The Human Geography of the Pale
The Pale had diverse physical geographies along with a wide variety of human geographies consisting of differently-sized and spatially-dispersed individual settlements recorded both in the Russian Census of 1897 and in other number-heavy sources. Not all Jews shared the same social, economic and political challenges, the same physical geography, the same non-Jewish neighbors nor the same problems of life and order. Individual communities also differed in their rates and patterns of change and the challenge of adjusting to them. There were many different Jewish communities and Jews themselves.