Pain pp 429-431 | Cite as

Peripheral Stimulation Modalities

  • Adrian Darryll SulindroEmail author
  • George C. Chang Chien
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed


Peripheral stimulation using therapeutic modalities encompasses a large variety of treatments to help strengthen, relax, heal, and decrease pain in patients. Modalities include low level laser therapy (LLLT), radial shockwave therapy, superficial heat, diathermy (ultrasound, shortwave diathermy, microwave diathermy), electrotherapy and massage. These modalities provide direct low-risk interventions in the treatment of pain.


Peripheral stimulation Modalities 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian Darryll Sulindro
    • 1
    Email author
  • George C. Chang Chien
    • 2
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed
    • 3
  1. 1.Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiDepartment of Rehabilitation MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Ventura County Medical CenterVenturaUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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