Tectonic History of the Granitoids and Kadiri Schist Belt in the SW of Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

  • Sukanta GoswamiEmail author
  • P. K. Upadhyay
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)


This contribution focuses on a few aspects starting with a field-based newly prepared map of the study area around the northern extreme of the Kadiri greenstone belt and the surrounding granitoids. After geological understanding the petrologic and geochemical analyses of samples reveal its tectonics. Field setting and geochemistry connotes ocean-continent subduction as the broad tectonic environment of the study area, which consists of back arc basin sub-environment as well. The calc-alkaline nature of rocks indicates a volcanic arc setting. The eroded volcaniclastic materials from high land deposited in the back arc basin in association with characteristic magmatism. Basic to intermediate back arc basin lava must have supplied elements such as Fe, Mn, Mg, S, Si etc. to form the Banded Iron Formation (BIF) and chert at the oxidation-reduction interface. The plutonic suite include granite, diorite, granodiorite, gabbro etc. occur in the Dharwar batholith above the subduction zone and possibly provided magma to the overlying volcanic arcs. The greenstone belt litho-units comprise dominantly acid volcanics viz. rhyolite, dacite, rhyodacite along with andesite and meta-basalt. Later, rifting of Cuddapah basin with emplacement of dyke swarm switching into an extensional regime led to sedimentation of eroded materials from the basement provinance. The sub-elliptical clasts of variable sized BIF, chert, quartzite and granitic composition and matrix supported nature of conglomerate above Eparchaean unconformity indicate multiple sources. The sub rounded clast and moderately sorted submature texture of conglomerate above the unconformity indicates moderate transportation. The proposed model presents spatial and temporal evolution of the terrain.


Kadiri schist belt Tectonics Eparchaean unconformity Andhra pradesh Cuddapah basin Greenstone belt 



Authors express sincere gratitude to Shri L. K. Nanda, Director, AMD for encouragement and infrastructure support to publish the part of the assigned work. The support and help extended by Dr. Syed Zakaulla (RD/SR, Bangalore), Shri. A. K. Bhatt (Dy. RD/SR, Bangalore) and Shri. V. Natarajan (SO/H) are thankfully acknowledged. We thank Soumyajit Mukherjee (IIT Bombay) for reviewing and handling this manuscript. The Springer team is thanked for proof preparation and other assistance. Vide Vanik et al. (2018) for paleostress analyses procedure, and Tripathy et al. (2019) and Mukherjee et al. (in press) for other tectonic updates of the Cuddapah basin. Mukherjee (2019) summarizes this work.


  1. Batchelor RA, Bowden P (1985) Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters. Chemical Geology 48, 43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowen NL (1928) The evolution of igneous rocks. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 332ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Cas RAF, Wright JV (1988) Volcanic succesions, modern and ancient. Chapman & Hall, London, 528ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Chadwick B, Vasudev VN, Hegde GV (2000) The Dharwar craton, southern India, interpreted as the result of late Archaean oblique convergence. Precambrian Research 99, 91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chadwick B, Vasudev V, Hegde GV, Nutman AP (2007) Structure and SHRIMP U/Pb zircon ages of granites adjacent to the Chitradurga schist belt: implications for Neoarchean convergence in the Dharwar craton, southern India. Journal of Geological Society of India 69, 5–24Google Scholar
  6. Chardon D, Jayananda M (2008) Three-dimensional field perspective on deformation, flow, and growth of the lower continental crust (Dharwar craton, India). Tectonics 27 TC 1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chardon D, Jayananda M, Peucat JJ (2011) Lateral constrictional flow of hot orogenic crust: insights from the Neoarchean of South India, geological and geophysical implications for orogenic plateaux. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 12, Q02005Google Scholar
  8. Dasgupta S, Mukherjee S (2017) Brittle shear tectonics in a narrow continental rift: asymmetric non-volcanic Barmer basin (Rajasthan, India). The Journal of Geology 125, 561–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davies GF (1992) On the emergence of plate tectonics. Geology 20, 963–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De La Roche H, Leterrier J, Grandclaude P, Marchal M (1980) A classification of volcanic and plutonic rocks using R1R2-diagram and major element analyses – its relationships with current nomenclature. Chemical Geology 29, 183–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dey S, Nandy J, Choudhary AK, Liu Y, Zong K (2013) Neoarchaean crustal growth by combined arc–plume action: evidences from the Kadiri greenstone belt, eastern Dharwar craton, India. In: Roberts N, van Kranendonk M, Parman S, Shirey S, Clift P (eds) Continent formation through time, vol 389. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, pp 135–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dey S, Nandy J, Choudhary AK, Liu Y, Zong K (2014) Origin and evolution of granitoids associated with the Kadiri greenstone belt, eastern Dharwar craton: A history of orogenic to anorogenic magmatism. Precambrian Research 246, 64–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ducea M (2001) The California arc: thick granitic batholiths, eclogitic residues, lithospheric—scale thrusting, and magmatic fl are—ups. GSA Today 11, 4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ernst WG (2007) Speculations on evolution of the terrestrial lithosphere—asthenosphere system—plumes and plates. Gondwana Research 11, 38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fisher RV, Schmincke HU (1984) Pyroclastic rocks. Springer, Heidelberg, 474ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fliedner MM, Klemperer SL, Christensen NI (2000) Three-dimensional seismic model of the Sierra Nevada arc, California, and its implications for crustal and upper mantle compositions. Journal of Geophysical Research 105, 10899–10921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. French JE, Heaman LM (2010) Precise U/Pb dating of Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms of the Dharwar Craton, India: implications for the existence of the Neoarchean supercraton Sclavia. Precambrian Research 183, 416–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Friend CRL (1983) The link between granite production and the formation of charnockites: evidence from Kabbaldurga, Karnataka. In: Atherton MP, Gribble CD (eds) Migmatities, melting and metamorphism. Shiva Press, Nantwich, pp 264–276Google Scholar
  19. Friend CRL, Nutman AP (1991) SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of the closepet Granite and Peninsular Gneiss, Karnataka, South India. Journal of Geological Society of India 38, 357–368Google Scholar
  20. Gill JB (1981) Orogenic andesites and plate tectonics. Springer-Verlag, New York, p 390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goodwin AM, Ambrose JW, Ayres LD et al (1972) The superior province. Geological Association of Canada Special Papers 11, 527–624Google Scholar
  22. Goswami S, Bhattacharjee P, Bhagat S, Kumar S, Zakaulla S (2015) Petrography of chert nodules in stromatolitic dolostone of Vempalle Formation along Tummalapalle - Motnutalapalle, Cuddapah Basin, India. Indian J Geosci 69:13–24Google Scholar
  23. Goswami S, Sivasubramaniam R, Bhagat S, Kumar Suresh, Sarbajna C (2016) Algoma type BIF and associated submarine volcano-sedimentary sequence in Ramagiri granite-greenstone terrain, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Applied Geochemistry 18, 155–169Google Scholar
  24. Goswami S, Upadhayay PK, Bhattacharjee P, Murugan MG (2017) Tectonic setting of the Kadiri schist belt, Andhra Pradesh, India. Acta Geologica Sinica-english edition. 91(6):1992–2006Google Scholar
  25. Goswami S, Upadhyay PK, Bhagat S, Zakaulla S, Bhatt AK, Natarajan V, Dey S (2018a) An approach of understanding acid volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastics from field studies: a case from Tadpatri Formation, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Earth Syst Sci 127:20.
  26. Goswami S, Dey S (2018b) Facies analysis of tuffaceous volcaniclastics and felsic volcanics of Tadpatri Formation, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch). Scholar
  27. Grove TL, Kinzler RJ (1986) Petrogenesis of andesites. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 14, 417–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Halls HC, Kumar A, Srinivasan R, Hamilton MA (2007) Palaeomagnetic and U-Pb geochronology of easterly trending dykes in the Dharwar Craton, India: feldspar clouding, radiating dyke swarms and the position of India at 2.37 Ga. Precambrian Research 155, 47–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harker A (1909) The natural history of igneous rocks. McMillan Publishers, New York, 384ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Hastie AR, Kerr AC, Pearce JA, Mitchell SF (2007) Classification of altered volcanic island arc rocks using immobile trace elements: development of the Th, Co discrimination diagram. Journal of Petrology 48, 2341–2357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hawkesworth CJ, Gallagher K, Hergt JM, Keynes M (1993) Mantle and slab contributions in arc magmas. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 21, 175–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Irvine TN, Barager WRA (1971) A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 8, 523–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jakes P, White AJR (1972) Major and trace element abundances in volcanic rocks of orogenic areas. Bulletin of Geological Society of America 83, 29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jayananda M, Mahabaleshwar B (1991) Relationship between shear zones and igneous activity: the Closepet graninte of southern India. Indian Academy of Sciences (Earth and Planetary Sciences) Proceedings 100, 31–36Google Scholar
  35. Jayananda M, Tsutsumi Y, Miyasaki T, Gireesh RV, Kapfo Kowe-u, Tushipokla Hiroshi Hidaka, Kano T (2013a) Geochronological constraints on Meso- and Neoarchean regional metamorphism and magmatism in the Dharwar craton, southern India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 78, 18–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jayananda M, Peucat JJ, Chardon D, Krishna Rao B, Fanning CM, Corfu F (2013b) Neoarchean greenstone volcanism and continental growth, Dharwar craton, southern India: Constraints from SIMS U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd isotopes. Precambrian Research 227, 55–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maniar PD, Piccoli PM (1989) Tectonic discriminations of granitoids. Geological Society of America Bulletin 101, 635–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mcphie J, Doyle M, Allen R (1993) Volcanic Textures. A guide to the interpretation of textures in volcanic rocks. Tasmanian Government Printing, Office, Tasmania, p 196ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Misra AA, Mukherjee S (2015) Tectonic inheritance in continental rifts and passive margins. Springerbriefs in Earth Sciences. ISBN 978-3-319-20576-2Google Scholar
  40. Misra AA, Mukherjee S (2018) Atlas of structural geological interpretation from seismic images. Wiley Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-119-15832-5Google Scholar
  41. Misra AA, Bhattacharya G, Mukherjee S, Bose N (2014) Near N-S paleo-extension in the western Deccan region in India: does it link strike-slip tectonics with India-Seychelles rifting? International Journal of Earth Sciences 103, 1645–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Misra AA, Sinha N, Mukherjee S (2015) Repeat ridge jumps and microcontinent separation: insights from NE Arabian Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology 59, 406–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Misra AA, Sinha N, Mukherjee S (2018a) The gop rift: a paleo slow spreading centre, Offshore Gujarat, India. In: Misra AA, Mukherjee S (eds) Atlas of structural geological interpretation from seismic images. Wiley Blackwell, pp 208-212 ISBN: 978-1-119-15832-5Google Scholar
  44. Misra AA, Sinha N, Mukherjee S (2018b) The Ratnagiri fracture zone: a paleo oceanic‐fracture‐zone in the Mumbai‐Ratnagiri Offshore Region, West India. In: Misra AA, Mukherjee S (eds) Atlas of structural geological interpretation from seismic images. Wiley Blackwell, pp. 195-199. ISBN: 978-1-119-15832-5Google Scholar
  45. Miyashiro A (1974) Volcanic rock series in island arcs and active continental margins. American Journal of Science 274, 321–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mukherje S (2015) Atlas of structural geology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  47. Mukherjee S (2010a) Structures in Meso- and Micro-scales in the Sutlej section of the Higher Himalayan shear zone, Indian Himalaya. e-Terra 7, 1–27Google Scholar
  48. Mukherjee S (2010b) Microstructures of the Zanskar shear zone. Earth Science India 3, 9–27Google Scholar
  49. Mukherjee S (2011a) Flanking Microstructures from the Zanskar shear zone, NW Indian Himalaya. YES Bulletin 1, 21–29Google Scholar
  50. Mukherjee S (2011b) Mineral Fish: their morphological classification, usefulness as shear sense indicators and genesis. International Journal of Earth Sciences 100, 1303–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mukherjee S (2012) Tectonic implications and morphology of trapezoidal mica grains from the Sutlej section of the Higher Himalayan shear zone, Indian Himalaya. Journal of Geology 120, 575–590Google Scholar
  52. Mukherjee S (2013) Deformation microstructures in rocks. Springer Geochemistry/Mineralogy, Berlin, pp 1–111. ISBN 978-3-642-25608-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mukherjee S (2014a) Mica inclusions inside host mica grains from the Sutlej section of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines, India- morphology and constrains in genesis. Acta Geologica Sinica 88, 1729–1741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mukherjee S (2014b) Review of flanking structures in Meso- and Micro-scales. Geological Magazine 151, 957–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mukherjee S (2019) Introduction to “Tectonics and Structural Geology: Indian Context”. In: Mukherjee S (ed) Tectonics and structural geology: Indian context. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, pp 1–5. ISBN: 978-3-319-99340-9Google Scholar
  56. Mukherjee S, Chakraborty R (2007) Pull-apart micro-structures and associated passive folds. In: Aho J (ed) Annual transactions of the nordic rheology society 15, pp 247–252. 16th Nordic Rheology Conference, Stavanger, Norway, 13–15 June 2007Google Scholar
  57. Mukherjee S, Koyi HA (2009) Flanking microstructures. Geological Magazine 146, 517–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mukherjee S, Koyi HA (2010a) Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Zanskar Section-microstructural studies & extrusion mechanism by a combination of simple shear & channel flow. International Journal of Earth Sciences 99, 1083–1110Google Scholar
  59. Mukherjee S, Koyi HA (2010b) Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Sutlej Section-structural geology & extrusion mechanism by various combinations of simple shear, pure shear & channel flow in shifting modes. International Journal of Earth Sciences 99, 1267–1303Google Scholar
  60. Mukherjee S, Goswami S, Mukherjee A (In press) Structures and their tectonic implications form the southern part of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. Iranian J Sci Technol Trans A: Sci.
  61. Nandy J, Dey S (2013) The mechanism of Neoarchaean granitoid formation: evidence from Eastern Dharwar Craton, Southern India. American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied and Natural Sciences (AIJRFANS) 3, 105–109Google Scholar
  62. Oak KA (1990) The geology and geochemistry of the Closepet granite, Karnataka, South India. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Council for National Academic Awards, Oxford Polytechnic, UKGoogle Scholar
  63. Pearce JA (1982) Trace element characteristics of lavas from destructive plate boundaries. In: Thorpe RS (ed) Andesites: orogenic andesites and related rocks. Wiley, Chichester, pp 525–548. ISBN 0 471 28034 8Google Scholar
  64. Pearce JA, Peate DW (1995) Tectonic implications of the composition of volcanic arc magmas. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 23, 251–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Peccerillo A, Taylor SR (1976) Geochemistry of Eocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from the Kastamonu area, Northern Turkey. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 58, 63–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Perfit MR, Gust DA, Bence AE, Arculus RJ, Taylor SR (1980) Chemical characteristics of island-arc basalts: implications for mantle sources. Chemical Geology 30, 227–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rajamani V (1990) Petrogenesis of Metabasites from the schist belts of Dharwar Craton: implications to Archean Mafic Magmatism. Journal of Geological Society of India 36, 565–587Google Scholar
  68. Rajamani V, Shivkumar K, Hanson GN, Shirey SB (1985) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of amphibolites, Kolar Schist Belt, South India; evidence for komatiitic magma derived by low percent of melting of the mantle. Journal of Petrology 96, 92–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rowland SK, Walker GPL (1990) Pahoehoe and aa in Hawaii: volumetric flow rate controls the lava structure. Bulletin of Volcanology 52, 615–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Satyanarayana K, Siddilingam J, Jetty J (2000) Geochemistry of Archean Metavolcanic Rocks from Kadiri Schist Belt, Andhra Pradesh, India. Gondwana Research 3, 235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shackleton RM (1976) Shallow and deep-level exposures of the Archean crust in India and Africa. In: Windley BF (ed) The Early History of the Earth. Wiley, New York, pp 317–322Google Scholar
  72. Shand SJ (1943) Eruptive rocks. Their genesis, composition, classification, and their relation to ore-deposits with a chapter on meteorite. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Sreenivasulu P, Padmasree P, Hanumanthu PC (2014) Granitoids adjoining Kadiri schist belt, Andhra Pradesh, South India: field and petrographic implications. International Journal of Geology, Earth and Environmental Sciences 4, 244–258Google Scholar
  74. Stern RJ (2008) Modern style plate tectonics began in Neoproterozoic time: an alternative interpretation of Earth’ s tectonic history. In: Condie KC and Pease V (eds) When did plate tectonics begin on planet earth? Geological Society of America Special Paper 440, pp 265–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tripathy V, Satyapal, Mitra SK, Sai BBS (2019) Fold-thrust belt architecture and structural evolution of the Northern part of the Nallamalai Fold Belt, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. In: Mukherjee S (ed) Tectonics and structural geology: Indian context. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, pp 219–252. ISBN 978-3-319-99340-9Google Scholar
  76. Wohletz KH, Mcqueen RG (1984) Volcanic and stratospheric dust like particles produced by experimental water-melt interactions. Geology 12, 591–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vanik N, Shaikh H, Mukherjee S, Maurya DM, Chamyal LS (2018) Post-deccan trap stress reorientation under transpression: evidence from fault slip analyses from SW Saurashtra, Western India. Journal of Geodynamics 121, 9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Atomic EnergyAtomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and ResearchBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations