Nineteenth-Century Disorder in the Pale and Elsewhere
The Pale of Settlement and the larger international system were constantly changing during the nineteenth century. Both natural and man-made disasters along with new technologies, intellectual and cultural trends, market disruption, population movements, and Russian nation-building were sources of disorder that required life-changing responses by both Jews and their neighbors. Regions differed in their life-changing pressures and responses to them. Jews were geographically mobile but most migration occurred within the Pale itself.