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Geomorphic Characteristics and Morphologic Dating of the Allah Bund Fault Scarp, Great Rann of Kachchh, Western India

  • Akash Padmalal
  • Nitesh Khonde
  • D. M. MauryaEmail author
  • Mohammedharoon Shaikh
  • Abhishek Kumar
  • Naimisha Vanik
  • L. S. Chamyal
Chapter
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)

Abstract

The well known 16 June, 1819 Allah Bund earthquake formed a spectacular ~90 km long E-W trending south facing scarp in the flat saline terrain of the Great Rann. The scarp is reasonably well described in subsequent historical accounts especially from the western part, where it blocked a distributary of the Indus river from the north whereas the southern downthrown block including the Sindri fort was submerged under the earthquake induced local tsunami. Modern studies have indicated that the scarp may be the cumulative effect of large earthquakes that may have occurred in the area during historical times. In article, we describe the geomorphological characteristics of the enigmatic terrain of Great Rann and Allah Bund Fault scarp. We also demonstrate the application of the morphological dating technique to determine the age of the Allah Bund Fault scarp. The morphological dating was carried out at three sites in the central part of the scarp where it shows the maximum elevation ~4 m and is least effected by erosive effects of submerging waters. The results of the morphological dating have yielded the age of the scarp as 208, 200 and 193 years before present. These ages indicate that the scarp was formed in 1809, 1817 and 1824 A. D. respectively confirming that the scarp was formed during 1819 earthquake. The ages appear to be most plausible as no previous surface rupture producing earthquakes are known in the Great Rann of Kachchh.

Keywords

1819 Allah bund earthquake Active fault Tectonic geomorphology Morphological dating Allah bund fault scarp Great Rann of Kachchh Western India 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Soumyajit Mukherjee for inviting us to contribute this article and for providing two rounds of review comments. The present study was funded by the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India in the form of a research project (Project No. MoES/P.O. (Seismo)/1(170)/2013) to DMM and LSC. Mukherjee (2019) summarizes this work.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akash Padmalal
    • 1
  • Nitesh Khonde
    • 1
  • D. M. Maurya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammedharoon Shaikh
    • 1
  • Abhishek Kumar
    • 1
  • Naimisha Vanik
    • 1
  • L. S. Chamyal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyThe M. S. University of BarodaVadodaraIndia

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