Documentation of Brittle Structures (Back Shear and Arc-Parallel Shear) from Sategal and Dhanaulti Regions of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya (Uttarakhand, India)

  • Souradeep Mahato
  • Soumyajit MukherjeeEmail author
  • Narayan Bose
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)


The Mussoorie syncline consists of quartzites, slates, shales and limestones in and around Mussoorie, Dhanaulti and Sategal regions, Uttarakhand, India. This chapter presents in detail the brittle shear senses at Mussourie and nearby regions from several spots, and compiles the structural details in terms of cross-sections. Top-to-S/SW foreshear was knowne from this place, which was confirmed in this study. In addition, top-to-N/NE back shear and Himalayan arc-parallel shears (such as top-to-NW) are the new meso-scale findings in this work.


Deformation mechanism Orogeny Tectonics Meso-scale deformation 



This work was a part of the M.Sc. thesis of S. Mahato. S. Mukherjee thanks IIT Bombay for providing a sabbatical in 2017. N. Bose acknowledges Junior Research Fellowship of UGC, grant number: F.2-2/98(SA-1). The Springer proofreading team is thanked for assistance. Consult Banerjee et al. (2019) for tectonic updates on arc-parallel deformation from Sikkim Lesser Himalaya, and Dutta et al. (submitted) from that in Mohand region, Siwalik. This will establish link between chapters in the book. Mukherjee (2019) summarizes this work.


  1. Auden JB (1937) The structure of the Himalaya in Garhwal. Records of the Geological Survey of India 71, 407–433Google Scholar
  2. Banerjee S, Bose N, Mukherjee S (2019) Field structural geological studies around Kurseong, Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya, India. In: Mukherjee S (ed) Tectonics and structural geology: Indian context. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, pp 425–440. ISBN 978-3-319-99340-9Google Scholar
  3. Bell TH, Rubenach MJ, Fleming PD (1986) Porphyroblast nucleation, growth and dissolution in regional metamorphic rocks as a function of deformation partitioning during foliation development. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 4, 37–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bose N, Dutta D, Mukherjee S (2018) Role of grain-size in phyllonitisation: insights from mineralogy, microstructures, strain analyses and numerical modeling. Journal of Structural Geology 112, 39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bose N, Mukherjee S (Submitted-1) Estimation of deformation temperature, flow stress and strain rate from the Main Boundary Thrust rocks, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India. Journal of Earth System ScienceGoogle Scholar
  6. Bose N, Mukherjee S (Submitted-2) Field documentation and genesis of the back-structures from a part of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya. Uttarakhand, India. Tectonic implications. In: Sharma, Villa IM, Kumar S (eds) Crustal Architecture and Evolution of the Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen. Geological Society of London Special PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  7. Célérier J, Harrison TM, Beyssac O, Herman F, Dunlap WJ, Webb AAG (2009a) The Kumaun and Garwhal Lesser Himalaya, India: Part 2. Thermal and deformation histories. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121, 1281–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Célérier J, Harrison TM, Webb AAG, Yin A (2009b) The Kumaun and Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India: Part 1. Structure and stratigraphy. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121, 1262–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dubey AK (2014) Understanding an orogenic belt. Springer, Cham. ISBN 978-3-319-05587-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dubey AK, Jayangondaperumal R (2005) Pop-up klippen in the Mussoorie Syncline Lesser Himalaya: evidence from field and model deformation studies. In: Saklani RS (ed) Himalaya (Geological Aspects), Satish Serial Publishing House, Delhi 3, pp 203–222Google Scholar
  11. Dutta D, Biswas T, Mukherjee S (Submitted) Orogen-parallel compression in NW Himalaya: Evidence from structural and paleostress studies of brittle deformation from the pebbles of Upper Siwalik conglomerates, Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Earth System ScienceGoogle Scholar
  12. Fuchs G, Sinha AK (1978) The tectonics of the Garhwal-Kumaun Lesser Himalaya. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 121, 219–241Google Scholar
  13. Jain AK (1972) Overthrusting and emplacement of basic rocks in Lesser Himalaya, Garhwal, UP. Journal of Geological Society of India 13, 226–237Google Scholar
  14. Jayangondaperumal R, Dubey AK, Sangode SJ, Sathyanarayana KV (2001) Superimposed folding, finite strain and magnetic lineation in the Mussoorie Syncline, Lesser Himalaya: implications for regional thrusting and the Indian Plate motion. Himalayan Geology 22, 207–216Google Scholar
  15. Long S, McQuarrie N (2010) Placing limits on channel flow: insights from the Bhutan Himalaya. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290, 375–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mandl G (1999) Faulting in brittle rocks: an introduction to the mechanics of tectonic faults. Springer Science and Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  17. Marshak S (1988) Kinematics of orocline and arc formation in thin-skinned orogens. Tectonics 7, 73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Marshak S (2009) Essentials of geology, 4th edn. WW Norton and Company, pp 18. ISBN: 9780471405214Google Scholar
  19. Middlemiss CS (1887) Crystalline and metamorphic rocks of the Lower Himalaya, Garhwal and Kumaun. Records of the Geological Survey of India 20, 134–143Google Scholar
  20. Mukherjee S (2010a) Structures in meso- and micro-scales in the Sutlej section of the Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Indian Himalaya. e-Terra 7, 1–27Google Scholar
  21. Mukherjee S (2010b) Microstructures of the Zanskar Shear Zone. e-Journal: Earth Science India 3, 9–27Google Scholar
  22. Mukherjee S (2012) Tectonic implications and morphology of trapezoidal mica grains from the Sutlej section of the Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Indian Himalaya. The Journal of Geology 120, 575–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mukherjee S (2013) Higher Himalaya in the Bhagirathi section (NW Himalaya, India): its structures, backthrusts and extrusion mechanism by both channel flow and critical taper mechanisms. International Journal of Earth Sciences 102, 1851–1870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mukherjee S (2014) Mica inclusions inside Host Mica Grains from the Sutlej section of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines, India-Morphology and Constrains in Genesis. Acta Geologica Sinica 88, 1729–1741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mukherjee S (2019) Introduction to “Tectonics and Structural Geology: Indian Context”. In: Mukherjee S (ed) Tectonics and structural geology: Indian context. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, pp 1–5. ISBN: 978-3-319-99340-9Google Scholar
  26. Mukherjee S, Koyi HA (2010a) Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Zanskar section-microstructural studies and extrusion mechanism by a combination of simple shear and channel flow. International Journal of Earth Sciences 99, 1083–1110Google Scholar
  27. Mukherjee S, Koyi HA (2010b) Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Sutlej section-structural geology & extrusion mechanism by various combinations of simple shear, pure shear & channel flow in shifting modes. International Journal of Earth Sciences 99, 1267–1303Google Scholar
  28. Passchier CW, Trouw RAJ (2005) Microtectonics. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–366. ISBN10 3-540-64003-7Google Scholar
  29. Petit JP (1987) Criteria for the sense of movement on fault surfaces in brittle rocks. Journal of Structural Geology 9, 597–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Powell CM, Conaghan PJ (1973) Plate tectonics and the Himalayas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 20, 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Saklani PS (1978) Deformation and tectonism of Mukhem area, Lesser Himalaya. Tectonic Geology of the Himalaya 15, 42Google Scholar
  32. Shanker R, Ganesan TM (1973) A note on the Garhwal Nappe. Himalayan Geology 3, 72–82Google Scholar
  33. Srivastava HB, Sinha LK, Katiyar V (2011) Mesoscopic structures from the area around Satengal, Lesser Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of Scientific Research 55, 25–34Google Scholar
  34. Valdiya KS (1975) Lithology and age of the Tal Formation in Garhwal, and implication on stratigraphic scheme of Krol Belt in Kumaun Himalaya. Geological Society of India 16, 119–134Google Scholar
  35. Valdiya KS (1980) Geology of Kumaun Lesser Himalaya. Wadia Institute of Himalayan GeologyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Souradeep Mahato
    • 1
  • Soumyajit Mukherjee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Narayan Bose
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations