Preliminary Study on Staggered Herringbone Micromixer Design Suitable for Micro EDM Milling

  • Izidor SabotinEmail author
  • Gianluca Tristo
  • Andrej Lebar
  • Marko Jerman
  • Miha Prijatelj
  • Pavel Drešar
  • Joško Valentinčič
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


This paper discusses interplay between the design of a Staggered Herringbone Micromixer (SHM) and micro Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) milling technology. SHM consists of a main channel and many herringbone lookalike grooves at the bottom, which enhance mixing. Firstly, a brief overview on how the technological model of micro EDM milling was constructed is presented. Anticorrosive stainless steel was used as a workpiece material on the basis of which the database for the technological model was established. In the second part the technological model was used for micromixer design optimization. Different SHM designs that can be machined in the same amount of time, were compered via their mixing efficiency. Mixing efficiency was estimated by performing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The results show, that smaller and shallower grooves are not efficient in the terms of mixing. An important design parameter is also the orientation of the grooves. In the end, a favorable SHM design is presented.


Micromixer Micro EDM milling CFD 



The authors would like to thank to the Slovenian Research Agency for supporting the work in the frame of Research programme Innovative production systems and processes P2-0248 (B). A special thanks goes to the Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, for support and enabling the access to the state of the art micro EDM milling machine.


  1. 1.
    Hessel, V., Löwe, H., Schönfeld, F.: Micromixers—a review on passive and active mixing principles. Chem. Eng. Sci. 60, 2479–2501 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alting, L., Kimura, F., Hansen, H.N., Bissacco, G.: Micro engineering. CIRP Ann. -Manuf. Technol. 52, 635–657 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cvjetko, M., Nidari-Plazl, P.: Ionic liquids within microfluidic devices. In: Ionic Liquids: Theory, Properties, New Approaches. InTech (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nguyen, N.T., Wu, Z.: Micromixers—a review. J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, R1–R16 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stroock, A.D., Dertinger, S.K.W., Ajdari, A., Mezic, I., Stone, H.A., Whitesides, G.M.: Chaotic mixer for microchannels. Science (80) 295, 647–651 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Williams, M.S., Longmuir, K.J., Yager, P.: A practical guide to the staggered herringbone mixer. Lab Chip 8, 1121 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Du, Y., Zhang, Z., Yim, C., Lin, M., Cao, X.: A simplified design of the staggered herringbone micromixer for practical applications. Biomicrofluidics 4, 024105 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gjuraj, E., Kongoli, R., Shore, G.: Combination of flow reactors with microwave-assisted synthesis: smart engineering concept for steering synthetic chemistry on the “fast lane”. Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q. 26, 285–307 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sabotin, I., Tristo, G., Valentincic, J.: Approach to technological modeling of micro EDM milling. In: Proceedings of the 4 M/ICOMM2015 Conference, Milan, Italy, pp 71–74 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kukuková, A., Noël, B., Kresta, S.M., Aubin, J.: Impact of sampling method and scale on the measurement of mixing and the coefficient of variance. AIChE J. 54, 3068–3083 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sabotin, I., Tristo, G., Junkar, M., Valentinčič, J.: Two-step design protocol for patterned groove micromixers. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 91, 778–788 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Izidor Sabotin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gianluca Tristo
    • 2
  • Andrej Lebar
    • 1
    • 3
  • Marko Jerman
    • 1
  • Miha Prijatelj
    • 1
  • Pavel Drešar
    • 1
  • Joško Valentinčič
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  2. 2.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly
  3. 3.Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations