Ionospheric Irregularities and Waves

  • Ljiljana R. CanderEmail author
Part of the Springer Geophysics book series (SPRINGERGEOPHYS)


Some of the fundamental scientific questions are raised, mainly focusing on the causes of mid-latitude ionospheric irregularities and waves, the upward coupling of energy in the M-I-A system, and the thermal structure. A definition is provided for irregular behaviour with appropriate examples of LSTIDs and MSTIDs in the European mid-latitude ionosphere.


Irregularities Waves M-I-T AGW TADs TIDs 

References and Further Reading

  1. Afraimovich EL (2008) First GPS-TEC evidence of wave structure excited by solar terminator. Earth Plane Space 60:895–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreev AB, Somsikov VM, Mukasheva SN et al (2018) Nonequilibrium effects in atmospheric perturbations caused by solar radiation flux. Int J Geomag Aeronom 58(1):106–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews DG, Holton JR, Leovy CB (1987) Middle atmosphere dynamics. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  4. Boska J, Sauli P, Altadill D et al (2003) Diurnal variation of the gravity wave activity at midlatitudes of ionospheric F region. Studia Geophys Geod 47:579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen G, Wu C, Huang X et al (2015) Plasma flux and gravity waves in the midlatitude ionosphere during the solar eclipse of 20 May 2012. J Geophys Res 120:3009–3020. Scholar
  6. Crowley G, McCrea IW (1988) A synoptic study of TIDs observed in the UK during the first WAGS campaign, October 10–18, 1985. Radio Sci 23:905–917. Scholar
  7. Crowley G, Rodrigues FS (2012) Characteristics of traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by the TIDDBIT sounder. Radio Sci 47 RS0L22.
  8. Dominici P, Zolesi B, Cander LR (1988) Preliminary results concerning atmospheric gravity waves deduced from foF2 large-scale oscillations. Phys Scr 37:516–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dominici P, Cander LR, Zolesi B (1997) On the origin of medium-period ionospheric waves and their possible modelling: a short review. Ann Geofis XL(5):1171–1178Google Scholar
  10. Francis SH (1974) A theory of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances. J Geophys Res 79:5245–5259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hernandes-Pajares M, Juan MJ, Sanz J (2006) Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances affecting GPS measurements: spatial and temporal analysis. J Geophys Res 111 A07S11.
  12. Hines CO (1960) Internal atmospheric gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. Can J Phys 38:1441–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hunsucker RD (1982) Atmospheric gravity waves generated in the high-latitude ionosphere. A review. Rev Geophys 20:293–315. Scholar
  14. Jakowski N, Stankov SM, Wilken V et al (2008) Ionospheric behaviour over Europe during the solar eclipse of 3 October 2005. J Atmos Sol-Terr Phys 70:836–853. Scholar
  15. Kirchengast G, Hocke K, Schlegel K (1996) The gravity wave-TID relationship: insight via theoretical model-EISCAT data comparison. J Atmos Terr Phys 58:233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lanchester BS, Nygrén T, Huuskonen A et al (1991) Sporadic-E as a tracer for atmospheric waves. Planet Space Sci 39(10):1421–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McInerney JM, March DR, Liu H-L (2018) Simulation of the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model—eXtended. Geophys Res Lett. Scholar
  18. Mikhailov AV, Perrone L (2009) Pre-storm NmF2 enhancements at middle latitudes: delusion or reality? Ann Geophys 27:1321–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Paznukhov VV, Galushko VG, Reinisch BW (2012) Digisonde observations of AGWs/TIDs with frequency and angular sounding technique. Adv Space Res 49(4):700–710. Scholar
  20. Reinisch BW, Galkin I, Belehaki A et al (2018) Pilot ionosonde network for identification of traveling ionospheric disturbances. Radio Sci. Scholar
  21. Roble RG (2000) On the feasibility of developing a global atmospheric model extending from the ground to the exosphere. In: Siskind DE, Eckermann SD, Summers ME (eds) Atmospheric Science Across the Stratopause, vol 123. AGU Geophys Monogr Ser, Washington, pp 53– 67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rodríguez-Bouza M, Paparini C, Otero X et al (2017) Southern European Ionospheric TEC Maps based on Kriging technique to monitor ionosphere behavior. Adv Space Res. Scholar
  23. Shiokawa K, Otsuka Y, Ogawa T et al (2002) A large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance during the magnetic storm of 15 September 1999. J Geophys Res. 107(A6).
  24. Spoelstra TATh (1996) A climatology of quiet/disturbed ionospheric conditions derived from 22 years of Westerbork interferometer observations. J Atmos Terr Phys 58:1229–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Williams PJS, Crowley G, Schlegel K et al (1988) The generation and propagation of atmospheric gravity waves observed during the worldwide atmospheric gravity-wave study (WAGS). J Atmos Terr Phys 50:323–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yeh KC, Lin CH (1974) Acoustic-gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. Rev Geophys 12(2):193–216. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL)DidcotUK

Personalised recommendations