, pp 239–243Google Scholar
  142. Veeningen R, Rice AHN, Schneider DA, Grasemann B (2015) Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab’atayn Basin, Yemen. J African Earth Sci 102:131–148. Scholar
  143. Vernon RH (2004) A practical guide to rock microstructure. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  144. Westrich HR, Stockman HW, Eichelberger JC (1988) Degassing of rhyolitic magma during ascent and emplacement. J Geophys Res 93:6503–6511. Scholar
  145. Wilson JWP, Roberts GG, Hoggard MJ, White NJ (2014) Cenozoic epeirogeny of the Arabian Peninsula from drainage modeling. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 15:3723–3761. Scholar
  146. Winchester JA, Floyd PA (1977) Geochemical discrimination of different magma series and their differentiation products using immobile elements. Chem Geol 20:325–343. Scholar
  147. Windley BF, Whitehouse MJ, Ba-Bttat MAO (1996) Early Precambrian gneiss terranes and Pan-African island arcs in Yemen: crustal accretion of the eastern Arabian Shield. Geology 24:131–134. Scholar
  148. Wright TJ, Ebinger C, Biggs J, Ayele A, Yirgu G, Keir D, Stork A (2006) Magma-maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode. Nature 442:291–294. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davide Zanoni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Najeeb M. A. Rasul
    • 2
  • Antonio Langone
    • 3
  • Moustafa Khorshid
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra “A. Desio”Università degli Studi di MilanoMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Center for Marine Geology, Saudi Geological SurveyJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.CNR-IGG U.O.S. PaviaPaviaItaly

Personalised recommendations